Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1829 Part I NEXT-1830-1839    
1820 - 1829
History at a Glance
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Trade Union
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Khan Dost Mohammad
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George

Sati ceremony
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Moritz Benedikt Cantor, (born Aug. 23, 1829, Mannheim, Baden—died April 10, 1920, Heidelberg, Ger.), German historian of mathematics, one of the greatest of the 19th century.

Moritz Benedikt Cantor
  Cantor spent his career at the University of Heidelberg, where he began as a tutor in 1853. His first important book was Mathematische Beiträge zum Kulturleben der Völker (1863; “Mathematical Contributions to the Cultural Life of the People”).

It was followed by his Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik (“Lectures on the History of Mathematics”), the first volume of which was published in 1880, the second in 1892, and the third in successive parts between 1894 and 1896.

By this time Cantor was too old to undertake the fourth volume; consequently, the work was divided among nine men under his editorship and was finished in 1908. Considered one of the finest published histories of mathematics, the work traces mathematical development from earliest times up to 1799.

Between 1856 and 1898 Cantor wrote a number of papers that were published chiefly in the Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik (“Journal of Mathematics and Physics”), of which he was an editor.

Encyclopædia Britannica
L. J. M. Daguerre (Daguerre Louis) forms a partnership with J. N. Niepce (Niepce Nicephore) for the development of their photographic inventions
Sir Humphry Davy (Davy Humphry), Eng. chemist, d. (b. 1778)
J. W. Dobereiner: classification of similar elements
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang

Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner (13 December 1780 – 24 March 1849) was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements.


Johann Dobereiner

Life and work
As a coachman's son, Döbereiner had little opportunity for formal schooling. So he was apprenticed to an apothecary, reading widely, and attending science lectures. He eventually became a professor at the University of Jena in 1810; he also studied chemistry at Strasbourg. In work beginning in 1829, Döbereiner discovered trends in certain properties of selected groups of elements. For example, the average atomic mass of lithium and potassium was close to the atomic mass of sodium. A similar pattern was found with calcium, strontium, and barium, with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium, and also with chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Moreover, the densities for some of these triads followed a similar pattern. These sets of elements became known as "Dobereiner's Triads".
Döbereiner also is known for his discovery of furfural, for his work on the use of platinum as a catalyst, and for a lighter, known as Döbereiner's lamp.

Dobereiner's lamp

The German writer Goethe was a friend of Döbereiner, attended his lectures weekly, and used his theories of chemical affinities as a basis for his famous 1809 novella Elective Affinities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dobrovsky Josef, Czech philologist, d. (b. 1753)
J. N. von Drayse invents the breechloading needle gun
Dreyse Nikolaus

Nikolaus von Dreyse, original name Johann Nikolaus Dreyse (born Nov. 20, 1787, Sömmerda, Thuringia [now in Germany]—died Dec. 9, 1867, Sömmerda), German firearms inventor and manufacturer.


Nikolaus von Dreyse
  The son of a locksmith, Dreyse worked from 1809 to 1814 in the Parisian gun factory of Jean-Samuel Pauly, a Swiss who designed several experimental breech-loading military rifles. Returning to Sömmerda, he in 1824 founded a company to manufacture percussion caps. There he designed a series of “needle-firing guns,” rifles in which a needlelike pin pierced a percussion cap in the centre of a paper cartridge to strike the detonating material (usually mercury fulminate) that fired the bullet. A muzzle-loading model of 1827 was followed in 1836 by a bolt-action breechloader, which the Prussian army began to purchase in 1841. The high rate of fire of Dreyse’s weapon overwhelmed enemy troops in the 1864 German-Danish War for the territories of Schleswig and Holstein, earning Dreyse papers of nobility from the emperor. The Dreyse rifle was the standard Prussian infantry weapon until the ascendancy of the Mauser rifle in the 1870s and ’80s.

The factory founded by Dreyse and continued by his son Franz (1822–94) became, in 1901, part of the giant Rheinische Metallwaaren- und Maschinenfabrik AG of Düsseldorf (now Rheinmetall GmbH), a major supplier of weapons to the German military.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Amer. physicist John Henry constructs an early version of the electromagnetic motor
Henry Joseph

Joseph Henry, (born Dec. 17, 1797, Albany, N.Y., U.S.—died May 13, 1878, Washington, D.C.), one of the first great American scientists after Benjamin Franklin. He aided Samuel F.B. Morse in the development of the telegraph and discovered several important principles of electricity, including self-induction, a phenomenon of primary importance in electronic circuitry.


Joseph Henry
  While working with electromagnets at the Albany Academy (New York) in 1829, he made important design improvements. By insulating the wire instead of the iron core, he was able to wrap a large number of turns of wire around the core and thus greatly increase the power of the magnet. He made an electromagnet for Yale College that could support 2,086 pounds, a world record at the time. During these studies he first noticed the principle of self-induction (1832), three years after he devised and constructed the first electric motor.

Although Michael Faraday is given credit for discovering electromagnetic induction—the process of converting magnetism into electricity—because he was the first to publish (1831) his results, Henry had observed the phenomenon a year earlier.

In 1831 Henry built and successfully operated, over a distance of one mile (1.6 kilometres), a telegraph of his own design. He became professor of natural philosophy at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) in 1832. Continuing his researches, he discovered the laws upon which the transformer is based. He also found that currents could be induced at a distance and in one case magnetized a needle by utilizing a lightning flash eight miles away. This experiment was apparently the first use of radio waves across a distance. By using a thermogalvanometer, a heat-detection device, he showed that sunspots radiate less heat than the general solar surface.

In 1846 Henry became the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., where he organized and supported a corps of volunteer weather observers. The success of the Smithsonian meteorological work led to the creation of the U.S. Weather Bureau (later Service). One of Lincoln’s chief technical advisers during the U.S. Civil War, he was a primary organizer of the National Academy of Science and its second president. In 1893 his name was given to the standard electrical unit of inductive resistance, the henry.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Ger. naturalist Alexander von Humboldt (Humboldt Alexander) travels to the Chinese border
Hydropathy, the system of treating diseases by water, developed by Silesian farmer Vincenz
Priessnitz Vincenz

Vincenz Priessnitz, also written Prießnitz (sometimes in German Vinzenz, in English Vincent, in Czech Vincenc; 4 October 1799 – 26 November 1851) was a peasant farmer in Gräfenberg, Austrian Silesia, who is generally considered the founder of modern hydrotherapy, which is used in alternative and orthodox medicine.

Priessnitz stressed remedies such as suitable food, air, exercise, rest and water, over conventional medicine. He is thus also credited with laying the foundations of what became known as Nature Cure, although it has been noted that his main focus was on hydrotherapeutic techniques. Priessnitz's name first became widely known in the English-speaking world through the publications and lecture tours of Captain R. T. Claridge in 1842 and 1843, after he had stayed at Grafenberg in 1841. However, Priessnitz was already a household name on the European continent, where Richard Metcalfe, in his 1898 biography, stated: "there are hundreds of establishments where the water-cure is carried out on the principles laid down by Priessnitz". Indeed, Priessnitz's fame became so widespread that his death was reported in the as far away as New Zealand.

Vincenz Priessnitz
  Young age
Vincenz Priessnitz was born into a farmer's family in the village of Gräfenberg (now Lázně Jeseník) near Frývaldov (now Jeseník) and baptized Vincenz Franz. His parents were among the first settlers of the village. When Vincenz was eight his father went blind and he had to help in the farm, especially after his elder brother died four years later.

Once Vinzenz watched a roebuck with a wounded limb coming to a pond (or stream) to heal its wound. He healed his own finger injured during timber felling with water wraps (1814). In 1816 he was injured more seriously when he broke his ribs in an accident with a cart and the doctor claimed it was fatal or at least crippling. He used his water therapy which took a year but eventually succeeded. He became locally renowned and started healing animals and some neighbours by pouring cold water. Soon queues of people were coming to Gräfenberg, so in 1822 Vincenz decided to rebuild his father's house, building part of it as a sanatorium for his patients.

In 1826 he was invited to Vienna to heal the Emperor´s brother Anton Victor, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. It made him a great reputation so a lot of people from all over the country started to stream to Gräfenberg. Among the methods he used in his therapy there was not only cold water but also hard work and barefoot walks on grass. The diet and sleep regime were quite strict. His “sponge washing” was not accepted by local doctors of medicine, and so they complained and called him an impostor with no medical background.

The complaints were denied by the imperial committee which accepted hydrotherapy as an alternative medical method and in 1838 granted Priessnitz a permit to establish the spa he started several years earlier.

The next year 1500 patients arrived (among them one monarch, a duke and duchess, 22 princes and 149 counts and countesses) and 120 doctors to study the new therapy. A visit by Arch-Duke Franz Carl in October 1845 was greeted with an address extolling the virtues of Priessnitz and his methods, signed by 124 guests, from a variety of countries. The new spa house, built that year with 30 rooms, was called Castle and the next house was called New Spa House. In 1846 Priessnitz was awarded a medal by the Emperor. Various aristocratic patients did him reverence by erecting monuments in the spa town. Among the most famous guests was Nikolai Gogol who visited the spa twice (1839 and 1846).

Priessnitz's English biographer, Richard Metcalfe, notes that while despite the fame of the Graefenberg setting, the view of Priessnitz himself was that the therapeutic virtue was the water-cure treatment, not the locality.

That Priessnitz was of this opinion appears from the fact that after his fame had spread throughout Europe, and people came to Graefenberg from all quarters, he did not confine his practice of hydropathy to that healthy region, but visited and treated patients at their own homes in towns, where similar success attended his manipulations.
There are some who would stultify Priessnitz by making his saying, "Man muss Gebirge haben" (One must have mountains), to mean that he considered a mountainous region indispensable to the successful practice of hydropathy. But, as the facts stated above show, the whole career of Priessnitz gives the lie to such a notion.
Vincenz Priessnitz died in 1851. Newspapers of the day reported that on the morning of his death "Priessnitz was up, and stirring about at an early hour and complaining of the cold, and had wood brought in to make a large fire. His friends had for some time believed him to be suffering from dropsy in the chest, and at their earnest entreaty he consented to take a little medicine, exclaiming all the while, 'it is no use.' He would see no physician, but remained to the last true to his profession". At about four o'clock in the afternoon, "he asked to be carried to bed, and upon being laid down he expired. Priessnitz's wife Sofie died in 1854, and was buried in the family crypt in Gräfenberg, where Priessnitz also lay. They had nine children, comprising eight daughters and one son. The son, Vincent Paul Priessnitz, was born on 22 June 1847, and died on 30 June 1884, aged 37.
The Museum of Vincenz Priessnitz is in the house which was the seat of the first hydrotherapy institute in Lázně Jeseník.

There is a statue of Priessnitz in Vienna (1911), in Kirchheim unter Teck and a Priessnitz fountain by Carl Konrad Albert Wolff in Poznan, Poland

The 200th anniversary of his birth was listed among the UNESCO anniversaries in 1999.

A band from Jeseník named itself Priessnitz.

A Czech movie based on his life was made in 1999 under the name of Vincenz Priessnitz.

Knowledge of Priessnitz's work in Britain led to the foundation of twenty hydropathic establishments. Of these, two remain one in Peebles, the other Crieff Hydro, Crieff.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Hydropathy, therapeutic system that professes to cure all disease with water, either by bathing in it or by drinking it. Although water therapy is currently used to treat certain ailments, its effectiveness is generally accepted to be limited. Most authorities agree that many disease and injury conditions are indirectly improved by the relaxing effect of the patient’s immersion in water. Hydropathy as a formal therapeutic system came into vogue during the 19th century through the efforts of Vinzenz Priessnitz (1799–1851), a Silesian farmer who believed in the medicinal value of water from the wells on his land.
Hydrotherapy, external use of water in the medical treatment of disease and injury. Its primary value is as a medium for application or reduction of heat. Wet heat helps relieve pain and improves circulation; it also promotes relaxation and rest and, in some mental disturbances, may be used to calm an agitated and hyperactive individual. Wet cold decreases body temperature, causing blood vessels to close and reducing blood flow. It thus reduces and helps to prevent swelling following injury and decreases the pain caused by bruises, sprains, and strains. Compresses of toweling, wool, and other cloth materials are effective for reducing headache pain, slowing blood flow of nosebleeds, relaxing muscle spasms, localizing infection and subcutaneous bleeding from contusion, and reducing body heat in feverish conditions.

Underwater exercise is used to strengthen weak muscles, restore joint motion following injury, clean and heal burned flesh, aid muscle function following cerebrovascular accident damage, and as a treatment for deformity and pain in arthritis and related ailments.

Whirlpool tubs and the Hubbard tank are forms of underwater massage in which the water swirls in constant motion over legs and arms or the entire body to promote healing. Likewise, the shower, a stream of water under pressure, can be directed to specific areas or may include the whole body, with the purpose of stimulating circulation.

Hydrotherapeutic methods are usually employed by specialists in physical medicine and rehabilitation and by physical therapists.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Hydropathic applications according to Claridge's Hydropathy book.
Kekule August

August Kekule von Stradonitz, original name Friedrich August Kekulé (born Sept. 7, 1829, Darmstadt, Hesse—died July 13, 1896, Bonn, Ger.), German chemist who established the foundation for the structural theory in organic chemistry.


Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz
  Kekule was born into an upper-middle-class family of civil servants and as a schoolboy demonstrated an aptitude for art and languages, as well as science subjects. Intending to be an architect, he entered the nearby University of Giessen, but soon he was “seduced” (as he later expressed it) to the study of chemistry by the attractive teaching of Justus Liebig. Kekule received a doctorate in 1852, but no teaching positions were immediately available, so he continued with postdoctoral work in Paris, Chur (Switzerland), and London. In Paris he formed friendships with Charles Gerhardt, from whose “type” theory of organic composition Kekule began to develop his own ideas, and with the important chemical theorist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz. In London he was particularly influenced by Alexander Williamson, who had recently begun to expand this type theory into what became an incipient understanding of atomic valence.

Early in 1856 Kekule moved to the University of Heidelberg, where he qualified as a lecturer and began to produce important research in organic chemistry. He had a prodigious memory for chemical details, a complete mastery of English and French in addition to his native German, and—most important—one of the most fruitful scientific imaginations of any scientist of his day. He was also energetic, intense, and a superb teacher. In 1858 he was called to the University of Ghent in Belgium, where he taught chemistry in French. Nine years later he was hired as a full professor and chairman of the chemistry department at the University of Bonn, where he took charge of a large new laboratory and where he remained for the rest of his career.

Kekule’s most important single contribution was his structural theory of organic composition, outlined in two articles published in 1857 and 1858 and treated in great detail in the pages of his extraordinarily popular Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie (“Textbook of Organic Chemistry”), the first installment of which appeared in 1859 and gradually extended to four volumes. Kekule argued that tetravalent carbon atoms could link together to form what he called a “carbon chain” or a “carbon skeleton,” to which other atoms with other valences (such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and chlorine) could join. He was convinced that it was possible for the chemist to specify this detailed molecular architecture for at least the simpler organic compounds known in his day. Kekule was not the only chemist to make such claims in this era. The Scottish chemist Archibald Scott Couper published a substantially similar theory nearly simultaneously, and the Russian chemist Aleksandr Butlerov did much to clarify and expand structure theory.

Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz
  However, it was predominantly Kekule’s ideas that prevailed in the chemical community.
Kekule is also famous for having clarified the nature of aromatic compounds, which are compounds based on the benzene molecule. Kekule’s novel proposal for a cyclic benzene structure (1865) was much contested but was never replaced by a superior theory. This theory provided the scientific basis for the dramatic expansion of the German chemical industry in the last third of the 19th century. Today, the large majority of known organic compounds are aromatic, and all of them contain at least one hexagonal benzene ring of the sort that Kekule advocated.
In addition to his theoretical contributions, Kekule produced a large volume of original experimental work that considerably widened the scope of organic chemistry. His studies of unsaturated compounds, organic diacids, and aromatic derivatives were particularly noteworthy. He also led a significant research group, consisting of advanced students, postdoctoral workers, and junior colleagues, at both Ghent and Bonn. After the death of Liebig, Kekule was invited to succeed him at the University of Munich, but Kekule declined and suggested the name of his first doctoral student, Adolf von Baeyer. Baeyer was later to receive one of the first Nobel Prizes; his teacher did not live long enough for that.
In 1890 the 25th anniversary of Kekule’s first benzene paper was marked by an elaborate celebration in his honour. This was the occasion when he publicly related the stories that have since become well known, about how the ideas for structure theory and benzene theory came to him while daydreaming or dozing. The first of these events happened, he said, on the upper deck of a horse-drawn London omnibus (if true, it was probably in the summer of 1855). The second occurred in his residence in Ghent (perhaps in early 1862) and involved a dream figure of a snake that seized its own tail in its mouth, giving him the idea for the benzene ring. However, the precise dating of these dreams, and even their very existence, has been contested.

In contrast to his career success, Kekule’s private life was unsettled. His first wife died giving birth to their first child, a son; a later marriage proved unhappy. The year before his death, he was raised to the hereditary Prussian nobility and adopted the aristocratic surname Kekule von Stradonitz.

Alan J. Rocke

Encyclopædia Britannica
Jean Baptiste Monet de Lamarck (Lamarck Jean-Baptiste), Fr. naturalist, d. (b. 1744)

Lamarck, late in life
Mitchell Silas Weir

Silas Weir Mitchell (February 15, 1829 – January 4, 1914) was an American physician and writer known for his discovery of causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome) and erythromelalgia.


Silas Weir Mitchell
  Silas Weir Mitchell, in full Silas Weir Mitchell (born Feb. 15, 1829, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Jan. 4, 1914, Philadelphia), American physician and author who excelled in novels of psychology and historical romance.

After study at the University of Pennsylvania and Jefferson Medical College (M.D., 1850), Mitchell spent a year in Paris specializing in neurology.

As an army surgeon during the American Civil War, he became well known for his “rest cure.” His war experiences were the basis for “The Case of George Dedlow” (1866), a story about a quadruple amputee notable for its psychological insights and realistic war scenes.

He wrote some 170 medical monographs on topics ranging from snake venom to neurasthenia and published short stories, poems, and children’s stories anonymously.

Of later novels perhaps his most notable are: Roland Blake (1886), Hugh Wynne (1898), The Adventures of François (1898), Circumstance (1901), Constance Trescott (1905), and The Red City (1908).

Encyclopædia Britannica
Joseph Ludwig Franz Ressel (Ressel Joseph), inventor of the screw-propeller for steamships, attains speed of six knots with his speedboat "Civetta" at Trieste

irst working ship propeller Technisches Museum Wien
Smithson James
James Smithson, (born 1765, Paris, France—died June 27, 1829, Genoa [Italy]), English scientist who provided funds for the founding of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

James Smithson
  Smithson, the natural son of Hugh Smithson Percy, 1st duke of Northumberland, and Elizabeth Keate Macie, a lineal descendant of Henry VII, was educated at the University of Oxford. Said to have been the best chemist and mineralogist in his class, he eventually published 27 scientific papers. On the recommendation of Henry Cavendish and others, he was admitted to the Royal Society at the age of 22. The mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) was named for him. Smithson, who never married, spent much of his life in Europe, where he came to know the leading scientists. His substantial fortune, inherited chiefly through his mother’s family, he left to a nephew, Henry James Hungerford, who died without issue. Under terms of Smithson’s will, the whole estate went “to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.” His reasons for making his bequest to the United States seem related to his resentment over the circumstances of his illegitimate birth. He had once written, “My name shall live in the memory of man when the titles of the Northumberlands and Percys are extinct and forgotten.” In 1904 Smithson’s remains were transported to the United States under an escort that included Alexander Graham Bell and were interred in the original Smithsonian building.

Encyclopædia Britannica

George Stephenson's (Stephenson George) engine "The Rocket" wins a prize of £500 in the Rainhill trials
Stephenson's Rocket was an early steam locomotive of 0-2-2 wheel arrangement, designed by Robert Stephenson in 1829. It was built for and won the Rainhill Trials held by the Liverpool & Manchester Railway in 1829 to choose the best design to power the railway.

A contemporary drawing of Rocket
Though the Rocket was not the first steam locomotive, it was the first to bring together several innovations to produce the most advanced locomotive of its day.

It was built at the Forth Street Works of Robert Stephenson and Company in Newcastle upon Tyne. It is the most famous example of an evolving design of locomotives by Stephenson that became the template for most steam engines in the following 150 years.

The locomotive was preserved and is now on display in the Science Museum in London.

Ross's (Ross James Clark) expeditions 1829-1833
see also: British Admiralty Expeditions
Booth William

William Booth, (born April 10, 1829, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, Eng.—died Aug. 20, 1912, London), founder and general (1878–1912) of the Salvation Army.


William Booth in about 1862
  The son of a speculative builder, Booth was apprenticed as a boy to a pawnbroker. At 15 he underwent the experience of religious conversion and became a revivalist preacher. In 1849 he went to London, where he worked in a pawnbroker’s shop at Walworth, hating the business but bound to it by the necessity of sending money home. At this period he met Catherine Mumford, his future wife and lifelong helpmate. In 1852 he had become a regular preacher of the Methodist New Connection, and in 1855 they were married. After nine years of ministry Booth broke loose from the New Connection and began his career as an independent revivalist.

Booth held the simple belief that eternal punishment was the fate of the unconverted. Coupled with this was a profound pity for the outcast and a hatred of dirt, squalor, and suffering. In 1864 Booth went to London and continued his services in tents and in the open air and founded at Whitechapel the Christian Mission, which became (in 1878) the Salvation Army.

Booth modeled its “Orders and Regulations” on those of the British army. Its early “campaigns” excited violent opposition; a “Skeleton Army” was organized to break up the meetings, and for many years Booth’s followers were subjected to fines and imprisonment as breakers of the peace.

After 1889 these disorders were little heard of. The operations of the Army were extended in 1880 to the United States, in 1881 to Australia, and later to the European continent, to India, to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and elsewhere—General Booth himself being an indefatigable traveler, organizer, and speaker.

In 1890 General Booth published In Darkest England, and the Way Out, in which he had the assistance of William Thomas Stead. He proposed to remedy pauperism and vice by means of: homes for the homeless; training centres to prepare emigrants for oversea colonies; rescue homes for fallen women; homes for released prisoners; legal aid for the poor; and practical help for the alcoholic. There was vast public support for the program; money was liberally subscribed, and a large part of the scheme was carried out. The opposition and ridicule with which Booth’s work was for many years received gave way, toward the end of the 19th century, to very widespread sympathy as its results were more fully realized. The active encouragement of King Edward VII, at whose insistence in 1902 he was invited officially to be present at the coronation ceremony, marked the completeness of the change; and when, in 1905, General Booth went through England, he was received in state by the mayors and corporations of many towns. The fiery old man had become a great figure in English life.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Salvation Army

Salvation Army, international Christian religious and charitable movement organized and operated on a military pattern. The Army is established in more than 80 countries, preaching the gospel in about 112 languages in 16,000 evangelical centres and operating more than 3,000 social welfare institutions, hospitals, schools, and agencies. Its international headquarters are in London.


William Booth
  The Salvation Army was founded by William Booth, a Methodist minister who began an evangelical ministry in the East End of London in 1865. He established mission stations to feed and house the poor and in 1878 changed the name of his organization to the Salvation Army. He and his son, William Bramwell Booth, gradually established the Army on a military pattern, with the elder Booth as general for life. It spread quickly over Britain and then expanded internationally.

Two schisms shook the Army in its early years. In 1884 the U.S. organization sought to establish its independence of General Booth. Upon being expelled, its leaders set up the American Salvation Army, which soon declined. In 1896 Ballington Booth, another son of the general and national commander in the United States, resigned after a dispute and set up the Volunteers of America. The Volunteers endured and is a national organization with headquarters in New York City.

The basic unit of the Army is the corps, commanded by an officer of a rank ranging from lieutenant to brigadier, who is responsible to a divisional headquarters. Divisions are grouped into territories (usually a territory is a country, except in the United States, where there are four territories).
Converts who desire to become soldiers in the Army are required to sign Articles of War and volunteer their services. The officers are the equivalent of ministers of other Protestant churches. Training for each officer consists of a two-year residence at one of the schools, followed by a five-year plan of advanced studies. Women have absolute equality with men.

The doctrines of the Army include the basic principles common to most Protestant evangelical denominations. William Booth believed that the sacraments were not necessary to the salvation of the soul.

He sought to bring into his worship services an informal atmosphere that would put new converts at their ease. Joyous singing, instrumental music, clapping of hands, personal testimony, free prayer, and an open invitation to repentance characterize the services.

Encyclopædia Britannica

The first cooperative stores in America (Philadelphia and New York)
The omnibuses designed by George Shillibaer become part of London public transport
Shillibeer George
George Shillibeer (11 August 1797 to 21 August 1866) was an English coachbuilder.

George Shillibeer
  Shillibeer was born in St Marylebone, London the son of Abraham and Elizabeth Shillibeer. Christened in St Marys Church, Marylebone on 22 October 1797, Shillibeer worked for the coach company Hatchetts in Long Acre, the coach-building district of the capital.
In the 1820s he was offered work in Paris, France, where he was commissioned to build some unusually large horse-drawn coaches of "novel design". The aim was to design a coach capable of transporting a whole group of people, perhaps two dozen, at a time.

Shillibeer's design worked, and was very stable. It was introduced into the streets of Paris in 1827. Shortly afterwards, Shillibeer was commissioned to build another by the Newington Academy for Girls, a Quaker school in Stoke Newington near London; this had a total of twenty-five seats, and entered history as the first school bus. In 1827 Joseph Pease, a railway pioneer and later the first Quaker MP, wrote in verse about the school bus:

The straight path of Truth the dear Girls keep their feet in,
And ah! it would do your heart good Cousin Anne,
To see them arriving at Gracechurch Street Meeting,
All snugly packed up, 25 in a van.

Whilst in Paris, Shillibeer concluded that operating similar vehicles in London, but for the fare-paying public with multiple stops, would be a paying enterprise, so he returned to his native city.

His first London "Omnibus" took up service on 4 July 1829 on the route between Paddington (The Yorkshire Stingo) and "Bank" (Bank of England) via the "New Road" (now Marylebone Rd), Somers Town and City Rd. Four services were provided in each direction daily. This service was described in the first advertisements as being "upon the Parisian mode" and that "a person of great respectability attended his vehicle as Conductor". An account of the new service was given in the Morning Post of 7 July 1829:

Saturday the new vehicle, called the Omnibus, commenced running from Paddington to the City, and excited considerable notice, both from the novel form of the carriage, and the elegance with which it is fitted out. It is capable of accommodating 16 or 18 persons, all inside, and we apprehend it would be almost impossible to make it overturn, owing to the great width of the carriage. It was drawn by three beautiful bays abreast, after the French fashion. The Omnibus is a handsome machine, in the shape of a van. The width the horses occupy will render the vehicle rather inconvenient to be turned or driven through some of the streets of London.

A less successful innovation was his "Funeral Omnibus", which combined a passenger vehicle with a hearse.

George Shillibeer died at Brighton, East Sussex on 21 August 1866 (some sources say 22 August), and is buried in the church graveyard at Chigwell in Essex.


Shillibeer's first Omnibus
In 1979, the 150th anniversary of the commencement of the first omnibus service in London, several London buses (twelve AEC Routemasters and one Leyland Fleetline) were operated in a green and yellow livery similar to Shilibeer's Omnibus. These specially painted vehicles were displayed for their launch into service at the Guildhall in central London on Friday 2 March 1979. Poet laureate Sir John Betjamin was one of the guests at the ceremony. Also, a memorial service was held at the Chigwell Church attended by Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother.

Shillibeer Walk in Chigwell was named after him, and Shillibeer Place in Marylebone, as is a pub/restaurant named The George Shillibeer next to a converted omnibus factory in north London.

BBC Coast present Nicholas Crane, is a direct descendant.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
First Oxford-Cambridge boat race takes place at Henley; Oxford wins
French printer Claude Genoux invents papier-mache matrix

Flong is a term used in relief printing (also called a stereo mould), which refers to an intermediate step in making of a stereo plate typically used in a rotary press though not exclusively. The process was called stereotyping.

Invented in Lyon in 1829 by the French printer Claude Genoux, a flong was a papier-mâché mould made with the aid of heat and pressure of a set forme of type.

After placing it in a casting box, a thin replica of the original (metal) type (and illustrations) would be cast against it all in one piece. A limited number of duplicate casts could be made from one flong. The back shaved stereo plate would be attached to a press cylinder or honeycomb base and allow the original undamaged type to be distributed or recycled. The stereotypes could be stored for repeat editions in much less space than standing forms.

A further improvement to the technique was made in 1893, when the dry flong replaced the wet flong. More recently, flongs have been made of phenolic resin boards (perhaps also plastic and rubber) and are still used in places to cast rubber stamp sheets instead of type metal stereos, the last commercial use is certain types of rubber relief printing mats (sheets) for flexo printing. They remained widely in use until the invention of offset lithography in the late 19th century led to rotary presses being mostly replaced by the new technology.

A process called electrotyping produced a similar result using electrodeposition of copper usually to form a plate replica of the printing forme.

The word is derived from the French flan; or the Latin word "flana".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Centralized Metropolitan Police Force installed in London
Suttee, the Indian custom of immolating a widow along with her dead husband, abolished in Brit. India

Suttee, Sanskrit sati (“good woman” or “chaste wife”), the Indian custom of a widow burning herself, either on the funeral pyre of her dead husband or in some other fashion, soon after his death. Although never widely practiced, suttee was the ideal of certain Brahman and royal castes.


Sati ceremony
It is sometimes linked to the myth of the Hindu goddess Sati, who burned herself to death in a fire that she created through her yogic powers after her father insulted her husband, the god Shiva—but in this myth Shiva remains alive and avenges Sati’s death.

The first explicit reference to the practice in Sanskrit appears in the great epic Mahabharata (compiled in its present form in 400 ce).
It is also mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, a Greek author of the 1st century bce, in his account of the Punjab in the 4th century bce. Numerous suttee stones, memorials to the widows who died in this way, are found all over India, the earliest dated 510 ce. Women sometimes suffered immolation before their husbands’ expected death in battle, in which case the burning was called jauhar.

In the Muslim period (12th–16th century), the Rajputs practiced jauhar, most notably at Chitorgarh, to save women from rape, which they considered worse than death, at the hands of conquering enemies. During the medieval period, which began in the 8th century, the hardships encountered by widows in traditional Hindu society may have contributed to its spread.

The larger incidence of suttee among the Brahmans of Bengal was indirectly due to the Dayabhaga system of law (c. 1100), which prevailed in Bengal and which gave inheritance to widows. In the 16th century, steps to prohibit suttee were taken by the Mughal rulers Humayun and his son Akbar. Suttee became a central issue under the British Raj, which first tolerated it, then inadvertently legalized it by legislating conditions under which it could be done, and then finally, in 1829, outlawed it—using the condemnation as one of its justifications for continuing British rule of India.

Suttee was sometimes committed voluntarily, but cases of compulsion, escape, and rescue are known. Scattered instances of it continue to occur, most notoriously in the case of Roop Kanwar, an 18-year-old widow who committed suttee in 1987. The incident was highly controversial, as groups throughout India either publicly defended Kanwar’s actions or declared that she had been murdered.

Wendy Doniger

Encyclopædia Britannica

The bride throws herself on her husband's funeral pyre. This miniature painting originates from the period of the Safavid dynasty, first half 17th century. (Attributed to the painter:
Muhammad Qasim)

Description of the Balinese rite of self-sacrifice or Suttee, in Houtman's 1597
Verhael vande Reyse ... Naer Oost Indien
The Royal Zoological Society takes over the menagerie at the Tower of London: origin of the London
Zoo at Regent's Park

  BACK-1829 Part I NEXT-1830-1839