Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1828 Part II NEXT-1829 Part II    
1820 - 1829
History at a Glance
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Trade Union
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Khan Dost Mohammad
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George

A meeting Pushkin with carriage, carrying the body of Griboyedov
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl

Carl Schurz, (born March 2, 1829, Liblar, near Cologne, Prussia [now in Germany]—died May 14, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.), German-American political leader, journalist, orator, and dedicated reformer who pressed for high moral standards in government in a period of notorious public laxity.


Carl Schurz
  As a student at the University of Bonn, Schurz participated in the abortive German revolution of 1848, was imprisoned, escaped, and eventually came to the United States (1852). He settled in Wisconsin (1856), quickly became active in the antislavery movement, and, as a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1860, worked for the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for president.

Schurz joined the Union army in 1862 and was made brigadier general of volunteers. In the next year and a half he commanded troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run (August 1862) and at the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Chattanooga (all 1863). The conduct of his troops at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg was criticized, but he apparently retained the respect of his fellow officers.
After the war Schurz toured the South to report on conditions for President Andrew Johnson. Strongly advocating support of rights for blacks, the report emphasized granting the franchise to freedmen as a condition of the Southern states’ readmission to the Union. Johnson, however, resisted these views and shelved the report. In 1866 Schurz became editor of the Detroit Post and then editor and part owner of the German-language St. Louis Westliche Post.

In Missouri he won his only elective office, serving as U.S. senator from 1869 to 1875. In that period he broke with President Ulysses S. Grant on the issue of political corruption, on Reconstruction policy, and on the proposed annexation of Santo Domingo.

These conflicts led him in 1872 to help organize the Liberal Republican Party, opposing Grant’s renomination. Four years later, however, he rejoined the regular Republicans, supporting Rutherford B. Hayes on the issues of good government and hard money. In return, he served as President Hayes’s secretary of the interior (1877–81), promoting civil-service reform and an improved Indian policy.

Returning to journalism and writing, Schurz edited the New York Evening Post and The Nation in the early 1880s and wrote biographies. Pursuing his advocacy of honest government, he headed the National Civil Service Reform League from 1892 to 1901. He encouraged reform-minded Republicans, commonly referred to as Mugwumps, to support the presidential candidacy of Democrat Grover Cleveland in 1884.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Jackson Andrew inaugurated as seventh President of the U.S.

Andrew Jackson
In a message to Congress President Jackson (Jackson Andrew) attacks the Second Bank of the U.S.,
controlled by Nicholas Biddle
Biddle Nicholas

Nicholas Biddle, (born Jan. 8, 1786, Philadelphia—died Feb. 27, 1844, Philadelphia), financier who as president of the Second Bank of the United States (1823–36) made it the first effective central bank in U.S. history. He was Pres. Andrew Jackson’s chief antagonist in a conflict (1832–36) that resulted in termination of the bank.


Nicholas Biddle
  Biddle was a contributor to and later (1812) editor of Port Folio, the first U.S. literary journal. He served as secretary to Pres. James Monroe (1806–07), then minister to England, and, afterward, while practicing law in the United States, he wrote History of the Expedition of Captains Lewis and Clark (1814) from the explorers’ notes. In 1815, while a member (1814–18) of the state senate, Biddle drafted and wrote Pennsylvania’s rejection of the Hartford Convention’s proposed constitutional amendments to limit the powers of Congress and of the executive. In 1819 President Monroe commissioned him to compile a digest of foreign legislation affecting U.S. trade and appointed him one of the directors of the Second Bank of the United States.

As president of the bank, Biddle sponsored policies that restrained the supply of credit to the country’s banks; stabilized the investment, money, and discount markets; regulated the money supply; and safeguarded government deposits. Between 1832 and 1836 the bank came under the attack of Jackson’s Democratic Party, which sought to eliminate it, while the Whigs supported it. After Jackson won termination of the bank’s national charter in 1836, Biddle became president of the rechartered Bank of the United States of Pennsylvania. After retiring in 1839, Biddle helped to establish Girard College in Philadelphia and held celebrated literary salons at Andalusia, his country estate.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Seventh President Andrew Jackson slays the many-headed monster that symbolizes the revived second Bank of the United States. Nicholas Biddle is in the middle, in the top hat.
New Act of Parliament establishes an effective police force in London
Metropolitan Police Act 1829

The Metropolitan Police Act 1829 (10 Geo.4, C.44) was an Act of Parliament introduced by Sir Robert Peel. The Act established the Metropolitan Police of London (with the exception of the City), replacing the previously disorganized system of parish constables and watchmen. The Act was the enabling legislation for what is often considered to be the first modern police force, the "bobbies" or "peelers" (after Peel), which served as the model for modern urban police departments throughout England. Until the 1829 Act, the Statute of Winchester of 1285 was cited as the primary legislation regulating the policing of the country since the Norman Conquest.

It is one of the Metropolitan Police Acts 1829 to 1895.

Section 1 of the Act established a Police Office for the Metropolis, to be under two commissioners who were to be Justices of the Peace.

Section 4, constituted the Metropolitan Police District from the Liberty of Westminster and parts of the counties of Middlesex, Surrey and Kent, and stated that "a sufficient number of fit and able men shall from time to time, by the direction of His Majesty's Secretaries of State, be appointed as a Police Force for the whole of such district..." The constables were to have power not only within the MPD, but also throughout Middlesex, Surrey, Hertfordshire, Essex and Kent.

Section 6 made it an offence for the owner of a public house to harbour a police officer during his hours of duty.

Section 7 outlined the powers of the new police force. A constable was empowered to apprehend "all loose, idle and disorderly Persons whom he shall find disturbing the public Peace, or whom he shall have just Cause to suspect of any evil Designs, and all 

  Persons whom he shall find between sunset and the Hour of Eight in the Forenoon lying in any Highway, Yard, or other Place, or loitering therein, and not giving a satisfactory Account of themselves...

Section 8 made it an offence to assault or resist a police officer, with the penalty of a fine not exceeding five pounds.

Other sections dealt with arrangements for the handing over of police powers in the various parishes, with existing "watchmen and night police" to continue until the commissioners indicated that the Metropolitan Police were ready to assume responsibility for the area. Overseers in the parishes were to levy a Police Rate on all persons liable to pay the Poor Rate, not to exceed eight pence in the pound.

Section 34 of the Act allowed other parishes to be added to the Metropolitan Police District by Order in Council. Any place in Middlesex, Surrey, Hertfordshire, Essex or Kent within twelve miles of Charing Cross could be added.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Greek Revolution Timeline
Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)

1821, February 21: Revolt of Greek War of Independence declared by Alexandros Ypsilantis in Wallachia (Iaşi).
1821, March 25: According to tradition, Metropolitan Germanos of Patras blesses a big Greek flag at the Monastery of Agia Lavra in Peloponnesia and proclaims to people assembled the beginning of a Greek Revolution. Greece declares its independence. Beginning of the Greek War of Independence.
1821, 10 April, Easter Monday: Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople Alyssa central outside portal of the Patriarchate by the Turks. The door has remained shut and out of use ever since
1821, 17 April: Former Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril VI is hanged in the gate of the Adrianople's cathedral
1821, 4 April: Constantine Mourousis, Dimitrios Paparigopoulos and Antonios Tsouras are decapitated by the Ottomans in Constantinople
1821, 5 April: The Phanariotes Petros Tsigris, Dimitrios Skanavis and Manuel Hotzeris are decapitated by the Turks, while Georgios Mavrocordatos is hanged by the Sultan forces in Constantinople
1821, 23–24 April: Battle of Alamana. After the Greek defeat, Athanasios Diakos is impaled on a spit.
1821, 4 May: Metropolitans Gregorios of Derkon, Dorotheos of Adrianople, Ioannikios of Tyrnavos, Joseph of Thessaloniki, and the Phanariote Georgios Callimachi and Nikolaos Mourousis are decapitated on Sultan's orders in Constantinople
1821, May: The Turkish governor Yusuf Bey orders his men to kill every Greek in Thessaloniki that they find. The killings last for days, with the metropolitan and major notables among the victims
1821, 2 June: Destruction of Kydonies in Asia Minor by the Ottoman army. Tens of thousands of Greek inhabitants become refugees
1821, 24 June: The massacre of Heraklion or 'the great ravage' occurs against the Greek community in Crete. Among the victims are the metropolitan of Crete and bishops
1821, 9 July: The chief of the Cypriot Orthodox Church Archbishop Kyprianos, along with 486 prominent Greek Cypriots, amongst them the Metropolitans Chrysanthos of Paphos, Meletios of Kition and Lavrentios of Kyrenia, are executed by beheading or hanging by the Turks in Nicosia
1821, July: Küçük Mehmet carries out several days of massacres of Greek Cypriots in Cyprus since July 9 and continues on for forty days, despite the Vizier's command to end the plundering since 20 July 1821
1821, 11 September: Tripolitsa captured by the Greeks, who proceed to eliminate the Turkish garrison, officials and civilians. A total of about 30,000 people perish.
1821, 15 October: Turkish Cypriot mobs hang most of the Greek Cypriots in Larnaca and other towns, among them an archbishop, five bishops, thirty six ecclesiastics

1822, 9 April: After a month's resistance, the city of Naousa is captured by Abdul Abud, devastating the city and massacring its Greek population. Ending of the Greek revolution in Macedonia.
1822: The Chios massacre occurs. A total of about 100,000 people perish, mostly Greeks.
1822, 26 July, Battle at Dervenakia. A decisive victory of the Greeks which saved the revolution.

1823, 18 January: Nafplio becomes the site of the Revolutionary Government.
1823, March: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, represented by George Canning, recognizes the Greeks as a nation at war, thus recognizing de facto the Greek Independence.

1824, 7–8 June: The civilization of the island of Kasos is completely destroyed by the Turkish-Egyptian forces of Hussein Rushdi Pasha. About 7,000 people perish.
1824, 21 June: More than 15,000 Greeks of Psara are slaughtered by the forces of Husrev Pasha.
1824: The First Siege of Missolonghi occurs.

1825, 22 May: Laskarina Bouboulina is assassinated in Spetses.
1825, 5 June: Odysseas Androutsos is assassinated in Athens.
1825, 22 June: Ibrahim Pasha retakes Tripoli, kills the Greek population and destroys the city and its walls.
1825, 6 November: Beginning of the Third Siege of Missolonghi.

1826, 10–11 April: The Sortie of Missolonghi occurs. Approximately 8,000 Greek soldiers and civilians perish.
1826, 24 June: Battle of Vergas.
1826, 11 November: Prime Minister Andreas Zaimis transfers the site of the government to Aegina.

1827, 22–24 April: Battle of Phaleron. Georgios Karaiskakis is killed in action.
1827, July 6: Signing of the Treaty of London.
1827, 20 October: Battle of Navarino.

1828, 24 January: John Capodistria is elected Governor of Greece.
1828, 31 January: Alexander Ypsilantis dies in Vienna.

1829. First Hellenic Republic (1829–1832)
The First Hellenic Republi is a historiographic term used for a series of councils and "Provisional Governments" during the Greek War of Independence. During the first stages of the rebellion, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by united administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus during early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution. A series of National Assemblies ensued, while Greece was threatened with collapse due to civil war and the victories of Ibrahim Pasha. During 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen selected Count Ioannis Capodistrias as Governor of Greece for seven years. He arrived during 1828 and established the Hellenic State, commanding with quasi-dictatorial powers. He was assassinated by political rivals during 1831 and was succeeded by his brother, Augustinos Kapodistrias until the Great Powers declared Greece a Kingdom and selected the Bavarian Prince Otto to be its king.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
First Hellenic Republic

The First Hellenic Republic ((1829–1832)) is a term used to refer to the provisional Greek state during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. It is a purely historiographical term, highlighting the constitutional and democratic nature of the revolutionary regime prior to the establishment of the independent Kingdom of Greece, and associating this period of Greek history with the later Second and Third republics.

In the first stages of the 1821 uprising, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by a central administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus in early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution, marking the birth of the modern Greek state. The councils continued in existence however, and central authority was not firmly established until 1824/1825. The new state was not recognized by the Great Powers of the day, which, after initial successes, was threatened with collapse both from within due to civil war and from without through the victories of the Turco-Egyptian army of Ibrahim Pasha.

By 1827 the Greek revolution had almost been extinguished on the mainland, but by this time the Great Powers had come to agree to the formation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, as stipulated in the Treaty of London. Ottoman refusal to accept these terms led to the Battle of Navarino, which effectively secured complete Greek independence.

  In 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen established the Hellenic State (Ἑλληνικὴ Πολιτεία) and selected Count Ioannis Kapodistrias as Governor of Greece. Therefore this period is often called Governorate (Greek: Κυβερνείο).
After his arrival in Greece in January 1828, Kapodistrias actively tried to create a functional state and redress the problems of a war-ravaged country, but was soon embroiled in conflict with powerful local magnates and chieftains.

Kapodistrias was assassinated by political rivals in 1831, plunging the country into renewed civil strife. He was succeeded by his brother Augustinos, who was forced to resign after six months.

The Fifth National Assembly at Nafplion drafted a new royal constitution, while the three "Protecting Powers" (Great Britain, France and Russia) intervened, declaring Greece a Kingdom in the London Conference of 1832, with the Bavarian Prince Otto of Wittelsbach as king.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Treaty of Adrianople

The Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne) concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It was signed on 14 September 1829 in Adrianople by Count Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov of Russia and by Abdülkadir Bey (tr) of the Ottoman Empire.

The Ottoman Empire gave Russia access to the mouths of the Danube and the fortresses of Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki in Georgia. The Sultan recognized Russia's possession of Georgia (with Imeretia, Mingrelia, Guria) and of the Khanates of Erivan and Nakhichevan which had been ceded to the tsar by Persia in the Treaty of Turkmenchay a year earlier. The treaty opened the Dardanelles to all commercial vessels, thus liberating commerce for cereals, live stocks and wood. However, it took the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (1833) to finally settle the Straits Question between the signatories.

Territorial changes since the Treaty of Adrianople.


Under the Treaty of Adrianople, the Sultan reguaranteed the previously promised autonomy to Serbia, promised autonomy for Greece, and allowed Russia to occupy Moldavia and Wallachia until the Ottoman Empire had paid a large indemnity. However, under the modifications the later Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi, these indemniİties were sharply curtailed. The treaty also fixed the border between the Ottoman Empire and Wallachia on the thalweg of the Danube, transferring to Wallachia the rule of the rayas of Turnu, Giurgiu and Brăila.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Slavery abolished in Mexico
Eng. economist Thomas Attwood founds the Birmingham Political Union to demand parliamentary reform
Attwood Thomas

Thomas Attwood (6 October 1783 – 6 March 1856) was a British banker, economist, political campaigner and Member of Parliament. He was the leading figure of the underconsumptionist Birmingham School of economists, and, as the founder of the Birmingham Political Union, the leading figure in the public campaign for the Great Reform Act of 1832.


Thomas Attwood
  Thomas Attwood, (born Oct. 6, 1783, Halesowen, Worcestershire, Eng.—died March 6, 1856, Great Malvern, Worcestershire), English economist and leader in the electoral reform movement.

Attwood entered his father’s banking firm in Birmingham, Eng., in 1800. After his election, in 1811, as high bailiff of the city, he showed increasing concern with currency questions and sought more equitable representation for the middle and lower classes in the House of Commons. He founded, in January 1830, the Birmingham Political Union, regarded as the political organization most effective in exerting pressure on the government for passage of the Reform Bill of 1832. Attwood formed the union because of widespread economic distress, particularly after 1826. Through its action, working-class protest was strengthened by middle-class agitation for parliamentary reform to secure currency reform. The union’s structure and methods were applied in many parts of the country. After passage of the Reform Bill, Attwood was elected a member of Parliament for Birmingham, for which he sat until 1839.

Encyclopædia Britannica
President Guerrero of Mexico overthrown by General Anastasio Bustamante
Bustamante Anastasio

Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera (27 July 1780 – 6 February 1853) was president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. He was a Conservative. He first came to power by leading a coup against president Vicente Guerrero. Bustamante was deposed twice and exiled to Europe each time.

Early life
Anastasio Bustamante's father, José María, worked hauling snow from the volcanoes of Colima to Guadalajara, but was able to provide his son with a good education. At 15, the younger Bustamante entered the Seminary of Guadalajara. When he finished, he went to Mexico City to study medicine. He passed his medical examinations and then went to San Luis Potosí as director of San Juan de Dios Hospital.

In 1808, he entered the royal army as a cavalry officer under the command of Félix María Calleja. In 1810, General Calleja mobilized the army to fight the rebels under Miguel Hidalgo, and Bustamante participated on the royalist side in all the actions of the Army of the Center. During the War of Independence he rose to the rank of colonel and never married.


Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera
  The First Empire
On 19 March 1821, in support of Agustín de Iturbide (a personal friend), Bustamante proclaimed the independence of Mexico from Spain at Pantoja, Guanajuato. A few days later he removed the remains of the 1811 insurgent leaders from the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato and had them buried in San Sebastián cemetery.

Iturbide named him commander of the cavalry, second in command of the Army of the Center, and a member of the governing junta. The Regency named him field marshal and captain general of the Provincias Internas de Oriente y Occidente, effective 28 September 1821. He fought and defeated a Spanish expeditionary force at Xichú. At the fall of the Empire in 1823, he joined the ranks of the federalists, for which he was arrested and confined at Acapulco, but President Guadalupe Victoria again put him in command of the Provincias Internas.

As president of the Republic
First term

In December 1828, under the Plan de Perote, Congress named him vice-president of the Republic under President Vicente Guerrero. He took possession of this office on 1 April 1829, but soon was at odds with Guerrero. On 4 December 1829, in accord with the Plan de Jalapa, he rose against Guerrero, driving him from the capital. On 1 January 1830 he assumed the presidency on an interim basis. Congress declared Guerrero "incapable of governing."

In office, Bustamante removed employees not having the confidence of "public opinion." He instituted a secret police force and took steps to suppress the press. He exiled some of his competitors and expelled U.S. Minister Joel Poinsett. He was involved in the kidnapping and execution of his predecessor, Guerrero. He supported industry and the clergy.

These and other policies stimulated opposition, especially in the states of Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Texas. In 1832 a revolt broke out in Veracruz. The rebels asked Antonio López de Santa Anna to take command. When their immediate demands were met (the resignation of some of Bustamante's ministers), they also demanded the president's ouster. They intended to replace him with Manuel Gómez Pedraza, whose 1828 election had been annulled.

Bustamante turned over the presidency to Melchor Múzquiz on 14 August 1832 and left the capital to fight the rebels. He defeated them on 14 August at Gallinero, Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato, and then returned to fight Santa Anna, who was nearing Puebla. After two more battles, the three candidates, Bustamante, Santa Anna and Gómez Pedraza, signed the Agreements of Zavaleta (21–23 December), by which Gómez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections. Bustamante was to go into exile, which he did in 1833.

Second term
While in exile in France he inspected military and medical facilities. He returned to Mexico in December 1836, called back by President José Justo Corro to fight in the War of Texas Independence. However, once he was back in the country, Congress declared him president (17 April 1837).

With the treasury exhausted and the army depleted by a series of revolts, Bustamante was limited in his military response to crises.

France issued an ultimatum on 21 March 1838, and on 16 April began blockading Mexico's Gulf ports. The French declared war on 27 November 1838 (the Pastry War), bombarded San Juan de Ulúa, and occupied Veracruz (5 December).

About the same time, Guatemalan general Miguel Gutiérrez invaded Chiapas. Bustamante temporarily left the presidency from 20 March to 18 July 1839 to campaign against rebel General José Urrea in Tamaulipas. Santa Anna and Nicolás Bravo served as president during this absence.

  Third term
He became president again on 9 July 1839, serving until 22 September 1841. During this term, the first Spanish diplomatic representative to Mexico, Ángel Calderón de la Barca y Belgrano, arrived. The boundary between Yucatán and Belize was established. Treaties were signed with Belgium and Bavaria, and relations with the United States were reestablished.

On 15 July 1840, General Urrea escaped from prison and led a force against Bustamante in the National Palace. Bustamante resisted, but on the 16th he was forced to flee, accompanied by 28 dragoons. During this siege artillery destroyed the southeast corner of the Palace. He did not relinquish the presidency, however.

About this time a revolt broke out in Yucatán.

In August 1841, Santa Anna and Paredes, military commanders of Veracruz and Jalisco, launched a new rebellion against Bustamante. He turned the government over to Francisco Javier Echeverría on 2 September 1841. Echeverría lasted only until 10 October, when Santa Anna returned to the presidency.

Later career
Bustamante again went into exile in Europe, spending time in France and Italy. His aide-de-camp José María Calderón y Tapia, as well as his nephew Andrés Oseguera, accompanied Bustamante in Europe. He traveled widely and sought medical treatment, taking the waters at Contrexéville, France. He returned to Mexico in 1845 to offer his services in the crisis with the United States. In 1846 he was president of Congress. That year he was named general of an expedition to defend the Californias from the United States, but he was unable to reach California for lack of resources. In 1848 he suppressed rebellions in Guanajuato and Aguascalientes.

He lived the latter part of his life in San Miguel de Allende, where he died in 1853 at the age of 72. His heart was placed in the Mexico City Cathedral's chapel of San Felipe de Jesús alongside the ashes of Emperor Iturbide.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Irish political leader Daniel O'Connell, M.P., commences agitation for repeal of Act of Union
O’Connell Daniel

Daniel O’Connell, byname The Liberator (born Aug. 6, 1775, near Cahirciveen, County Kerry, Ire.—died May 15, 1847, Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia [Italy]), lawyer who became the first great 19th-century Irish nationalist leader.


Daniel O’Connell
  Compelled to leave the Roman Catholic college at Douai, France, when the French Revolution broke out, O’Connell went to London to study law, and in 1798 he was called to the Irish bar. His forensic skill enabled him to use the courts as nationalist forums. Although he had joined the Society of United Irishmen, a revolutionary society, as early as 1797, he refused to participate in the Irish Rebellion of the following year. When the Act of Union (which took effect Jan. 1, 1801) abolished the Irish Parliament, he insisted that the British Parliament repeal the anti-Catholic laws in order to justify its claim to represent the people of Ireland. From 1813 he opposed various Catholic relief proposals because the government, with the acquiescence of the papacy, would have had the right to veto nominations to Catholic bishoprics in Great Britain and Ireland. Although permanent political organizations of Catholics were illegal, O’Connell set up a nationwide series of mass meetings to petition for Catholic emancipation.
On May 12, 1823, O’Connell and Richard Lalor Sheil (1791–1851) founded the Catholic Association, which quickly attracted the support of the Irish priesthood and of lawyers and other educated Catholic laymen and which eventually comprised so many members that the government could not suppress it. In 1826, when it was reorganized as the New Catholic Association, it caused the defeat of several parliamentary candidates sponsored by large landowners. 
In County Clare in July 1828, O’Connell himself, although (as a Catholic) ineligible to sit in the House of Commons, defeated a man who tried to support both the British government and Catholic emancipation. This result impressed on the British prime minister, Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington, the need for making a major concession to the Irish Catholics. Following the passage of the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829, O’Connell, after going through the formality of an uncontested reelection, took his seat at Westminster.

In April 1835 he helped to overthrow Sir Robert Peel’s Conservative ministry, and in the same year he entered into the “Lichfield House compact,” whereby he promised the Whig Party leaders a period of “perfect calm” in Ireland while the government enacted reform measures. O’Connell and his Irish adherents (known collectively as “O’Connell’s tail”) then aided in keeping the weak Whig administration of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, in office from 1835 to 1841. By 1839, however, O’Connell realized that the Whigs would do little more than the Conservatives for Ireland, and in 1840 he founded the Repeal Association to dissolve the Anglo-Irish legislative union. A series of mass meetings in all parts of Ireland culminated in O’Connell’s arrest for seditious conspiracy, but he was released on appeal after three months’ imprisonment (June–September 1844). Afterward his health failed rapidly, and the nationalist leadership fell to the radical Young Ireland group.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)

The Gran Colombia–Peru War of 1828 and 1829 was the first international conflict fought by the Republic of Peru, which had gained its independence from Spain in 1821, and Gran Colombia, a confederation of the modern-day countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela that existed between 1819 and 1830.

The issues that led to war were Gran Colombian claims, dating from colonial times, concerning control of the territories of Jaén and Maynas. The Royal Audience of Quito (Spanish: Real Audiencia de Quito) was established in 1563 by a royal decree of the King of Spain. Its territories included, to the north, Pasto, Popayán, Cali, Buenaventura, and Buga in what is now Colombia. The Royal Audience of Quito was initially part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1717, when it became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. Borders at the time were imprecise, especially in the eastern unsettled areas, beyond the Andean cordillera, because of a lack of geographical knowledge and the low importance accorded to these unpopulated and largely inaccessible territories.

The first controversy between the Viceroyalty of Peru and the Real Audiencia de Quito erupted in 1802, when the military and ecclesiastic administration of Maynas was transferred to the Viceroyalty of Peru by royal decree. To this day, there is some dispute as to whether this was a territorial concession as well. This lack of clarity formed the basis for territorial disputes between Ecuador and Peru when, a few years later, these two nations obtained their independence from Spain. Jaén and Tumbez were not included in this royal decree of 1802.

A similar event occurred in 1803, when the Spanish crown decided that the military affairs of the Province of Guayaquil, whose capital was the port city of the same name, would be run from Lima, Peru. Further, in 1810, all administrative and economic affairs for the Province of Guayaquil were turned over to the Viceroyalty of Peru, a situation that would endure until 1819 (and the formation of Gran Colombia, which included Guayaquil.)

Uti possidetis juris
Even before the battles for the freedom of the South American colonies were over, Simón Bolivar established the uti possidetis juris principle as the basis for the territorial demarcation of the new nation-states that were to be born of the ancient colonial jurisdictions. In essence, the principle, as it applied to the international borders of that time, meant that the borders of the new countries should correspond to the Spanish administrative borders as they were in 1809. This presented considerable difficulty due to a lack of geographical knowledge, and also because much of the territory in question was unpopulated (or sparsely populated) and unexplored. According to the principle, the territory of the Viceroyalty of Lima would then become part of Peru, and the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada part of Gran Colombia. However, much of what would become Ecuador fell into a "gray area" with plausible claims by both Peru (successor to the Viceroyalty of Peru) and Gran Colombia (successor to the Viceroyalty of New Granada) still in conflict.

Conflict over Bolivia
The federation of Gran Colombia, formed in 1819, was the kernel of Bolivar's grander scheme to unite the former Spanish colonies in Central and South America. Prior to becoming the titular head of Gran Colombia, Bolivar had been, briefly, the president of the newly independent state of Bolivia, his namesake. Bolivia had formerly been a part of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate, known as Upper Peru, and, once Bolivar relinquished the presidency of Bolivia to his revolutionary compatriot, Antonio José de Sucre Alcalá, in 1826, the Peruvians saw an opportunity. Early in 1828, Peru launched a campaign against Bolivia to reclaim its former territory and ultimately forced the Colombians out of Bolivia.

Map of the Gran Colombia Federation and the Republic of Peru in 1828.

Peru in red, Gran Colombia in blue, disputed territory striped.
Initial engagements
Furious about the news from Bolivia (that the Colombian army had been expelled), President Bolivar resolved to declare war against Peru on 3 June 1828. Antonio José de Sucre, who had been the President of Bolivia since 1826, resigned his office (under duress) and was appointed Commander of the Gran Colombian Army.

The Peruvian declaration of war against Gran Colombia occurred on 3 July 1828 when the Peruvian Government, under President Jose de La Mar, ordered a mobilization of its ground and naval forces. The first engagement of the conflict took place on August 31 of that year when the Peruvian corvette Libertad, under the command of Carlos García del Postigo, on patrol in international waters to the west of the Gulf of Guayaquil with the purpose of blockading that port, was attacked by the Gran Colombian ships Pichincha and Guayaquileña off Punta Malpelo. The Colombians were forced to retreat with heavy loss of life on-board their vessels.

Assault on Guayaquil
The Peruvian squadron, commanded by Admiral Jorge Martin Guise, made a number of raids in the Guayaquil area before directly attacking the defenses of that city from 22 November to 24 November 1828. In this campaign, he managed to eliminate the Colombian defenses afloat and to silence much of the enemy artillery, but, on the night of the 23 November, the Peruvian frigate Presidente ran aground, and the Colombians took advantage of the situation to counterattack.

At dawn, with the arrival of high tide, the frigate was refloated under fire. Among the last enemy sniper shots hit Guise, mortally wounding him. Control of the squadron was assumed by his first lieutenant, José Boterín, who continued the siege. The city finally surrendered on 19 January 1829. After this victory, the corvette Arequipeña and the brig Congreso repaired to Panama to rescue a Peruvian merchant ship that had been captured by the Gran Colombians. Guayaquil would remain under Peruvian occupation until 21 July 1829.

  Land war
Peruvian President Jose de La Mar had been born in the city of Cuenca, in present-day Ecuador that was, in 1828, part of the disputed territory and de facto a part of Gran Colombia. Shortly after the siege of Guayaquil, conducted by the Peruvian Navy, was concluded, the Peruvian Army seized the city of Loja by winning the Battle of Saraguro on 13 February 1829, and then it pushed north into Guayas, the district surrounding the city of Guayaquil. En route, forces under La Mar and General Agustín Gamarra occupied Cuenca as well.

Holding Cuenca was, however, short-lived. The Venezuelan general, Antonio José de Sucre, and his compatriot, General Juan José Flores, mounted a counterattack and defeated the Peruvians near the city of Cuenca, at the Battle of Portete de Tarqui on 26 February and 27 February 1829. Effectively, this ended the major hostilities of the war. Without reinforcement by land, the Peruvian occupation of Guayaquil was destined to fail, but Gran Colombia's assertion of rights to the territories of Jaén and Maynas, were similarly frustrated.

On 28 February 1829, La Mar and Sucre signed a conditioning document that became known as the La Mar-Sucre Convention.

La Mar however refused to give back Guayaquil or retreat the Peruvian Navy, points that where part of the convention. La Mar proceeded to strengthen his army at his headquarters at Piura while Bolivar prepared to take command of the Colombian army, hostilities seemed about to restart.

A coup supported by General Gamarra of the Peruvian Army against President La Mar paved the way for a peace treaty. Subsequently, the Convenio de Girón between Peru and Gran Colombia recognized as borders the "same ones as the corresponding Viceroyalties before independence." Since this status quo ante solution was based on borders that had never been adequately defined, future territorial disputes between Peru and Ecuador and Colombia were virtually inevitable.

On 10 July 1829, the Armistice of Piura recognised the annexation of Guayaquil to Gran Colombia, and, on September 22 of that year, the war between Peru and Gran Colombia officially came to an end when the armistice was ratified. A formal peace treaty, known as the Gual-Larrea Treaty or the Larrea-Gual Treaty, was signed on the very same day, September 22, 1829. The uti possidetis principle was affirmed, but the text also acknowledges that small concessions by each side may become desirable in order to define a "more natural and precise border", which is the basis for avoiding further conflict. The parties agreed to form a binational commission to establish a permanent border.

  Was Gran Colombia a nation or a confederation?
The term Gran Colombia is used today to refer to the federation that was formed between the Republics of Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia (with its province, Panama) before 1830. However, Gran Colombia is, in a sense, an artificial term, as the country has always been referred to simply as Colombia. This is clear to anyone who examines the many treaties signed between Colombia and Peru before 1830.

In Peru, however, the dissolution of Gran Colombia is seen as a country ceasing to exist, giving way to the formation of new nation-states. The significance of this view is that the treaties Peru had signed with Gran Colombia became void when the countersignatory ceased to exist. The three new states, the Republic of New Granada (which later changed its name to Republic of Colombia), the Republic of Venezuela, and the Republic of Ecuador, in the Peruvian view, started with a clean diplomatic slate.

An alternative view is that Ecuador and Venezuela separated from the Gran Colombia Federation and inherited all of the treaty obligations that Gran Colombia had assumed, as least to the extent that they apply to their respective territories.

There are indications that Colombia itself maintained this position, because, clearly, Gran Colombia and the successor state, the Republic of Colombia, shared a capital city, a subset of the same territory, and much the same citizenry. It would be unnatural to disavow their common histories.

The question of the status of treaties and accords dating to the revolutionary period (1809–1819) and Gran Colombia period (1819–1830) has a profound effect on international relations up to the present day.

Pedemonte-Mosquera Protocol
To illustrate the current relevance of the Gran Colombia–Peru War, Ecuador asserts that there was an agreement signed in Lima between the foreign ministers of Peru and Gran Colombia on 11 August 1830. Known as the Pedemonte-Mosquera protocol, the agreement, based on the military result at the Battle of Portete de Tarqui and the Gual-Learra Treaty then in effect, settled the placement of the border between the two nations definitively and for all time.

Ecuador has used the Pedemonte-Mosquera Protocol as its primary legal support for land claims against Peru. However, Peru disputes its credibility and its very existence. Peru notes that the original document has never been produced by Colombia or by Ecuador. Peru also claims that there is evidence that Pedemonte and Mosquera were not even in the same place on the day in question, so they could not possibly have concluded any agreement at all. It also states that in the supposed date of signing of the protocol (11 August 1830), Pedemonte was no longer chancellor (August 9) and Mosquera had embarked on the schooner Guayaquileña on the 10th. Further, according to Peru, the protocol, if it did exist, was never ratified by either country's congress. Besides, to the Peruvian way of thinking, even if the protocol was signed, the Gran Colombia Federation had been effectively dissolved well before 11 August 1830, so any agreement concluded on that day was undertaken by a man without portfolio, that is, a diplomat representing no nation at all.

  (Ecuador was born as a country on 13 May 1830 and began its separate existence with the adoption of a Constitution on 23 September 1830.)

Even though it is unlikely that Ecuador might have concocted an historical treaty of this nature, the Peruvian arguments cannot be dismissed out-of-hand.

However, considering the uti possidetis juris principle Ecuador would maintain the borders ratified right before Gran Colombia's dissolution.

Ecuador has produced a copy of the Pedemonte-Mosquera protocol, made in 1870, that the Colombian embassy in Lima sent to Bogotá.

The copy in question was obtained from a diplomat's personal collection. However, it has not been satisfactorily authenticated, and it remains in dispute.

The Mosquera-Pedemonte protocol is mentioned in a Colombian document titled Legislative Act No. 3, published 31 October 1910.

This document explains how the borders between Colombia and its neighbors had been established. With respect to its border with Peru, it indicates that the borders are "those adopted by Mosquera-Pedemonte, in development of the treaty of 22 September 1829."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ferdinand VII of Spain marries his fourth wife, Maria Christina of Naples
In 1802 he married his first cousin Princess Maria Antonietta of the Two Sicilies (1784–1806), daughter of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Marie Caroline of Austria. There were no children, because her two pregnancies (in 1804 and 1805) ended in miscarriages.

In 1816, Ferdinand married his niece Maria Isabel of Portugal (1797–1818), daughter of his older sister Carlota Joaquina and John VI of Portugal. She bore him two daughters, the first of whom lived only five months and the second of whom was stilborn.

In 1819, Ferdinand married Princess Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony (1803–1829), daughter of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony and Caroline of Bourbon-Parma. No children were born from this marriage.

Lastly, in 1829, Ferdinand married another niece, Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1806–1878), daughter of his younger sister Maria Isabella of Spain and Francis I of the Two Sicilies. She bore him two daughters.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Maria Antonia of Naples and Sicily (14 December 1784 – 21 May 1806), was the youngest daughter of Ferdinand, King of Naples and Sicily, and Maria Carolina of Austria. As the wife of the future Ferdinand VII of Spain, then heir apparent to the Spanish throne, she held the title of Princess of Asturias.
Maria Isabel of Portugal (Maria Isabel Francisca; 19 May 1797 – 26 December 1818) was an Infanta of Portugal who became the Queen of Spain as the second wife of Ferdinand VII of Spain.
Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony (Maria Josepha Amalia Beatrix Xaveria Vincentia Aloysia Franziska de Paula Franziska de Chantal Anna Apollonia Johanna Nepomucena Walburga Theresia Ambrosia; 6 December 1803 – 18 May 1829) was Queen consort of Spain as the wife of King Ferdinand VII of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Prince Maximilian of Saxony (1759–1838) and his first wife, Princess Carolina of Parma (1770–1804), daughter of Duke Ferdinand of Parma. She was a member of the house of Wettin.
Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies (Italian: Maria Cristina Ferdinanda di Borbone, principessa delle Due Sicilie, Spanish: María Cristina de Borbón, princesa de las Dos Sicilias; 27 April 1806 – 22 August 1878) was Queen consort of Spain (1829 to 1833) and Regent of Spain (1833 to 1840).
Benson Edward White

Edward White Benson, (born July 14, 1829, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng.—died October 11, 1896, Hawarden, Cheshire), archbishop of Canterbury (1883–96), whose Lincoln Judgment
(1890), a code of liturgical ritual, helped resolve the Church of England’s century-old dispute over proper forms of worship.


Edward White Benson
  After serving as assistant master at Rugby School, Warwickshire, from 1852 to 1858, Benson was made headmaster at Wellington College, Berkshire, in 1859. In 1873 he became chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, where he founded a seminary and established night schools and university extension lectures.

He was consecrated in 1877 as bishop of the new diocese of Truro, Cornwall, where he was mainly responsible for the building of a cathedral. He was enthroned as archbishop of Canterbury in 1883 after being appointed to that post by his friend, Prime Minister William E. Gladstone. As archbishop, Benson sought reforms of church patronage and discipline, secured by acts of Parliament in 1892 and 1898, and he successfully resisted efforts to disestablish the Anglican church in Wales.

The most significant episode of Benson’s archbishopric occurred during 1888–90, when he heard arguments in the case of Edward King, bishop of Lincoln, who had been charged with improper ritualism in the celebration of the Eucharist. Benson concluded the case with the Lincoln Judgment, a definition of liturgical practices sanctioned by a tradition of usage.
Based on historical analysis of ritualistic practices, the judgment held that certain forms of observance, such as altar lights and the singing of the Agnus Dei, were legitimate but that manual acts by the clergy not visible to the congregation and the sign of the cross in the blessing were illegal.

Benson facilitated a reconciliation among the various factions within the English church and virtually brought to an end the prosecutions relating to ritualism that had plagued Anglicanism during the 19th century. His writings include a study of Cyprian (published posthumously in 1897), the martyred 3rd-century bishop of Carthage.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Roman Catholic Emancipation Act

The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout Britain. In Ireland it repealed the Test Act 1673 and the remaining Penal Laws which had been in force since the passing of the Disenfranchising Act of the Irish Parliament of 1728. Its passage followed a vigorous campaign on the issue by Irish lawyer Daniel O'Connell. O'Connell had firm support from the Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington, as well as from the Whigs and liberal Tories.

The Act permitted members of the Catholic Church to sit in the parliament at Westminster. O'Connell had won a seat in a by-election for Clare in 1828 against an Anglican. Under the then extant penal law, O'Connell as a Roman Catholic, was forbidden to take his seat in Parliament. Sir Robert Peel, the Home Secretary, who had until then always opposed emancipation (and had, in 1815, challenged O'Connell to a duel) concluded: "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger." Fearing a revolution in Ireland, Peel drew up the Catholic Relief Bill and guided it through the House of Commons. To overcome the vehement opposition of both the House of Lords and King George IV, the Duke of Wellington worked tirelessly to ensure passage in the House of Lords, and threatened to resign as Prime Minister if the King did not give Royal Assent.
The campaign for Catholic emancipation in Ireland, 1828–1829, was led by Daniel O'Connell (1775–1847), organiser of the Catholic Association, but many others were active as well, both for and against.

As Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1822 to 1828, the Marquess Wellesley (brother of the Duke of Wellington) played a critical role in setting the stage for the Catholic Emancipation Bill. His policy was one of reconciliation that sought to have the civil rights of Catholics restored while preserving those rights and considerations important to Protestants.

He used force in securing law and order when riots threatened the peace, and he discouraged the public agitation of both the Protestant Orange Society and the Catholic Society of Ribbonman.

Bishop John Milner was an English Catholic cleric and writer highly active in promoting Catholic emancipation, prior to his death in 1826. He was a leader in anti-Enlightenment thought and had a significant influence in England as well as Ireland, and was involved in shaping the Catholic response to earlier efforts in Parliament to enact Catholic emancipation measures.

Meanwhile Ulster Protestants mobilised, after a delayed start, to stop emancipation. By late 1828 Protestants of all classes began to organise after the arrival of O'Connellite Jack Lawless who planned a series of pro-emancipation meetings and activities across Ulster. His move galvanised the Protestants to form clubs, distribute pamphlets and set up petition drives. However the Protestant protests were not well funded or coordinated and lacked critical support from the British government.

After Catholic relief had been granted, the Protestant opposition divided along class lines. The aristocracy and gentry became quiescent while the middle and working classes showed dominance over Ulster's Catholics through Orange parades.

The Parliamentary Elections (Ireland) Act 1829 (10 Geo. IV, c. 8) which accompanied emancipation and received its Royal Assent on the same day, was the only major ‘security’ eventually required for it. This Act disenfranchised the minor landholders of Ireland, the so-called Forty Shilling Freeholders and raised fivefold the economic qualifications for voting. Starting in the initial relief granting the vote by the Irish Parliament in 1793, any man renting or owning land worth at least forty shillings (the equivalent of two Pounds Sterling), had been permitted to vote. Under the Act, this was raised to ten pounds.

The act also forbade the use of the episcopal titles already used by the Church of England (10 Geo. IV, c. 7, s. 24). It imposed a penalty of 100 pounds on 'any person, not authorised by law, who should assume the title of any archbishop, bishop or dean' and extended the provisions to the 'assumption of ecclesiastical titles derived from any city, town, or place in England and Ireland, not being in an existing see'. This was reinforced with the Ecclesiastical Titles Act 1851, which threatened confiscation of property of anyone outside the "united Church of England and Ireland" to use any episcopal title "of any city, town or place, or of any territory or district (under any designation or description whatsoever), in the United Kingdom". The 1851 act was never enforced and was repealed in 1871.

Political results
J. C. D. Clark (1985) depicts England before 1828 as a nation in which the vast majority of the people believed in the divine right of kings, and the legitimacy of a hereditary nobility, and in the rights and privileges of the Anglican Church. In Clark's interpretation, the system remained virtually intact until it suddenly collapsed in 1828, because Catholic emancipation undermined its central symbolic prop, the Anglican supremacy. Clark argues that the consequences were enormous: "The shattering of a whole social order....What was lost at that point... was not merely a constitutional arrangement, but the intellectual ascendancy of a worldview, the cultural hegemony of the old elite."

Clark's interpretation has been widely debated in the scholarly literature, and almost every historian who has examined the issue has highlighted the substantial amount of continuity between the periods before and after 1828–1832.

Eric J. Evans (1996) emphasises that the political importance of emancipation was that it split the anti-reformers beyond repair and diminished their ability to block future reform laws, especially the great Reform Act of 1832. Paradoxically, Wellington's success in forcing through emancipation converted many Ultra-Tories to demand reform of Parliament. They saw that the votes of the rotten boroughs had given the government its majority. Therefore it was an ultra-Tory, the Marquis of Blandford, who in February 1830 introduced the first major reform bill, calling for the transfer of rotten borough seats to the counties and large towns, the disfranchisement of non-resident voters, preventing Crown office-holders from sitting in Parliament, the payment of a salary to MPs, and the general franchise for men who owned property. The ultras believed that a widely based electorate could be relied upon to rally around anti-Catholicism.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gardiner Samuel Rawson

Samuel Rawson Gardiner, (born March 4, 1829, Ropley, near Alresford, Hampshire, Eng.—died Feb. 23, 1902, Sevenoaks, Kent), English historian, whose career was dedicated to the study of the English Civil Wars.


Samuel Rawson Gardiner
  He was educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford, and for some years was a member of the Irvingite Church.

From 1871 to 1885 he taught at King’s College, London, becoming professor of modern history there in 1876. He was elected fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, in 1884 and of Merton College in 1892 but declined the regius professorship in 1894.

His researches among manuscript collections at Simancas, Venice, Rome, Brussels, and Paris, as well as in England, gave unrivalled authority to the monumental undertaking that took shape between 1863 and 1900.

Its principal stages were the History of England From the Accession of James I to the Outbreak of the Civil War, 1603–1642, 10 vol. (1883–84); History of the Great Civil War, 1642–1649, 3 vol. (1886), 4 vol. (1893); and History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649–1660, 4 vol. (1903). In analyzing the cause of the Civil War, he showed keen perception of individual motives as well as broad understanding of the material factors underlying political conduct.

He was ready to credit England with a sense of nationhood wider and deeper than any provided for by the mere forms of government, and this gave drama to his otherwise unadorned chronicle. Inconsistencies and misinterpretations may be found, but the authority of his History of England continues to command respect little short of that usually reserved for original sources.

Among the most noteworthy of his separate works are Prince Charles and the Spanish Marriage, 2 vol. (1869); Outline of English History (1st ed., 1881; later ed., 1919); Student’s History of England, 2 vol. (1st ed., 1890–91; later ed., 3 vol., 1920); What Gunpowder Plot Was (1897); and Oliver Cromwell (1901). His edition of Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution 1628–1660 (1889) continues to be widely used. He also edited collections of papers for the Camden Society and from 1891 was editor of the English Historical Review.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Jay John, U.S. jurist, first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, d. (b. 1745)

John Jay
Pope Leo XII d. (b. 1760)
Cardinal Francisco Castiglione (b. 1761) elected

Cardinal Francesco Xaverio Castiglione born at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected Pope Pius VIII 31 March, 1829; d. 1 Dec., 1830.


Pope Pius VIII
  He came of a noble family and attended the Jesuit school at Osimo, later taking courses of canon law at Bologna and Rome. In Rome he associated himself with his teacher Devoti, assisted him in the compilation of his "Institutiones" (1792), and, when Devoti was appointed Bishop of Anagni, became his vicar-general. He subsequently filled the same position under Bishop Severoli at Cingoli, and, after some time, became provost of the cathedral in his native city. In 1800 Pius VII named him Bishop of Montalto, which see he shortly afterwards exchanged for that of Cesena.

Under the French domination he was arrested, having refused to take the oath of allegiance to the King of Italy, and brought to Macerata, then to Mantua, and finally to France. In 1816 the pope conferred upon him the cardinal's hat, and in 1822 appointed him Bishop of Frascati and Grand Penitentiary. As early as the conclave of 1823, Castiglione was among the candidates for the papacy. At the election of 1829, France and Austria were desirous of electing a pope of mild and temperate disposition, and Castiglione, whose character corresponded with the requirements, was chosen after a five weeks' session. His reign, which lasted but twenty months, was not wanting in notable occurrences.

In April, 1829, the Catholic Emancipation Bill, which made it possible for Catholics to sit in Parliament and to hold public offices, was passed in England. Leo XII had taken a great interest in Catholic Emancipation, but had not lived to see it become law.
On 25 March, 1830, Pius published the Brief "Litteris altero abhinc", in which he declared that marriage could be blessed by the Church only when the proper promises were made regarding the Catholic education of the children; otherwise, the parish priest should only assist passively at the ceremony. Under his successor this matter became a cause of conflict in Prussia between the bishops and the Government. The pope's last months were troubled. In France, the Revolution of July broke out and the king was obliged to flee, being succeeded on the throne by the younger Orléans branch. The pope recognized the new regime with hesitation. The movement, which also affected Belgium and Poland, even extended to Rome, where a lodge of Carbonari with twenty-six members was discovered. In the midst of anxiety and care, Pius VIII, whose constitution had always been delicate, passed away. Before the coronation of his successor, revolution broke out in the Papal States. The character of Pius VIII was mild and amiable, and he enjoyed a reputation for learning, being especially versed in canon law, numismatics, and Biblical literature. In addition, he was extremely conscientious. Thus, he ordered all his relatives, upon his accession to the pontifical throne, to resign the positions which they held.

Catholic Encyclopedia
Balzac: "Les Chouans"

Les Chouans (French pronunciation: ​[le ʃwɑ̃], The Chouans) is an 1829 novel by French novelist and playwright Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850) and included in the Scènes de la vie militaire section of his novel sequence La Comédie humaine. Set in the French region of Brittany, the novel combines military history with a love story between the aristocratic Marie de Verneuil and the Chouan royalist Alphonse de Montauran. It takes place during the 1799 post-war uprising in Fougères.

Balzac conceived the idea for the novel during a trip to Brittany arranged by a family friend in 1828. Intrigued by the people and atmosphere of the region, he began collecting notes and descriptions for later use. After publishing an Avertissement for the novel, he released three editions – each of them revised significantly. The first novel Balzac published without a pseudonym, he used many titles as he wrote and published, including Le Gars, Les Chouans ou la Bretagne il y a trente ans, and Le Dernier Chouan ou la Bretagne en 1800.

Following closely in the footsteps of Sir Walter Scott, the novel uses its truthful historical backdrop to tell a fictional story of people who sculpted the past. The novel addresses themes of passionate love, vengeful trickery, and social status. While it is disdained by critics in favor of Balzac's later work, the novel marks a turning point in his life and artistry.

In the wake of the French Revolution, groups of royalists loyal to the House of Bourbon rose up against the new government. One group was the Chouans of Brittany, led by Jean Chouan. They allied themselves with counter-revolutionary forces in Vendée and by 1793 the Revolt in the Vendée had begun. The insurrection was put down by the republic, and within two years the royalist forces had been routed.

Royalist sentiment did not evaporate, however, and in Brittany, violence between the two sides – "Blue" Revolutionaries against "White" Chouans – continued as the Chouannerie, even when Napoleon took power in 1799. The Bonaparte forces responded as the republic had, and the Chouans were defeated – although political divisions and resentment lingered for more than a century.

At the start of the nineteenth century, the works of Sir Walter Scott were best-sellers in France. His novels captured the ebb and flow of society, and he demonstrated the far-reaching impact of major historical changes. A slew of authors in France attempted to replicate Scott's success, but their works were isolated from one another and divorced from their surroundings.

Honoré de Balzac was profoundly influenced by Scott (as well as Irish writer Maria Edgeworth), and decided to write novels using France's turbulent history as a literary backdrop in the same way they had used the history of Scotland and Ireland.

Illustration of Honoré de Balzac's The Chouans
Balzac had previously only published potboiler novels under a variety of pseudonyms, books designed to excite readers and sell copies. He had also engaged in a series of ill-fated speculative investments, which left him in considerable debt. Nevertheless, he believed in his skills as a writer, and awaited success around every corner.
Preparations and publications
In September 1828 Balzac visited the home of a family friend and retired general, the Baron de Pommereul, in Fougères. He spent several weeks learning about the insurrection (which Pommereul had fought against). He pored over his host's books and interviewed the townspeople about their experiences during the time of the uprising. Pommereul owned a castle which had been the headquarters of the Comte de Puisaye, a royalist leader involved with a failed invasion of royalist exiles at Quiberon. This incursion had been aided by the Chouans, and Balzac began collecting events and people as inspiration for his novel.

While staying with Pommereul, he was given a room with a desk facing the Pellerine Mountain, which Balzac used as the setting for the book's first scene. He wandered around the city, taking in details to use in his descriptions of the landscape. In researching recent history, Balzac was examining events from his first years on the planet. Biographer Graham Robb notes that the original subtitle of the book was La Bretagne en 1799 – the year of Balzac's birth. As Robb puts it, "the discovery of contemporary history took Balzac back to his childhood."

As he neared completion of his novel – originally titled Le Gars – Balzac wrote an announcement heralding its imminent publication. Under the pseudonym "Victor Morillon" and writing in the third person, he describes his intent to "place his country's history in the hands of the man in the street … to illuminate and make the ordinary mind realize the repercussions that entire populations feel of royal discord, feudal dissension and popular uprising…."

Illustration of Honoré de Balzac's The Chouans
In the Avertissement, he praises Scott as "a man of genius" while noting his limitations, especially when writing of romance: "on his lyre the strings are missing that can sing of love…." Balzac – or, rather, "Morillon" – also declares his intention to write a companion volume entitled Le Capitaine des Boutefeux (The Captain of the Firebrands), about war in fifteenth-century Paris. This later work was never completed.

By the time the novel was published in March 1829, Balzac had changed its title (in response to complaints from Mme. de Pommereul) to Le dernier Chouan ou La Bretagne en 1800, and signed the novel "M. Honoré Balzac". It was the first book he published without a pseudonym.

In 1834 a second edition was published under the name Les Chouans ou La Bretagne en 1799. It had been heavily revised, as per Balzac's style of constantly reworking texts, even after their release. He had been corresponding with Ewelina Hańska, who wrote to him anonymously in 1832. In an attempt to please her, he changed some of the language in Les Chouans for its second edition. "If only you knew," he wrote to her, "how much there is of you in every altered phrase of Chouans!" The second edition also demonstrates the author's maturing political philosophy (softening his representation of the royalists), and the evolved female characters testify to his relationship with Hańska.

When the third edition was published in 1845, Balzac was in love with his own creation. He had written two years earlier to Hańska: "There's no doubt about it – it is a magnificent poem. I had never really read it before.… The passion is sublime, and I now understand why you have a cherished and special devotion to this book.… All in all, I am very pleased with it." In a preface to the third edition, he described his plans for a part of La Comédie Humaine called Scènes de la vie militaire (Scenes from Military Life). In addition to Les Chouans with its focus on guerrilla combat, he planned another called Les Vendéans about the earlier full-scale civil war. Although in 1844 he discussed traveling to western France to write the book, it was never written.

Plot summary
At the start of the novel, the Republican Commander Hulot is assaulted by Chouan forces, who convert dozens of conscripts. An aristocrat, Marie de Verneuil, is sent by Joseph Fouché to subdue and capture the royalist leader, the Marquis de Montauran, also known as "Le Gars". She is aided by a detective named Corentin.

Eventually, Marie becomes smitten with her target. In defiance of Corentin and the Chouans whom she detests, she devises a plan to marry the Chouan leader. Fooled by Corentin into believing that Montauran loves her mortal enemy Madame du Gua, Marie orders Hulot to destroy the rebels. She discovers her folly too late and tries, unsuccessfully, to save her husband the day after their marriage.

Scott's influence is felt throughout the novel. Lengthy descriptions of the countryside are interrupted constantly by tangents explaining the history of Brittany and its people. The pastoral setting is integrated into the plot, particularly the guerrilla combat of the Chouans. In complementing individual with environs Balzac also shows the influence of James Fenimore Cooper, whose The Last of the Mohicans had impressed the French author. Like the Mahicans of Cooper's novel, the Chouan insurgents are skilled at using their surroundings, coming out of the woods in more ways than one. Some critics claim that Balzac surpassed Scott in some respects. In his introduction to the 1901 edition, poet and critic George Saintsbury writes that the character of Montauran enjoys "a freedom from the flatness which not infrequently characterizes Sir Walter's own good young men." By foregrounding the affair between Montauran and Marie, Balzac indicates passion as the central theme of history. As he writes in the 1842 foreword to La Comédie Humaine: "[L]a passion est toute l'humanité. Sans elle religion, l'histoire, le roman, l'art seraient inutiles." ("[P]assion is all of humanity. Without it religion, history, literature, and art would be useless.")
A series of insurrections took place in the Brittany region (highlighted) after the French Revolution.
Because of its extended conversations, intricate descriptions and lengthy asides, the book is considered "heavy" by some critics. In later editions its chapter breaks were removed (though some versions now restore them), and the work is in three sections – the final of which comprises nearly half the novel. The novel's feel is compounded by the lack of clarity on some points; some characters' motives are unclear even at the end, and the chaotic sequence of events is difficult to track.
Passionate history

Although he venerated Scott's writing skill and use of history as backdrop, Balzac worked to more accurately depict the turbulence of the human heart – and its effect on history. He considered Scott's view of women unrefined, and believed this led to a stale representation of human behavior as a result. In Les Chouans, Balzac places the romance of Montauran and Marie de Verneuil at the center of the narrative, around which all other elements revolve.

For this reason (and owing to the florid descriptions of romantic elements), the novel has been compared to William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet.

Both stories explore love among feuding parties; both involve vengeful, scheming individuals; and both end in tragedy for the newly-wed couple.

As the translator Marion Ayton Crawford puts it: "Hero and heroine are star-crossed lovers, whose fate is brought about by forces of the times acting on their own internal weaknesses…."

Although Balzac himself did not marry until 1850, he was fascinated by the subject. Soon after Les Chouans was published in 1829, he released a treatise about the institution called Physiologie du Mariage.
His attention to the details of relationships – failed and successful – are woven into Les Chouans, and Marie herself is based on a woman with whom he had had an affair.

Illustration of Honoré de Balzac's The Chouans
Devious ferocity
Corentin and Madame du Gua, foils to the happy couple, plot and scheme endlessly to bring about the misery and downfall of those who will not love them. Du Gua is at first a sympathetic character, but by the end of the novel she is presented as sharing a face with a spirit from hell. She represents revenge and hatred chiseled from romantic injury, and has been noted as a rough sketch of the title character in Balzac's La Cousine Bette. Corentin, meanwhile, stands in contrast to Montauran's romantic nature as much as to Hulot's military prowess. Rebuffed by Marie and unable to wield the might of the commandant, Corentin relies on trickery and deception to achieve his ruthless ends.

Marie herself begins the operation on a quest to seduce and betray her target. Her reversal (followed by two subsequent changes of heart, back to the original mission and then in opposition to it) counterbalance the wickedness of Madame du Gua and Corentin. Her ultimate fidelity to the object of her desire demonstrates the possibility of sincere passion, even as the other pair speak to the venom of the slighted heart.

Social hierarchy
The allure of class respectability is another constant in Les Chouans, as it is for Balzac's entire oeuvre. Marie's birth as an illegitimate child contributes to her position at the start of the novel.

The ups and downs of her young adult life land her in Corentin's hands, yearning for the 300,000-franc reward promised to her on the capture of Montauran.

Marie's focus changes from money to marriage, a sign of hope amid the tragedy of circumstances.

When she first considers Montauran, she recognizes that a return of the king would bring privileges; still, her oscillating actions follow the path of her passions, not rational self-interest.

Montauran, on the other hand, is devoted wholly to the royalist cause, and chafes against the ignorant nobles supporting it.

He fights for the Chouan cause because he believes in it, not for the personal gain sought by the aristocrats in whose midst he works.

He gives up the cause for Marie, but only as a result of an unclear series of events, the product of everyone's intertwined double-crossing.
  Reception and impact
Les Chouans is considered Balzac's first real success as a writer – a milestone for which he was prepared, evidenced by his willingness to sign his own name. Saintsbury proclaims that publishing Les Chouans was how he "first emerged from the purgatory of anonymous hack-writing." Still, revenues from the book were not sufficient to cover Balzac's modest living expenses.

Although he never finished the other works intended to comprise Scenes from a Military Life, Balzac returned to the people and politics of Les Chouans in later works. Corentin reappears in his 1841 novel Une Ténébreuse Affaire (A Murky Business), and Hulot is featured in 1843's La Muse du département (The Provincial Muse). Later novels mention additional royalist uprisings, connecting them thematically to Les Chouans.

As a literary work, the novel is not singled out by critics from the rest of La Comédie Humaine. Balzac's emerging style (some time before he refined his renowned realist idiom) and unsteady pacing are representative of his early career. Still, critics hail it as a turning point and it has even been called "a strong favorite" among readers. In 1947 it was adapted into an eponymous feature film, directed by Henri Calef.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Honore de Balzac

"Father Goriot"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Irving Washington: "The Conquest of Granada"

"The Conquest of Granada"
  Washington Irving

"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
"Rip Van Winkle"

Illustrations by Arthur Rackham
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"

Wilhelm Meister's Journeyman Years, or the Renunciants, is the fourth novel by German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Goethe Johann Wolfgang ), and the sequel to the Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship (Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) (1795–96). Though initially conceived during the 1790s, the first edition did not appear until 1821, and the second edition—differing substantially from the first—in 1829.

The novel was greeted by mixed reviews in the 1820s, and did not gain full critical attention until the mid-20th century. Consisting largely of discrete short stories and novellas woven together with elements of the epistolary novel, lengthy sections of aphorisms, and several interspersed poems, the structure of this novel challenged the novel form as commonly practiced at the time of its publication.

A major theme running through the various parts of the novel is that of "Entsagung," translatable as "renunciation." The most famous section of the novel is probably the episode in which the protagonist and his son Felix visit the "Pedagogical Province."

First Book
Chapter One: opens with "Flight into Egypt," in which Wilhelm and Felix encounter a family in the course of their travels; the father of the family identifies himself as "Saint Joseph." Felix befriends the boys of the family, and returns with them to their residence. Wilhelm, declining their invitation to come as well, returns to his lodge at the mountaintop and writes to Natalie. The chapter closes with this letter. Wilhelm speaks here of his wish to be with her, and also comments on the rules guiding his travels: "Not more than three days shall I remain under one roof. I shall leave no lodging without distancing myself at least one mile from it." These rules are meant to give him – quite literally – journeyman status. He affirms to Natalie his determination to adhere to the rules, yet also betrays doubts.

Chapter Two: consists of the sections "Saint Joseph the Second," "The Visitation," and "The Lily Stem." In "Saint Joseph the Second," Wilhelm descends the mountain to the valley where this family lives. In their encounter the day before, Wilhelm had been struck by the resemblance of the family with familiar paintings representing the Biblical The Flight into Egypt; the father of the family had identified himself as "Saint Joseph." Now, visiting the family's residence, Wilhelm is astonished to see that paintings of the real Saint Joseph, as well as of the Flight into Egypt, adorn the family's home. The correspondence of the actual family's appearance with these Biblical images is made the more striking by the fact that the man who introduced himself as "Saint Joseph" turns out really to be named Joseph, and his wife named Mary. Joseph tells Wilhelm of why he came to be named after the saint, and how the Biblical images played a role in his life. "The Visitation" continues Joseph's story, telling of how he met his wife, Mary, when she lost her first husband in an attack by robbers in the woods, and he helped her to safety.

"The Lily Stem" tells of how he gradually won her affection, and, after her mourning was over, they married and began to live in resemblance to the Biblical model in the paintings.

Chapter Three: opens with a letter from Wilhelm to Natalie in which Wilhelm comments briefly on the story he has just retold. He states a further rule of his journey: "Now in the course of my journey no third person shall become a constant companion. We wish to, and we are required to, be and remain two..." When the narration of the novel resumes, Felix's playmate Fitz leads Wilhelm and Felix into the mountains where they encounter their old friend Jarno (from Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship), who is now traveling under the name "Montan." Felix, who has developed a "tremendous interest" in stones, asks many questions about geology. The manner of Mountain's explanations leads him and Wilhelm into a discussion of human understanding, of the need for "resignation," and of the inadequacy of language and the written word to express what can be perceived clearly in nature. "Nature only has one kind of writing, and I don't need to get bogged down with so many kinds of scribbling," states Mountain, adding at the close of the chapter; "Precisely for this reason I don't talk with anyone about it, and I don't want – precisely because you are dear to me – deceptively to exchange the wretched stuff of dreary words with you any further."
Chapter Four: After further conversation with Mountain, the latter parts ways with Wilhelm and Felix, and takes Fitz along with him. As Wilhelm and Felix travel on, Felix follows an inexplicable intuition and makes his way into a cave in which he discovers a small ornate box. When Wilhelm finds him, he takes the mysterious box from Felix for safe keeping, and both agree that in this unexpected discovery, they share "a deep secret." As they then continue traveling on, they walk into a trap that holds them enclosed within iron gates. Felix has ever experienced such constriction and therefore rages at being closed in, but Wilhelm calmly recognizes signs that the trap is employed out of necessity rather than out of cruelty. They are released shortly and brought as guests to the nearby castle.

Chapter Five: Wilhelm and Felix are welcomed by the family who live on the land on which they had been trapped. The master of the house shows Wilhelm an elaborate assortment of maps and images of cities; his nieces, Hersilie and Juliette, acquaint him with the customs and interests of the family. All members of the family, they explain, read avidly, and each member has a particular literature they are interested in. The uncle likes ancient classics, while his son prefers contemporary works. Hersilie reads French, while Juliette reads English. During this discussion at the diner table, it becomes apparent that the young Felix – a "budding adventurer" – has taken a liking to Hersilie. With his attention fixed too much on her, he distractedly cuts himself in the finger while peeling an apple, and bleeds profusely at the dinner table. Later, when all get up to go too sleep, Hersilie asks Wilhelm, "Do you also read before going to sleep?" and hands him the manuscript of a short story she has herself translated into German from French. This text is "The Wandering Madwoman," which is then reproduced in full within the novel.

Chapter Six: Wilhelm is shown a gallery of paintings consisting entirely of portraits. "We chatter enough," is the patron's rationale – there is no need for narrative images that encourage this "dangerous characteristic of our intellect" any further. Wilhelm is also introduced to the house patron's liking for maxims inscribed around the house. One such phrase that is discussed in the chapter is: "From the useful, through the true, to the beautiful." There is some discussion of the way that short aphorisms of this sort can be variously interpreted – Hersilie points out that for women, it is often the inverse of "the maxims of men" that prove to be true. ("We women are in a distinctive circumstance.") Prefiguring the chapters that follow, there is mention of a venerable elder aunt who lives in a castle nearby (Makarie), and a cousin whose visit is expected soon (Lenardo). Another event, the meaning of which becomes clear only later in the novel, is Felix's fall from a horse that he is riding. Wilhelm witnesses his son's fall, but is not permitted to come to his aid, because he is not a qualified doctor. The chapter closes with letters between Lenardo, the Aunt, Juliette, Hersilie, Wilhelm, and Natalie. Lenardo sends a letter to his family announcing his intention to visit them soon; he has been traveling for three years without any contact with them other than an assortment of unexplained gifts. His aunt and cousins are perplexed and annoyed both by his long silence and by the presumptuous sudden return. This exchange of letters is given to Wilhelm; Wilhelm sends some of them on to Natalie as a way of sharing with her the family and community he now finds himself welcomed into.

  Chapter Seven: In the early morning Wilhelm admires portraits in the gallery of the house, in particular one of a general who seems to look like Wilhelm himself. His host then joins him in the gallery, and they view a number of sixteenth-century portraits together. He expresses his pleasure at Wilhelm's appreciation for the past and its artifacts. Later, the family asks Wilhelm to visit their aunt Makarie, and also attempt to find out why their cousin Lenardo so inexplicably delays his announced return to the family. The narration is then interrupted for a brief account of the host's background: he was born in the United States, to which his father had earlier emigrated, but moved back to Germany as an adolescent. He decided that he prefers the European life: he would rather endure monarchy and the proximity of neighbors, he explains, than live in greater freedom in a country where he has to either conquer or deceive American Indians in order to survive in mosquito-infested swampland. There follows a discussion of religion, community, and resignation.

Chapters Eight and Nine: the novella "Who Is the Traitor?"

Chapter Ten: Wilhelm and Felix arrive at the home of the old woman Makarie, and are welcomed as friends. Makarie's friend the astronomer is also present, and, after a discussion of mathematics in the evening, Wilhelm and the astronomer ascend to an astronomical observatory where Wilhelm observes the night sky. The following day the young woman Angela tells Wilhelm about the archive that Makarie maintains, containing written records of spoken conversations – in these, she explains, things are said "that no book contains, and on the other hand the best things that books have ever contained." The archive contains the mathematical treatise that had been the object of discussion the previous evening, and Wilhelm is permitted to read and copy it. On the third day of their stay Wilhelm asks Angela about Makarie's unusual character, which has gradually revealed itself to him.
Angela confides in him that Makarie possesses an intuitive insight into, and harmony with, the solar system; this fact has even been confirmed by investigations carried out by the astronomer. (This foreshadows chapter 15 of book three). Finally, the conversation turns to Lenardo. Angela believes he is worried about having harmed an unnamed young woman, and she asks Wilhelm, as a favor to the family, to deliver a message to him in this regard.

Chapter Eleven: As he has been requested to do, Wilhelm informs the nephew Lenardo that a certain young woman named Valerine is happily married and living well. Lenardo is greatly relieved to hear this, and the nature of his reactions compels Wilhelm to ask who Valerine is, and what the cause of Lenardo's worry had been. Lenardo thus tells the story of "The Nut-Brown Girl." When he was younger, he had planned to undertake a journey around Europe.
To finance this trip, his uncle had collected money from a longtime debtor who had one daughter, and whose wife was recently deceased. Fearing the consequences of this financial ruin of her family, the daughter – known as the "Nut-Brown Girl" because of her complexion – approaches Lenardo and pleads with him to intervene on their behalf with his uncle. Lenardo, knowing his uncle's character, tells her that there is nothing possible that he can to do influence the situation; "Do the impossible," she then pleads with him.
Lenardo, who feels obliged because his travels are ultimately the cause of her coming hardship, tries and fails to gain some leniency toward her.

A combined feeling of both obligation and affection toward her have compounded his sense of guilt over time; this is why the news Wilhelm brings is so welcome – since hearing from Wilhelm that she is living in happiness and prosperity, he knows that her life was not ruined because of him after all. Lenardo and Wilhelm decide to visit her; however, when they meet Valerine, his relief is suddenly shattered. The woman who greets them is not "nut-brown" at all, but rather fair and blonde. Since the girl in question had always been known simply by her nickname, Lenardo realizes that he had confused her real name – Nachodine – with that of another childhood friend – Valerine, the happy and prosperous woman whom they now find themselves accidentally visiting. Once again uncertain of Nachodine's fate, Lenardo anguishes. He and Wilhelm reach the agreement that, since Wilhelm is obliged continually to wander, he will now direct his travels toward finding Nachodine, and will send Lenardo word as to her circumstances. "I hope," Lenardo says, "that when I know the girl is happy, I will be free from her." Lenardo directs him to an old acquaintance of his who may be of help.

Chapter Twelve: Wilhelm arrives in a city that appears to have been burnt down and entirely rebuild, judging by the striking newness of its appearance. Here, Wilhelm finds the old man Lenardo had directed him to, who engages him in a conversation about time, permanence, and change. Asked for advice as to whether to attempt to open the box, the old man says that while it might entirely possible to get it open, he advises against it: "... since you obtained it by such a remarkable chance, you should test your luck by it. For if you were born fortunate and if this box has meaning for you, then the key to it must eventually turn up – and just there, where you least expect to find it." Wilhelm decides to follow this advice, and leaves the box there for safe keeping. The conversation then turns to education, and to the question of where and how Felix should be schooled.
Second Book
Chapter One: Arriving at the Pedagogical Province, Wilhelm is struck by the unusual customs of the place. Since his intention is the entrust his son to them, the directors initiate Wilhelm in the pedagogical philosophy and methods of the Province. Music – singing in particular – is central to their mode of education; a distinct notion of respect – combined with elements of humility and awe – is at the center of the guiding worldview.

Chapter Two: Pedagogical Province features visual representations of the Israelites as an exemplary people. Wilhelm is explained the ideas of world history and the aesthetic principles that inform these images. Philosophical discussion of forms of representation dominates the discussion.

Chapters Three, Four, and Five: novella "The Man of Fifty Years"

Chapter Six: Consists of two letters: One, from Wilhelm to Lenardo, announcing that he has found Nachodine, and that she is living "in circumstances in which, for the good soul, there is little further that remains to be wished for." The second letter, from Wilhelm to the Abbé, expresses Wilhelm's "wish to complete my journeyman years with more composure and steadiness," and his resolution, after a new beginning, to live more in accordance with his inner inclination.

Chapter Seven: Wilhelm meets a painter, with whom he travels onward. The painter is greatly taken with the figure of Mignon, from Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, whom he paints in many images; the initial purpose of Wilhelm and the painter's travels together is to visit the places where Mignon lived.

  Once they have done this, however, a further desire asserts itself: Wilhelm wishes to meet Hilarie and the Beautiful Widow.

Both of these are characters from "The Man of Fifty Years" (the frame story of the novel and the novellas it contains begin to intermingle at this point). The two men and the two women spend time together at a lake and on an island. Their attentions are devoted to art, for which Hilarie reveals herself to have a talent; music, as the painter shows himself to be a gifted singer and lute player as well; and nature – the landscape surrounding them is exceptionally rich and beautiful. The episode reaches its climax when the painter overwhelms his companions with a performance of Mignon's song "Do You Know the Land?" from Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. The two women depart the following day. The chapter closes with letters from Lenardo to Wilhelm, and from the Abbé to Wilhelm, and with an "Interruption" by the narrator, who informs the reader that a period of several years will have passed when the action resumes in Chapter Eight.

Chapter Eight: Arriving at the Pedagogical Province, Wilhelm is shown the various pedagogical practices of the institution: foreign language, instrumental music, singing, poetry. Felix, whom he has not seen for some time, is now nearing adolescence. The chapter contains the song "To invent, to resolve..."

Chapter Nine: Wilhelm is invited to a mountain festival, where he sees his friend Montan again. The two engage in a discussion of geology, and of theories regarding the creation of the world. Montan doesn't betray which of the many theories he himself believes in; when Wilhelm persists in asking who he agrees with, Mountain explains, "I know as much as they do, and prefer not to think about it"; "Once one knows what everything is all about," he adds, "one stops being talkative."

Chapter Ten: Letter from Hersilie to Wilhelm, in which she tells him of her astonishment when Felix – by messenger – confesses his love to her.

Chapter Eleven: Letter from Wilhelm to Natalie

"Observations in the Mindset of the Wanderers: Art, Ethics, Nature": collection of 177 aphorisms

The poem "Legacy"

Third Book
Chapter One: Wilhelm, traveling onward, arrives at an inn in the mountains. The words "Ubi homines sunt, modi sunt" – translated by Goethe as "there, where people come together into community, a way and manner in which they wish to be and remain together shows itself" – are written in gold letters above a door in the inn. He is greeted by two singing men who perform an impromptu rendition of a bit of verse that Wilhelm had composed while walking. That night Wilhelm is awoken by an unidentifiable sound; he does not, however, find anyone whom he can ask what it was. The following morning he is shaved by a barber who does not speak. To Wilhelm's great surprise, Lenardo – about whom Wilhelm had recently been thinking – appears at the inn along with Natalie's brother Friedrich. The chapter ends with very much singing.

Chapter Two: Letters from Hersilie to Wilhelm. The first letter scolds Wilhelm for not writing to her in a way that allows any dialogue to emerge: "... correspondence with you is completely like a monologue," she complains. In the second letter, she lets him know – in an excited and conspiratorial, secretive tone – that she has finally found the key to the box Felix found earlier in the novel. Felix's friend Fitz, she tells him, has gotten himself into trouble, and the authorities came asking for a jacket he had lost. Before handing it over, she unexplainably reached into the pocket of it, and found a key there that she immediately knew was the one to the box. Having quietly kept the key rather than giving it to the authorities who asked for the jacket, she is agitated and fearful: "the law and the courts are not to be joked with," she writes. She urges Wilhelm to come to her so that they can open the box together, and she tries to raise his curiosity to get him to come soon. Her letter includes an illustration of the key (the only visual element ever incorporated into any of Goethe's literary works). In a postscript she points out that it is actually Felix who found the box, and to whom it belongs, and that he should therefore be present for its opening, as well.

Chapter Three: Wilhelm does not heed Hersilie's request to come to her; he is not all that curious about the box and the key, and furthermore, having now mastered his medical calling, he is too busy tending to patients to leave at will. In a conversation with Lenardo and Friedrich, Wilhelm tells a story from his training in human anatomy: Due to an outbreak of crime that sought to capitalize on medical students' need for human corpses to dissect, laws had become increasingly strict about the acquisition of these. As Wilhelm hesitates one day to proceed with the dissection of an especially beautiful young woman's arm, a stranger approaches him and brings him to see a collection of artificial human body parts he has made. Though those in the medical profession look askance at the practice, the man believes that anatomy can be learned better by building models of the body than by dissecting real parts: "As you will shortly learn," he says to Wilhelm, "constructing teaches more than destructing, connecting teaches more than separating, reviving dead material teaches more than killing further what has already been killed. So then, do you want to be my student?" Wilhelm agrees, and proceeds to study with the man.

  Chapter Four: Wilhelm having spoken in the previous chapter of his experiences as a medical student, Friedrich wishes to share with him his own talent: he has a precise memory and writes well, and with these talents was able to transcribe Wilhelm's story from the previous day virtually verbatim. In the conversation that ensues, the talents of various people are talked about, and Lenardo comes to speak of his own inclination for technical matters. He has been keeping a journal in which he records the technical details of industry and economy in the mountain regions, and offers this journal to Wilhelm to read that evening. "I don't want to claim that it is exactly pleasant to read," he concedes. "It always seemed to me entertaining and in a certain way instructive." The following chapter consists of excerpts from this journal.

Chapter Five: Consists of entries from Lenardo's journal regarding the rural textile industry in the mountains. After reading them, Wilhelm asks Lenardo for the continuation of the manuscripts, but is told that the rest of the text has been sent to Makarie. Instead of reading further, then, Wilhelm seeks to pass the evening in conversation.

Chapter Six: The barber whom Wilhelm met in the first chapter of Book Three – who did not speak – is now introduced to him as a master storyteller; the story he tells Wilhelm is "The New Melusine." A young man – indulgent both with money and with women – sets out on a long journey. At one of the first stops he intends to flatter the young woman cooking at an inn – both to get her attention, and in hopes she will lower the bill for his food. However, he is distracted by a beautiful and mysterious young woman who arrives at the inn just after he does. He falls passionately in love with her, but she tells that he will have to prove himself worthy of her by carrying out an enigmatic set of instructions: he must travel onward without her, and carry with him a small box that she gives him; this box must be kept in a separate room from the one he sleeps in. She gives him money for the trip, and he travels forth. Though he promptly gambles away the money and loses himself in the attentions of other women, she gives him another chance, and gives him a magically bottomless supply of gold for his expenses. Traveling by wagon one dark night, he notices a strange light. "I observed it and found that it was coming from inside the small box, which seemed to have a crack in it as if it had been split open by the hot and dry weather of the beginning summertime." Looking into the crack he sees inside the box the interior of a tiny, majestic, and ornate hall in which his loved one – in miniature – was sitting by a fireplace from which the light was coming. She later explains to him that she is from the kingdom of dwarves, who sent her to find a human to marry in order to replenish the threatened dwarf population. Their love almost comes to an end one night when, drunk and jealous, the young man betrays her secret by openly mocking her as a dwarf in front of others. He redeems himself to her, though, by agreeing to be shrunk to dwarf stature in order to remain with her. With time, though, he grows discontented with life among the dwarves – because the thought of marriage is odious to him, and also because of unease in his diminutive form – and cuts off the magic ring that had shrunk him from his natural size. Back among humans, he makes his way back to the cook at the inn whose attention he had hoped to get at the beginning of the story.

Chapter Seven: letter from Hersilie to Wilhelm

Chapter Eight: contains the story "The Risky Bet," which the narrator includes here in unedited form because, he explains, the tone of the novel is getting ever more serious, and so there won't be place for the inclusion of such "irregularities" later in the novel. A group of young men observe an older man "of lordly, austere appearance" but with a big nose arriving in a mountain village, and one of them offers a bet: "... what do you want to bet that I will tweak his nose without suffering any dire consequences for it? Indeed, I will even earn myself a gracious master in him by doing so." His friends bet him one Louisdor that this will not happen. Learning that the man wishes to have his beard shaved, the young man presents himself as a barber, and, in the course of the shave, pulls the man's nose conspicuously. At the end, he earns the man's praise for his skillful work, but is admonished for one thing: "One does not touch people of stature on the nose." His friends witness the deed, and the young man wins the bet. One of the friends, however, tells his lover of the bet; she tells a friend, and by evening the old man who was tricked hears about it. Enraged, he comes after the group with an axe, but they are able to escape. This slight to the noble old man's dignity hurts his pride, compromises his health over time, and is believed to be a contributing factor to his eventual death.

Chapter Nine: narration of Wilhelm's travels resumes

Chapter Ten: contains the short story "Not Too Far." A husband and children wait at the dinner table to celebrate the mother's birthday; she does not appear, and after waiting for hours, the husband, Odoard, storms restlessly out into the street. The absent woman, Albertine, is known to crave society and attention, especially from men, and has even been warned that this attribute of hers could put her marriage at risk. "I said it to her more than once," the family's servant reflects, "she shouldn't push things too far." (Hence the title of the story.) Odoard spends the evening in a room at a local inn, pacing and brooding. He asks the innkeeper not to let on to anyone that he is there, but when a company of women arrive at the same inn, and insist on meeting the unnamed guest – believing that it is an uncle of theirs – Odoard falls to the feet of one of the women, recognizing her as an old love. At home, meanwhile, Albertine finally arrives, explaining to the servant that there had been an accident; her coach had fallen into a ditch en route. (The servant tells her that Odoard was called away on business.) When the accident occurs, a gentleman, Lelio, who was riding with them, helps her friend Florine out of the overturned wagon, but leaves Albertine inside to be helped by the coachman and a servant. It soon becomes clear that there is an amorous affair between Lelio and Florine; from Albertine's feeling of shock and betrayal at this revelation, it becomes clear that she herself had been involved with Lelio. Once the coachman has gotten the wagon out of the ditch, the three are nonetheless forced to ride onward together, "and in hell itself there could not have been a group with more mutually repulsed feelings – traitors together with the betrayed – so tightly packed together."

Chapter Eleven: conversation regarding "that which genuinely holds people together: religion and custom." Christianity, time, police and authority, law, and the state are all discussed; the narrator relates only the "quintessence" of the conversation, however, rather than its entirety.

  Chapter Twelve: Odoard speaks generally and abstractly about plans for building settlements, and about the roles of discipline and creative freedom in the arts.

Chapter Thirteen: three further entries from Lenardo's journal, telling of his observation of the yarn industry and of his conversation with a young woman named Gretchen, who tells of her past romantic attachment to an unnamed man.
After this relationship ended, Gretchen kept a page composed by her ex-lover summarizing the ideas of certain conversations they had had together; Lenardo recognizes the handwriting as being Wilhelm's.

Chapter Fourteen: narration of Wilhelm's travels resumes

Chapter Fifteen: consists of a characterization of the character Makarie. This characterization, the narrator tells us, is taken from Makarie's own archive, but, as he also tells us, cannot necessarily be seen as "authentic." Makarie's unique nature and her relation to the solar system are described.

Chapter Sixteen: narration of Wilhelm's travels resumes

Chapter Seventeen: letter from Hersilie to Wilhelm telling of her encounter with his son Felix. Felix kisses her, but although the affection is mutual, she scolds him for doing so. Taking this rebuff to be a true reflection of her feelings, he takes offense and rides off on his horse.

Chapter Eighteen: close of the narration: By the side of a river, Wilhelm sees a horseman slip and fall into the water. Wilhelm saves him by helping bring him to land, and then opening one of his veins with a blade. The young man – Felix – comes to and embraces his father; the two stand together "like Castor and Pollux."

"From Makarie's Archive": collection of 182 aphorisms

Untitled poem: "In the austere charnelhouse..." (often referred to as "Upon Viewing Schiller's Skull," though this title is not from Goethe himself).

At the close of the poem it reads, "(To be continued.)"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


Illustrations by Eugene Delacroix and Harry Clarke
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Griboyedov Aleksander, Russ. playwright, d. (b. 1795)

Aleksander Sergeyevich Griboyedov

A meeting Pushkin with carriage, carrying the body of Griboyedov
Aleksandr Griboyedov

"Woe From Wit"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Jefferson Joseph

Joseph Jefferson, commonly known as Joe Jefferson (February 20, 1829 – April 23, 1905), was an American actor. He was the third actor of this name in a family of actors and managers, and one of the most famous of all American comedians.


Life and career
Jefferson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His father was a scenic designer and actor and his mother an actress. He appeared onstage early in life, often being used when a play called for "a babe in arms". His first recorded appearance was at the Washington Theatre in Washington, D.C. where he appeared in a benefit performance for the minstrel Thomas D. Rice. Jefferson was twice married: at the age of 21 in 1850, to actress Margaret Clements Lockyer (1832–1861), whose early death left him with four children; and in 1867 to Sarah Warren, niece of William Warren the actor.

Jefferson bought a place called Orange Island in Louisiana where he built a home after the Civil War. The location is at a peninsular area on Lake Peigneur, and was subsequently renamed Jefferson Island.


Joseph Jefferson
  Early career
In 1833 at the age of four years old, he was carried on stage at the Washington theatre in a bag by an actor named Thomas D. Rice. As his benefit performance, he put Jefferson alongside him in black face and dress; as Rice performing his well known character “Jim Crow” and little Joseph as Little Joe. In 1837 now age eight, Joseph performs on the Franklin theatre in New York City with his parents as a pirate.

After the end of the season of 1837-1838 Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson take Joseph, his brother Charles Burke and his sister Cornelia to Chicago  His father died when he was 13, and young Jefferson continued acting and helping to support the family. From there both Jefferson and Burke performed continuously and the entire family would travel the then American West and South. Traveling theatre to theatre Mr. Jefferson performed and worked everywhere in between Boston to Charleston as far as Chicago.The family led the lives of “Strolling Players”. This term is a term given to a troupe of itinerant actors.

At one point along with his acting family they followed the American army from 1846-1848 during the Mexican–American War. As a strolling player, Joseph performed in many places some not even a theater space. Some performances were given in the dining rooms of country hotels, without any illusion of a stage or world he was to perform in. This also meant no scenery.
All the materials he had to work with was a strip board nailed to the floor with a row of tallow candles  It wasn’t until 1849, when Jefferson returned to New York that he began to earn both critical and financial success though not nearly to the extent he would earn later in life In 1861 due to his failing health and the death of his wife, he left to go to San Francisco and then on to Australia  After spending four years in Australia, he left for London and met Dion Boucicault who would revise Rip Van Winkle, turning it from just a play in Jefferson’s repertoire to being “a pronounced success and ran for one hundred and seventy nights.” Opening night on September 5, 1865 at the Adelphi Theatre in London sparked what would become one of the most celebrated characters of the stage in the 19th century.

Jefferson as the young Rip Van Winkle
  After this experience, partly as actor, partly as manager, he won his first pronounced success in 1858 as Asa Trenchard in Tom Taylor's Our American Cousin at Laura Keene's theatre in New York. This play was the turning-point of his career, as it would be for the actor E. A. Sothern. The naturalness and spontaneity of humour with which he acted the love scenes revealed a spirit in comedy new to his contemporaries, long used to a more artificial convention; and the touch of pathos which the part required revealed no less to the actor an unexpected power in himself. When Sothern complained about the small size of his role, Jefferson supposedly replied with the famous line, "There are no small parts, only small actors."

Other early parts included Newman Noggs in Nicholas Nickleby, Caleb Plummer in Dot (an adaption of The Cricket on the Hearth), Dr. Pangloss in George Colman the Younger's The Heir at Law, Salem Scudder in The Octoroon, and Bob Acres in The Rivals, the last being not so much an interpretation of the character as Sheridan sketched it as a creation of the actors.

In 1859, Jefferson made a dramatic version of Washington Irving's story of "Rip Van Winkle" on the basis of older plays, and acted it with success in Washington, D.C., with Sophie Gimber Kuhn playing the role of Lowenna. He arrived at Sydney in the beginning of November 1861, and played a successful season introducing to Australia Rip Van Winkle, Our American Cousin, The Octoroon and other plays.
He opened in Melbourne on March 31, 1862, and had a most successful season extending over about six months. Seasons followed in the country and in Tasmania. In 1865 Jefferson with health recovered went to London and arranged with Dion Boucicault for a revised version of Rip Van Winkle. It ran 170 nights, with Jefferson in the leading part.

Jefferson as the old Rip Van Winkle, 1896
  Later years
Jefferson would continue acting in this show for 40 years, playing little more than the single character of Rip Van Winkle. He then returned to America in August 1866. Jefferson was able to take an American play and characters to places like Australia and England and create success out of them. As John Maguire would later write, “It was then that America greeted the return of the wanderer, proud of the victory of an American actor in an American play in foreign lands. This fame added to the glory of his country, both at home and abroad…” Returning to America, Jefferson made it his stock play, making annual tours of the states with it, and occasionally reviving The Heir at Law in which he played Dr. Pangloss, The Cricket on the Hearth (Caleb Plummer) and The Rivals (Bob Acres). He was one of the first to establish the traveling combinations which superseded the old system of local stock companies. Jefferson also starred in a number of films as the character starting in the 1896, Awakening of Rip, which is in the U.S. National Film Registry. Jefferson’s son Thomas followed in his father’s footsteps and also played the character in a number of early 20th century films. Joseph Jefferson made several recordings, all of material from "Rip Van Winkle".

With the exception of minor parts, such as the First Gravedigger in Hamlet, which he played in an all-star combination headed by Edwin Booth, Jefferson created no new character after 1865; and the success of Rip Van Winkle was so pronounced that he has often been called a one-part actor. If this was a fault, it was the public's, who never wearied of his one masterpiece. Francis Wilson would later write, “He was Rip and Rip was he.”


No man in his profession was more honored for his achievements or his character. He was the friend of many of the leading men in American politics, art and literature, including President Grover Cleveland. He was an ardent fisherman and lover of nature, and devoted to painting. It is erroneously believed that he was distantly related to British comedian Stan Laurel (born Arthur Stanley Jefferson), but UK civil registration, census and church records suggest that Jefferson was not the real name of his father. Jefferson was a founding member and the second president of the Players' Club in Manhattan.

Jefferson died from pneumonia on April 23, 1905 in Palm Beach, Florida.


Jefferson's name continues to live on through the Joseph Jefferson Awards Committee in Chicago which offers awards in recognition of excellence of Chicago's Equity and non-Equity theaters and their productions.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lamartine Alphonse elected to the Academie Frangaise
see also: Alphonse de Lamartine
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George: "Devereux"

Bulwer-Lytton: "Devereux"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"

"Al Aaraaf" is an early poem by American writer Рое Edgar Allan , first published in 1829. It is based on stories from the Qur'an, and tells of the afterlife in a place called Al Aaraaf. At 422 lines, it is Poe's longest poem.

"Al Aaraaf", which Poe claimed to have written before he was 15, was first published as the major poem in Poe's 1829 collection Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. The book and "Al Aaraaf" in particular received mostly negative reviews for its complexity, obscure references, and odd structure. Some, however, noted the potential in the young poet, including John C. Neal, to whom Poe had shown "Al Aaraaf" prior to publication. Poe would later refer to Neal's response as the first words of encouragement he had received. Nevertheless, the negative response to "Al Aaraaf" may have inspired Poe's later poetic theory that poems should be kept short.

Years later, in 1845, Poe used "Al Aaraaf" to hoax members of the Boston literary circle during a reading. Poe claimed the poem was a new one and his audience was perplexed by it. He later claimed a Boston crowd did not deserve a new poem. He held a strong dislike for New England poets and the New England-based Transcendental movement and hoped by presenting a poem he had written in his youth would prove Bostonians did not know good literature.

"Al Aaraaf" is the longest poem Poe wrote and was inspired by Tycho Brahe's discovery of a supernova back in 1572 which was visible for about seventeen months. Poe identified this nova with Al Aaraaf, a star that was the place between paradise and hell. Al-A`raaf (Arabic الأعراف, alternatively transcribed Aʿraf or Al Orf) was a place where people who have been neither markedly good nor markedly bad had to stay until forgiven by God and let into Paradise, as discussed in Sura 7 of the Qur'an. As Poe explained to a potential publisher:

Its title is "Al Aaraaf" from the Al Aaraaf of the Arabians, a medium between Heaven and Hell where men suffer no punishment, but yet do not attain that tranquil & even happiness which they suppose to be the characteristics of heavenly enjoyment.

In the opening section of the poem, God commands Nesace, a name for Beauty's spirit, to convey a message to "other worlds". Nesace rouses the angel Ligeia and tells her to awaken the other thousand seraphs to perform God's work. Two souls, however, fail to respond: the "maiden-angel" Ianthe and her "seraph-lover" Angelo (Michelangelo), who describes his death on earth and the flight of his spirit to Al Aaraaf. Ianthe and Angelo are lovers, and their failure to do as Nesace commanded results in God not allowing them into heaven.

"Al Aaraaf" is thick with allusions and, because of this, is often avoided by scholars because, as writer Arthur Hobson Quinn notes, it can be "unintelligible". Nevertheless, Quinn says it possesses qualities which are important to understand the development of Poe's skills as a poet. "Al Aaraaf" mixes historical facts, religious mythology and elements of Poe's imagination. The poem primarily focuses on the afterlife, ideal love, and ideal beauty in relation to passion.  immortal love.

Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems (1829)
The majority of the poem focuses on this reaching for ideal beauty and aesthetics. Characters in the poem serve as representative symbols of personified emotions. The goddess Nesace is beauty, Ligeia represents the music in nature, Ianthe and Angelo are creatures of passion.

The poem draws from Sura 7 (Arabic الأعراف) in the Qur'an; Poe also drew upon the Qur'an in other works, including "The Thousand-and-Second Tale of Scheherazade". In "Al Aaraaf", Poe was probably less interested in the Qur'an itself and more interested in an atmosphere of the exotic or otherworldliness. The true setting of the poem is a sort of dreamscape or alternative world. As critic Floyd Stovall wrote, the theme of the poem is "one of disillusionment with the world and escape into some more congenial realm of dream or of the imagination".

The star which prompted Poe to write "Al Aaraaf" was believed to foretell disaster or that humanity would be punished for breaking God's laws. Poe may have gotten the idea to base a poem on Brahe's astronomical discovery from poet John Keats's use of the 1781 discovery of the planet Uranus in a poem called "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer" (1816). The name of the star has been changed from "Al Orf" to "Al Aaraaf" to become similar to the word arafa, which means distinguishing between things. Additionally, Poe was indebted to Irish poet Thomas Moore, whose poem Lalla-Rookh inspired, among other parts of "Al Aaraaf", the catalogue of flowers near the beginning. Another work by Moore, The Loves of the Angels, inspired Poe's idea of uniting mortal and immortal love.

Structurally, the 422-line "Al Aaraaf" has no discernible or consistent poetic rhythm, though the meter resembles a section of Lord Byron's Manfred. Instead of formal structure, the poem focuses on the flow of sound. Poet Daniel Hoffman analyzed the fluctuating meter and determined that Part I begins as octosyllabic couplets then shifts to pentameter couplets with occasional interludes of alternately rhymed trimeter-dimeters. Part II generally uses pentameter couplets with an interlude of anapestic dimeters.

Publication history
Poe claimed he wrote "Al Aaraaf" before he was 15 years old, though he would later adapt his claim. A few passages from the poem were first published in the May 19, 1829, issue of the Baltimore Gazette signed "Marlow". Poe first offered the complete poem to publishers Carey, Lea & Carey in Philadelphia around May 1829. He wrote to them, "If the poem is published, succeed or not, I am 'irrecoverably a poet.' But to your opinion I leave it".

He met with Isaac Lea, who was willing to publish it so long as they were protected against any loss. Poe asked his foster-father John Allan to subsidize the printing but, not supportive of Poe's literary pursuits, he refused. By July 28, Poe wrote to the publishers asking for the return of his manuscript because, as he said, he had "made a better disposition of my poems than I had any right to expect".

"Al Aaraaf" finally saw print for the first time in the collection Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. 250 copies of the 71-page work was issued by Hatch and Dunning of Baltimore, Maryland in December 1829.

Though Poe had already self-published Tamerlane and Other Poems, he considered Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems his first book. Though this was not entirely true, it was the first work published with his name, signed "Edgar A. Poe".

Poe addressed the obscurity in "Al Aaraaf" by including multiple footnotes, many of which were left untranslated from French, Latin, and Spanish. "Al Aaraaf" was published in its entirety only once in Poe's lifetime, though some critics believe Poe never actually completed the poem because Poe implied it was originally intended to have four parts or 400 lines.

  Critical response
Upon publication, "Al Aaraaf" and the other poems in Poe's collection drew harsh criticism because of how difficult it was to understand. Among the early reviewers was John Hill Hewitt, who wrote of Poe that "no man has been more shamefully overestimated". In trying to explain the title poem, he wrote, "all our brain-cudgeling could not compel us to understand it line by line or the sum total". A reviewer for the Baltimore Minerva and Emerald asked, "Has the poet been struck dumb with palsy?" Before publication, Poe had sought the advice of William Wirt, who had earned a reputation as a distinguished man of letters in Baltimore. On "Al Aaraaf", Wirt wrote that he was not the best judge of poetry but believed that it might be accepted by modern-thinking readers. As he wrote, "but to deal candidly... (as I am bound to do) I should doubt whether the poem will take with old-fashioned readers like myself". Sarah Josepha Hale of Godey's Lady's Book noted that "Al Aaraaf" must have been written by a young author because it was "boyish, feeble, and altogether deficient in the common characteristics of poetry". Nevertheless, she still called the author a genius. A reviewer for the American Ladies' Magazine also commented on the poet's age: "[the] author who appears to be very young, is evidently a fine genius, but he wants judgment, experience, tact".

Poe's boasted that these early poems were superior to most other examples in American poetry. Critic John Neal, who was a friend of Poe's cousin George Poe, responded to Poe's claim in his review of "Al Aaraaf" for the Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette. He said Poe's boast was "rather exquisite nonsense" but that the young author showed promise and predicted that some day Poe might "make a beautiful and perhaps a magnificent poem" to prove his claim. He believed that if future poems by Poe were as good as some of his best lines in "Al Aaraaf":

He will deserve to stand high—very high—in the estimation of the shining brotherhood. Whether he will do so however, must depend, not so much upon his words now in mere poetry, as upon his worth hereafter in something yet loftier and more generous—we allude to the stronger properties of the mind, to the magnanimous determination that enables a youth to endure the present, whatever the present may be, in the hope, or rather in the belief, the fixed, unwavering belief, that in the future he will find his reward.

Neal's encouragement, which came prior to publication, led Poe to include a dedication to Neal in the collection Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. Poe's cousin Neilson Poe was impressed by Neal's endorsement and wrote, "Our name will be a great one yet." Edgar Poe would refer to Neal's comments as "the very first words of encouragement I remember to have heard." Poe himself admitted that "Al Aaraaf" had some "good poetry" in it as well as "much extravagance, which I have not had time to throw away".

In the 20th century, poet Daniel Hoffman referred to "Al Aaraaf" as "Poe's most ambitious failure", suggesting it is a "fractured" attempt at an epic poem that "ran out of gas". Biographer Jeffrey Meyers called it Poe's "most turgid and opaque poem".

"Al Aaraaf" includes names Poe would later reuse: Ligeia and Zante. Some of the themes in the poem also foreshadow a future poem, "The City in the Sea" (1831). The critical failure of both "Al Aaraaf" and "Tamerlane" convinced Poe that long poems are inherently flawed because they cannot sustain a proper mood or a high quality poetic form. Because of this, he never again experimented with long poetry. He would later write of his theory on short poetry in "The Poetic Principle" in 1848. In that essay, he wrote "A long poem does not exist. I maintain that the phrase, 'a long poem,' is simply a flat contradiction in terms." Instead, he says, epic poetry and other long poems are actually a series of short poems strung together. Critics have suggested that this theory was written so that Poe could justify why "Al Aaraaf" was unpopular.

After the publication of "The Raven" in 1845, Poe became a household name and, having reached the height of his poetic fame, he was often asked to lecture or recite poetry at public events. One such invitation came from the Boston Lyceum in October 1845, arranged with help from James Russell Lowell. Poe had a strong dislike for the Boston literary scene and the city itself, despite having been born there. Nevertheless, he accepted the $50 fee and the challenge of writing a brand new poem for his appearance.
Illustration for "Al Aaraaf"
by W. Heath Robinson
Fresh off his public feud with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and his dislike of the Massachusetts-based Transcendentalism movement, Poe instead decided to play a trick on his Boston audience. The program, held October 16 at Boston's Odeon Theater, was a grand event and featured a speech by Massachusetts statesman Caleb Cushing which was two and a half hours long. Poe read "Al Aaraaf", renamed "The Messenger Star" for the event, and tried to convince his Boston audience that the poem he wrote as a young man was new. The audience was confused by the obscure poem and many left during its recitation. Poe ended with "The Raven", as the theater manager noted, "thus enabling us to make some show of front after a most lamentable defeat."

Poe considered the hoax an opportunity to prove that Bostonians did not know good literature. Based on critical reaction, he believed he was right. The editor of the Boston Courier reviewed "The Messenger Star" as "an elegant and classic production, based on the right principles, containing the essence of true poetry, mingled with a gorgeous imagination". When Poe claimed that he wrote the poem before he had turned 12, Cornelia Wells Walter of the Boston Evening Transcript wrote of her shock: "A poem delivered before a literary association of adults, as written by a boy! Only think of it!" It is unclear how old Poe was at the time he wrote the poem because, in part, he frequently changed his claim. Lewis Gaylord Clark said Poe's age at writing the poem was irrelevant and, though he admitted the audience did not know the author's age, "they only knew it was sad stuff". Modern biographer Daniel Stashower compared Poe's stunt with the story "The Imp of the Perverse", in which Poe wrote about "an earnest desire to tantalize a listener... The speaker is aware that he displeases."

Upon his return to New York, Poe wrote in the Broadway Journal his view of the event. After noting that he refused to offer a didactic poem, he wrote:

It could scarcely be supposed that we would put ourselves to the trouble of composing for the Bostonians anything in the shape of an original poem... We do not, ourselves, think the poem a remarkably good one:—it is not sufficiently transcendental. Still it did well enough for the Boston audience—who evinced characteristic discrimination in understanding, and especially applauding, all those knotty passages which we ourselves have not yet been able to understand... If we cared a fig for their wrath we should not first have insulted them to their teeth, and then subjected to their tender mercies a volume of our Poems.

"Al Aaraaf" was used between 1928 and 1952 as a pen name by the noted Glasgow artist Hannah Frank.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Edgar Allan Poe

1. "Ligeia"
2. "The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
  Western Literature

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Salvini Tommaso

Tommaso Salvini (1 January 1829 – 31 December 1915) was an Italian actor.


Tommaso Salvini
  Salvini was born in Milan. His father and mother were both actors. His father was involved in the Bon and Berlaffa Company and the actor who was to play Pasquino fell ill. Instead of closing the theatre for the night his father asked the young Salvini to play the role. In his autobiography, he writes that “when I perceived that some of Pasquino’s lines were amusing the audience, I took courage, and, like a little bird making is first flight, I arrived at the goal, and was eager to try again … It is certain that from that time I began to feel that I was somebody.”

In 1847 Salvini joined the company of Adelaide Ristori, who was then at the beginning of her career. It was with her as Elettra that he won his first success in tragedy, playing the title role in Alfieris Oreste at the Teatro Valle in Rome.

Salvini fought in the First Italian War of Independence in 1849, but otherwise devoted his life to acting. In 1853, however, he took a year off because “he rarely felt adequately prepared for a role”. During this time, he prepared roles in great depth.

Salvini's most famous role was Othello, which he played for the first time at Vicenza in June 1856. His other important roles included Conrad in Paolo Giacometti's La Morte civile, Egisto in Alfieri's Merope, Saul in Alfieri's Saul, Paolo in Silvio Pellico's Francesca da Rimini, Oedipus in Nicolini's play of that name, Macbeth and King Lear. The core of his acting method came from his studies. While visiting Gibraltar, for example, he spent time studying the Moors and found one particular man whom he based his Othello on. Instead of relying on a mustache, which was the traditional way of depicting Moor, he tried to copy “gestures, movements, and carriage” to depict the character. Salvini acted frequently in England, and made five visits to the United States, his first in 1873 and his last in 1889.

In 1886 he played Othello to the lago of Edwin Booth. He always delivered his lines in Italian while the rest of the company spoke English (except during his first tour, when he had an Italian company). According to the New York World (27 October 1885), “had he spoke Greek or Chocaw, it would have been much the same. There was that about him that was universal, and had he remained mute and contented himself with acting alone his audience could scarcely have failed to understand, so faithful was his portraiture of human instincts and their action”

Salvini's acting in Othello greatly inspired the young Russian actor Constantin Stanislavski, who saw Salvini perform in Moscow in 1882 and who would, himself, go on to become one of the most important theatre practitioners in the history of theatre. Stanislavski wrote that Salvini was the "finest representative" of his own approach to acting.

Salvini retired from the stage in 1890, but in January 1902 took part in the celebration in Rome of Ristori's eightieth birthday. Salvini published a volume entitled Ricordi, aneddoti ed impressioni (Milan, 1895). Some idea of his career may be gathered from Leaves from the Autobiography of Tommaso Salvini (London, 1893). He died, aged 86, in Florence.

Salvini was so confident in his talents as an actor that he was once quoted as saying, "I can make an audience weep by reading them a menu."

Salvini made at least one recording for Zonofono in 1902 of 'Il sogno' from Saul. Listed in a contemporary Zonofono celebrity catalogue recently found.

His son Alessandro (aka Alexander) (1861–1896), also an actor, had several notable successes in America, particularly as d'Artagnan in The Three Guardsmen. Another son, Gustavo Salvini, was a stage actor. Gustavo's sons, Tommaso's grandsons, were Alessandro Salvini (1890–1955) and Guido Salvini (1893–1965). Alessandro acted in movies dating back to silent pictures and Guido directed and wrote for films in the sound era.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Friedrich von Schlegel (Schlegel Friedrich), Ger. poet and critic, d. (b. 1772)
see also: Friedrich Wilhelm von Schlegel
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Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"

Anne of Geierstein, or The Maiden of the Mist (1829) is a novel by Sir Scott Walter. It is set in Central Europe, mainly in Switzerland, shortly after the Yorkist victory at the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471). It covers the period of Swiss involvement in the Burgundian Wars.

Plot introduction
Two exiled Lancastrians are on a secret mission to the court of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, hoping to gain his help in regaining the English crown from the Yorkist Edward IV. The two Englishmen get into difficulties in the Swiss mountains. They meet Countess Anne and her family, who are involved in the politics of the newly independent Swiss Confederation and plan to confront Charles with complaints about his conduct towards the Swiss nation. The two groups decide to travel together. Anne may have inherited magical skills from her grandmother, enabling her to perform feats which defy explanation. The travellers also encounter a shadowy organization known as the Vehmgericht or Secret Tribunal.
Plot summary
As the merchant John Philipson and his son Arthur were travelling towards Basel they were overtaken by a storm, and found themselves at the edge of a precipice caused by a recent earthquake. Arthur was making his way towards a tower indicated by their guide Antonio, when he was rescued from imminent danger by Anne, who conducted him to her uncle Bierderman's mountain home. His father had already been brought there to safety by Biederman and his sons. During their evening games Rudolph, who had joined in them, became jealous of the young Englishman's skill with the bow, and challenged him; but they were overheard by Anne, and the duel was interrupted. The travellers were invited to continue their journey in company with a deputation of Switzers, commissioned to remonstrate with Charles the Bold respecting the exactions of Hagenbach; and the magistrates of Basel having declined to let them enter the city, they took shelter in the ruins of a castle. During his share in the night watches, Arthur fancied that he saw an apparition of Anne, and was encouraged in his belief by Rudolph, who narrated her family history, which implied that her ancestors had dealings with supernatural beings.

Hoping to prevent a conflict on his account between the Swiss and the duke's steward, the merchant arranged that he and his son should precede them; but on reaching the Burgundian citadel they were imprisoned by the governor in separate dungeons. Arthur, however, was released by Anne with the assistance of a priest, and his father by Biederman, a body of Swiss youths having entered the town and incited the citizens to execute Hagenbach, just as he was intending to slaughter the deputation, whom he had treacherously admitted.
First edition title page.
A valuable necklace which had been taken from the merchant was restored to him by Sigismund, and the deputies having decided to persist in seeking an interview with the duke, the Englishman undertook to represent their cause favourably to him.

On their way to Charles's headquarters father and son were overtaken by Anne disguised as a lady of rank, and, acting on her whispered advice to Arthur, they continued their journey by different roads. The elder fell in with a mysterious priest who provided him with a guide to the "Golden Fleece," where he was lowered from his bedroom to appear before a meeting of the Vehmic court or holy tribunal, and warned against speaking of their secret powers.
 The younger was met and conducted by Annette to a castle, where he spent the evening with his lady-love, and travelled with her the next day to rejoin his father at Strassburg. In the cathedral there they met Margaret of Anjou, who recognised Philipson as John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, a faithful adherent of the house of Lancaster, and planned with him an appeal to the duke for aid against the Yorkists. On reaching Charles's camp the earl was welcomed as an old companion in arms, and obtained a promise of the help he sought, on condition that Provence be ceded to Burgundy. Arthur was despatched to Aix-en-Provence to urge Margaret to persuade her father accordingly, while the earl accompanied his host to an interview with his burghers and the Swiss deputies. King René of Anjou's preference for the society of troubadours and frivolous amusements had driven his daughter to take refuge in a convent. On hearing from Arthur, however, the result of the earl's mission to the duke, she returned to the palace, and had induced her father to sign away his kingdom, when his grandson Ferrand arrived with the news of the rout of the Burgundian army at Neuchâtel, and Arthur learned from his squire, Sigismund, that he had not seen Anne's spectre but herself during his night-watch, and that the priest he had met more than once was her father, the Count Albert of Geierstein.   The same evening Queen Margaret died in her chair of state; and all the earl's prospects for England being thwarted, he occupied himself in arranging a treaty between her father and the King of France. He was still in Provence when he was summoned to rouse the duke from a fit of melancholy, caused by the Swiss having again defeated him. After raising fresh troops, Charles decided to wrest Nancy from the young Duke of Lorraine, and during the siege Arthur received another challenge from Rudolph. The rivals met, and, having killed the Bernese, the young Englishman obtained Count Albert's consent to his marriage with Anne, with strict injunctions to warn the duke that the Secret Tribunal had decreed his death. On the same night, the Swiss won their decisive victory at Nancy, establishing their independence. Charles was slain in the battle, his naked and disfigured body only discovered some days afterward frozen into the nearby river. His face had been so badly mutilated by wild animals that his physician was only able to identify him by his long fingernails and the old battle scars on his body. Being still an exile, the earl accepted the patriot Biederman's invitation to reside with his countess at Geierstein, until the battle of Bosworth placed Henry VII on the throne, when Arthur and his wife attracted as much admiration at the English Court as they had gained among their Swiss neighbours.

John Philipson, an English merchant, afterwards John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
Arthur de Vere, his son
Antonio, their young Swiss guide
Arnold Biederman, a magistrate of Unterwalden
His sons: Rudiger, Ernest and Sigismund
Anne of Geierstein, his niece
Annette Veilchen, her attendant
Rudolph of Donnershugel, a Bernese
Count Albert of Geierstein, Anne's father
Ital Schrechwald, his steward
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy
Count Archibald von Hagenbach, his steward
Swiss deputies to the duke
Nicholas Bonsteteen
Melchior Sturmthal
Adam Zimmerman
Dannischemend, a Persian sorcerer
Hermione, his daughter
Jan Mengs, landlord of the "Golden Fleece" in Alsace
Knights and burghers of the Vehmic court
Margaret of Anjou, widow of King Henry VI
King René of Provence, her father
Ferrand de Vaudemont, Duke of Lorraine, his grandson
Count Campo Basso, commander of Italian mercenaries

Anne of Geierstein and opals
In 1913, an American writer commented:

There can be little doubt that much of the modern superstition regarding the supposed unlucky quality of the opal owes its origin to a careless reading of Sir Walter Scott's novel, Anne of Geierstein. The wonderful tale therein related of the Lady Hermione, a sort of enchanted princess, who came no one knew whence and always wore a dazzling opal in her hair, contains nothing to indicate that Scott really meant to represent the opal as unlucky. [...] when a few drops of holy water were sprinkled over it, they quenched its radiance. Hermione fell into a swoon, was carried to her chamber, and the next day nothing but a small heap of ashes remained on the bed whereon she had been laid. The spell was broken and the enchantment dissolved. All that can have determined the selection of the opal rather than any other precious stone is the fact of its wonderful play of color and its sensitiveness to moisture.

There is in fact little evidence that the superstition was common before the 1850s. A popular gift book of the 1840s was entitled The Opal, which would seem an unlikely title if the notion of the opal's unluckiness were well established. In 1875, less than fifty years after the publication of Scott's novel, Sir Henry Ponsonby felt compelled to write to Notes and Queries to ask for the foundation of the superstition, and received several different answers, none of which mention Anne of Geierstein. A brief assertion of such a connection is made by Sir John Piggot in an earlier issue, but it is hedged with a quotation from the gemmologist Charles Barbot (who ascribes it to the influence of Robert le Diable) and the scholars responding to Queen Victoria's secretary do not refer to it.

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Sir Walter Scott

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Tennyson Alfred: "Timbuctoo"
  Alfred Tennyson

"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
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Timrod Henry

Henry Timrod (December 8, 1828 – October 7, 1867) was an American poet, often called the poet laureate of the Confederacy.

Early life
Timrod was born on December 8, 1828, in Charleston, South Carolina, to a family of German descent. His grandfather Heinrich Dimroth emigrated to the United States in 1765 and anglicized his name. His father was an officer in the Seminole Wars and a poet himself. The elder Timrod died on July 28, 1838, at the age of 44; his son was nine. A few years later, their home burned down, leaving the family impoverished.

He studied at the University of Georgia beginning in 1847 with the help of a financial benefactor. He was soon forced by illness to end his formal studies, however, and returned to Charleston. He took a position with a lawyer and planned to begin a law practice. From 1848 to 1853, he submitted a number of poems to the Southern Literary Messenger under the pen name Aglaus, where he attracted some attention for his abilities. He left his legal studies by December 1850, calling it "distasteful", and focused more on writing and tutoring.


Henry Timrod
In 1856, he accepted a post as a teacher at the plantation of Colonel William Henry Cannon in the area that would later become Florence, South Carolina. The single-room school building (still preserved in Timrod Park in Florence) was built to provide for the education of the plantation children. Among his students was the young lady who would later become his bride and the object of a number of his poems – the fair Saxon Katie Godwin.

While teaching and tutoring, he continued also to publish his poems in literary magazines. In 1860, he published a small book, which, although a commercial failure, increased his fame. The best-known poem from the book was "A Vision of Poesy".

Civil War period
With the outbreak of American Civil War, he returned to Charleston, soon publishing his best-known poems, which drew many young men to enlist in the service of the Confederacy. His best-known poems of the time are "Ethnogenesis", "A Cry to Arms", "Carolina" and "Katie." He was a frequent contributor of poems to Russell's Magazine and to The Southern Literary Messenger.

He soon followed into the military as a private in Company B, 20th South Carolina Infantry, but illness prevented much service, and he was sent home. After the bloody Battle of Shiloh, he tried again to live the camp life as a western war correspondent for the Charleston Mercury, but this too was short lived as he was not strong enough for the rugged task.

He returned from the front and settled in Columbia, South Carolina, to become associate editor of the newspaper, The South Carolinian. In February 1864 he married his beloved Katie, and they soon had a son, Willie, born on Christmas Eve. During the occupation by General Sherman's troops in February 1865, he was forced into hiding, and the newspaper office was destroyed.

In 1856, he accepted a post as a teacher at the plantation of Colonel William Henry Cannon in the area that would later become Florence, South Carolina. The single-room school building (still preserved in Timrod Park in Florence) was built to provide for the education of the plantation children. Among his students was the young lady who would later become his bride and the object of a number of his poems – the fair Saxon Katie Godwin.

While teaching and tutoring, he continued also to publish his poems in literary magazines. In 1860, he published a small book, which, although a commercial failure, increased his fame. The best-known poem from the book was "A Vision of Poesy".

Civil War period
With the outbreak of American Civil War, he returned to Charleston, soon publishing his best-known poems, which drew many young men to enlist in the service of the Confederacy. His best-known poems of the time are "Ethnogenesis", "A Cry to Arms", "Carolina" and "Katie." He was a frequent contributor of poems to Russell's Magazine and to The Southern Literary Messenger.

He soon followed into the military as a private in Company B, 20th South Carolina Infantry, but illness prevented much service, and he was sent home. After the bloody Battle of Shiloh, he tried again to live the camp life as a western war correspondent for the Charleston Mercury, but this too was short lived as he was not strong enough for the rugged task.

He returned from the front and settled in Columbia, South Carolina, to become associate editor of the newspaper, The South Carolinian. In February 1864 he married his beloved Katie, and they soon had a son, Willie, born on Christmas Eve. During the occupation by General Sherman's troops in February 1865, he was forced into hiding, and the newspaper office was destroyed.

The aftermath of war brought his family poverty and to him, increasing illness. He took a post as correspondent for a new newspaper based in Charleston, The Carolinian, but after several months of work he was never paid and the paper folded. His son Willie soon died, and Henry was to join him in death, of consumption, in 1867. He is interred in the churchyard at Trinity Episcopal Church in Columbia.

Criticism and legacy
Timrod's friend and fellow poet, Paul Hamilton Hayne, posthumously edited and published The Poems of Henry Timrod, with more of Timrod's more famous poems in 1873, including his "Ode: Sung on the Occasion of Decorating the Graves of the Confederate Dead at Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, S.C., 1867" and "The Cotton Boll".

Later critics of Timrod's writings, including Edd Winfield Parks and Guy A. Cardwell, Jr. of the University of Georgia, Jay B. Hubbell of Vanderbilt University and Christina Murphy, who completed a Ph.D. dissertation on Timrod at the University of Connecticut, have indicated that Timrod was one of the most important regional poets of nineteenth-century America and one of the most important Southern poets. In terms of achievement, Timrod is often compared to Sidney Lanier and John Greenleaf Whittier as poets who achieved significant stature by combining lyricism with a poetic capacity for nationalism. All three poets also explored the heroic ode as a poetic form.

Today, Timrod's poetry is included in most of the historical anthologies of American poetry, and he is regarded as a significant-though secondary-figure in 19th-century American literature.

In 1901, a monument with a bronze bust of Timrod was dedicated in Charleston. Perhaps a greater honor was given to him when the state's General Assembly passed a resolution in 1911 instituting the verses of his poem "Carolina" as the lyrics of the official state anthem.

In September 2006, an article for The New York Times noted similarities between Bob Dylan's lyrics in the album, Modern Times and the poetry of Timrod. A wider debate developed in The Times as to the nature of "borrowing" within the folk tradition and in literature.

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Warner Charles Dudley

Charles Dudley Warner (September 12, 1829 – October 20, 1900) was an American essayist, novelist, and friend of Mark Twain, with whom he co-authored the novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today.


Charles Dudley Warner
Warner was born of Puritan descent in Plainfield, Massachusetts. From the ages of six to fourteen he lived in Charlemont, Massachusetts, the scene of the experiences pictured in his study of childhood, Being a Boy (1877).

He then moved to Cazenovia, New York, and in 1851 graduated from Hamilton College, Clinton, NY.

He worked with a surveying party in Missouri; studied law at the University of Pennsylvania; practiced in Chicago (1856–1860); was assistant editor (1860) and editor (1861–1867) of The Hartford Press, and after The Press was merged into The Hartford Courant, was co-editor with Joseph R Hawley; in 1884 he joined the editorial staff of Harper's Magazine, for which he conducted The Editors Drawer until 1892, when he took charge of The Editor's Study.

He died in Hartford on October 20, 1900, and was interred at Cedar Hill Cemetery, with Mark Twain as a pall bearer and Joseph Twichell officiating.

Warner travelled widely, lectured frequently, and was actively interested in prison reform, city park supervision, and other movements for the public good.

He was the first president of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, and, at the time of his death, was president of the American Social Science Association. He first attracted attention by the reflective sketches entitled My Summer in a Garden (1870; first published in

The Hartford Courant), popular for their abounding and refined humour and mellow personal charm, their wholesome love of outdoor things, their suggestive comment on life and affairs, and their delicately finished style, qualities that suggest the work of Washington Irving. Charles Dudley Warner is known for making the famous remark,

Everybody complains about the weather, but nobody does anything about it.

This was quoted by Mark Twain in a lecture, and is still commonly misattributed to Twain.

The citizens of San Diego so appreciated his flattering description of their city in his book, Our Italy, that they named three consecutive streets in the Point Loma neighborhood after him: Charles Street, Dudley Street, and Warner Street.

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