Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1828 Part I NEXT-1829 Part I    
 
 
     
1820 - 1829
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820-1829
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Missouri
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
"
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Leo XII
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Horse-bus
Trade Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Zollverein
Khan Dost Mohammad
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Timbuktu
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Michael
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Pius VIII
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George
Flong
Suttee
 
 
 

Francisco Jose de Goya у Lucientes. Self-Portrait with Doctor Arrieta
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1828 Part II
 
 
 
1828
 
 

Bonington Richard Parkes

 

Richard Parkes Bonington (25 October 1801 – 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter, who moved to France at the age of 14 and can also be considered as a French artist, and an intermediary bringing aspects of English style to France. Becoming after his very early death one of the most influential British artists of his time, the facility of his style was inspired by the old masters, yet was entirely modern in its application. His landscapes were mostly of coastal scenes, with a low horizon and large sky, showing a brilliant handling of light and atmosphere. He also painted small historical cabinet paintings in a freely-handled version of the Troubadour style.

 

Richard Parkes Bonington by Alexandre-Marie Colin
  Life and work
Richard Parkes Bonington was born in the town of Arnold, four miles from Nottingham. His father also known as Richard was successively a gaoler, a drawing master and lace-maker, and his mother a teacher. Bonington learned watercolour painting from his father and exhibited paintings at the Liverpool Academy at the age of eleven.

In 1817, Bonington's family moved to Calais, France, where his father had set up a lace factory. At this time, Bonington started taking lessons from the painter François Louis Thomas Francia, who – having recently returned from England where he had been deeply influenced by the work of Thomas Girtin – taught him the English watercolour technique. In 1818, the Bonington family moved to Paris to open a lace shop. There he met and became friends with Eugène Delacroix. He worked for a time producing copies of Dutch and Flemish landscapes in the Louvre. In 1820, he started attending the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied under Antoine-Jean, Baron Gros.

It was around this time that Bonington started going on sketching tours in the suburbs of Paris and the surrounding countryside. His first paintings were exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1822. He also began to work in oils and lithography, illustrating Baron Taylor’s Voyages pittoresques dans l'ancienne France and his own architectural series Restes et Fragmens.

 
 
In 1824, he won a gold medal at the Paris Salon along with John Constable and Anthony Vandyke Copley Fielding, and spent most of the year painting coastal views in Dunkirk.

In 1825 he met Delacroix on a visit with Alexandre-Marie Colin to London, and they sketched together there, and shared a studio for some months in Paris on their return; Delacroix influenced him in turning to historical painting. He also developed a technique mixing watercolour with gouache and gum, achieving an effect close to oil painting. In 1826 he visited northern Italy, staying in Venice for a month, and London again in 1827-8. In late 1828 his tuberculosis worsened and his parents sent him back to London for treatment. Bonington died of tuberculosis on 23 September 1828 at 29 Tottenham Street in London, aged 26.

 
 
Reputation
Delacroix paid tribute to Bonington's work in a letter to Théophile Thoré in 1861. It reads, in part:

When I met him for the first time, I too was very young and was making studies in the Louvre: this was around 1816 or 1817...Already in this genre (watercolor), which was an English novelty at that time, he had an astonishing ability...To my mind, one can find in other modern artists qualities of strength and of precision in rendering that are superior to those in Bonington's pictures, but no one in this modern school, and perhaps even before, has possessed that lightness of touch which, especially in watercolours, makes his works a type of diamond which flatters and ravishes the eye, independently of any subject and any imitation.

To Laurence Binyon however, "Bonington's extraordinary technical gift was also his enemy. There is none of the interest of struggle in his painting."

  Bonington had a number of close followers, such as Roqueplan and Isabey in France, and Thomas Shotter Boys, James Holland, William Callow and John Scarlett Davis in England.

In addition, there were many copies and forgeries of his work made in the period immediately after his death.

A statue to him was erected outside the Nottingham School of Art by Watson Fothergill, and a theatre and primary school in his home town of Arnold are named after him.

In addition, the house in which he was born (79 High Street, Arnold) is now named ‘Bonington House’ and is Grade II listed.
The Wallace Collection has an especially large group of 35 works, representing both his landscapes and history paintings.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

Richard Parkes Bonington. Charles V visits François Ier after the Battle of Pavia, c. 1827
 
 
 
     
 
Richard Parkes Bonington
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 

Francisco Jose de Goya у Lucientes (Goya Francisco), Span. painter and engraver, d. (b. 1746)

 
 

Francisco Jose de Goya у Lucientes. Self-Portrait with Doctor Arrieta
 
 
 
     
 
Francisco de Goya
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 

Houdon Jean Antoine , Fr. sculptor, d. (b. 1740)

 
 

Jean-Antoine Houdon by Rembrandt Peale
 
 
 
     
 
Jean-Antoine Houdon
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 

Rossetti Dante Gabriel

 

Dante Gabriel Rossetti, original name Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (born May 12, 1828, London, England—died April 9, 1882, Birchington-on-Sea, Kent), English painter and poet who helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of painters treating religious, moral, and medieval subjects in a nonacademic manner. Dante Gabriel was the most celebrated member of the Rossetti family.

 

Portrait of Dante Gabriel Rossetti c. 1871, by George Frederic Watts
  Early life and works
After a general education in the junior department of King’s College (1836–41), Rossetti hesitated between poetry and painting as a vocation. When about 14 he went to “Sass’s,” an old-fashioned drawing school in Bloomsbury (central London), and thence, in 1845, to the Royal Academy schools, where he became a full student.

Meanwhile, he read omnivorously—romantic and poetic literature, William Shakespeare, J.W. von Goethe, Lord Byron, Sir Walter Scott, and Gothic tales of horror. He was fascinated by the work of the American writer Edgar Allan Poe. In 1847 he discovered the 18th-century English painter-poet William Blake through the purchase of a volume of Blake’s designs and writings in prose and verse; the volume has since been known as the Rossetti MS. Blake’s diatribes against the painter Sir Joshua Reynolds encouraged Rossetti to attempt lampoons of his own against the triviality of early Victorian paintings of anecdotal subjects, those of Sir Edwin Landseer being a special target of his derision.

By the time Rossetti was 20, he had already done a number of translations of Italian poets and had composed some original verse, but he was also much in and out of artists’ studios and for a short time was, in an informal way, a pupil of the painter Ford Madox Brown.

 
 
He acquired some of Brown’s admiration for the German “Pre-Raphaelites,” the nickname of the austere Nazarenes, who had sought to bring back into German art a pre-Renaissance purity of style and aim. It remained to initiate a similiar reform in England.

Largely through Rossetti’s efforts, the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed in 1848 with seven members, all Royal Academy students except for William Michael Rossetti. They aimed at “truth to nature,” which was to be achieved by minuteness of detail and painting from nature outdoors. This was, more especially, the purpose of the two other principal members, William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti expanded the Brotherhood’s aims by linking poetry, painting, and social idealism and by interpreting the term Pre-Raphaelite as synonymous with a romanticized medieval past.

 
 

Portrait of Dante Gabriel Rossetti at 22 years of Age by William Holman Hunt
  While Rossetti’s first two oil paintings—The Girlhood of Mary (1849) and Ecce Ancilla Domini (The Annunciation; 1850)—were simple in style, they were elaborate in symbolism. Some of the same atmosphere is felt in the rich word-painting and emotional force of his poem “The Blessed Damozel,” published in 1850 in the first issue of The Germ, the Pre-Raphaelite magazine. When it was exhibited in 1850, Ecce Ancilla Domini received severe criticism, which Rossetti could never bear with equanimity. In consequence, he ceased to show in public and gave up oils in favour of watercolours, which he could more easily dispose of to personal acquaintances. He also turned from traditional religious themes to painting scenes from Shakespeare, Robert Browning, and Dante, which allowed more freedom of imaginative treatment. A typical example of his work from this period is How They Met Themselves (1851–60). After 1856 Rossetti was led by Sir Thomas Malory’s Morte Darthur and Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s Idylls of the King to evoke in his paintings an imaginary Arthurian epoch, with heraldic glow and pattern of colour and medieval accessories of armour and dress.

The 1850s were eventful years for Rossetti. They began with the introduction into the Pre-Raphaelite circle of the beautiful Elizabeth Siddal, who served at first as model for the whole group but was soon attached to Rossetti alone and, in 1860, married him. Many portrait drawings testify to his affection for her.

In 1854 he gained a powerful but exacting patron in the art critic John Ruskin.

 
 
By then the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was at an end, splintered by the different interests and temperaments of its members. But Rossetti’s magnetic personality aroused a fresh wave of enthusiasm. In 1856 he came into contact with the then-Oxford undergraduates Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris. With these two young disciples he initiated a second phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. The two main aspects of this fresh departure were a romantic enthusiasm for a legendary past instead of the realism of “truth to nature” and the ambition of reforming the applied arts of design. Rossetti’s influence not only led to easel pictures illustrating Arthurian legend but also into other fields of art. A new era of book decoration was foreshadowed by Rossetti’s illustration for the Moxon edition of the Poems (1857) of Tennyson. His commission in 1856 to paint a triptych (The Seed of David) for Llandaff Cathedral was a prelude to the ambitious scheme of 1857 to decorate the Oxford Union debating chamber with mural paintings of Arthurian themes. Though Rossetti and his helpers (Burne-Jones, Morris, and others) failed through want of technical knowledge and experience, the enterprise was fruitful in suggesting that the scope of art could be expanded to include the crafts.
 
 

Albumen print of Dante Gabriel Rossetti by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll),
1863
  The later years
From 1860 onward, trials were part of Rossetti’s much-disturbed life. His marriage to Elizabeth Siddal, clouded by her constant ill health, ended tragically in 1862 with her death from an overdose of laudanum. Grief led him to bury with her the only complete manuscript of his poems. That he considered his love for his wife similar to Dante’s mystical and idealized love for Beatrice is evident from the symbolic Beata Beatrix, painted in 1863 and now in the Tate Gallery.
Rossetti’s life and art were now greatly changed. He moved from riverside premises in London’s Blackfriars to Chelsea. The influence of new friends—Algernon Charles Swinburne and the American painter James McNeill Whistler—led to a more aesthetic and sensuous approach to art. Literary themes gave way to pictures of mundane beauties, such as his mistress, Fanny Cornforth, gorgeously appareled and painted with a command of oils he had not previously shown. Among these works are The Blessed Damozel (1871–79), The Bower Meadow (1872), Proserpine (1874), and La Pia de’ Tolomei (1881). The luxuriant colours and rhythmic design of these paintings enhance the effect of their languid, sensuous female subjects, all of whom bear a distinctive Pre-Raphaelite facial type. The paintings proved popular with collectors, and Rossetti grew affluent enough to employ studio assistants to make copies and replicas.
He also collected antiques and filled his large Chelsea garden with a menagerie of animals and birds.
 
 
Rossetti had enjoyed a modest success in 1861 with his published translations, The Early Italian Poets; and toward the end of the 1860s his thoughts turned to poetry again. He began composing new poems and planned the recovery of the manuscript poems buried with his wife in Highgate Cemetery. Carried out in 1869 through the agency of his unconventional man of business, Charles Augustus Howell, the exhumation visibly distressed the superstitious Rossetti. The publication of these poems followed in 1870. The Poems were well enough received until a misdirected, savage onslaught by “Thomas Maitland” (pseudonym of the journalist-critic Robert Buchanan) on “The Fleshly School of Poetry” singled out Rossetti for attack. Rossetti responded temperately in “The Stealthy School of Criticism,” published in the Athenaeum; but the attack, combined with remorse and the amount of chloral and alcohol he now took for insomnia, brought about his collapse in 1872. He recovered sufficiently to paint and write, but his life in Chelsea was subsequently that of a semi-invalid and recluse. Until 1874 he spent much time at Kelmscott Manor (near Oxford), of which he took joint tenancy with William Morris in 1871. His lovingly idealized portraits of Jane Morris at this time were a return to his more poetic and mystical style.

In the early 1880s Rossetti occupied himself with a replica of an early watercolour, Dante’s Dream (1880), a revised edition of Poems (1881), and Ballads and Sonnets (1881), containing the completed sonnet sequence of “The House of Life,” in which he described the love between man and woman with tragic intensity. The lawyer and man of letters Theodore Watts-Dunton meanwhile did his best to put Rossetti’s financial affairs in order. From a visit to Keswick (in northwestern England) in 1881, Rossetti returned in worse health than before, and he died the following spring.

 
 
Poetry
Through his exploration of new themes and his break with academic convention, Rossetti remains an important figure in the history of 19th-century English art. But his enduring worth probably lies as much in his poetry as in his painting. In contrast to his painting, where accumulated details of costume and greenery can become cloying, the detail in Rossetti’s poetry is subordinated to intensity of emotion and is employed to evoke a mood. It is by means of tiny and seemingly trivial touches, for example, that time is suspended in his poem “My Sister’s Sleep” and the very silence of the sickroom is heard. “The Wood Spurge” and the lyric “I have been here before” show Rossetti’s mastery of similar effects.

The timeless moment is again caught with great skill in his sonnet “A Venetian Pastoral by Giorgione in the Louvre”—the most successful of his highly original attempts to translate well-known paintings into verse. “The Stream’s Secret,” haunted by the ghost of his dead wife, evokes pity and regret by the power of its verbal music.

Rossetti was a natural master of the sonnet, and his finest achievement, “The House of Life,” is a sonnet sequence unique in the intensity of its evocation of the mysteries of physical and spiritual love.
Here, as he claimed against his detractors, “the passionate and just delights of the body are declared to be as naught if not ennobled by the concurrence of the soul at all times.”

 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Lucrezia Borgia
 
 
Magnificent memorable lines are created with simplicity of diction:

Oh! clasp we to our hearts, for deathless dower,
This close-companioned inarticulate hour
When twofold silence was the song of love.

—(“Silent Noon,” The House of Life, sonnet XIX)

Rossetti’s poetic art had other, less subjective aspects. “The Last Confession,” a tragic episode set against a background of the Italian Risorgimento, is a powerful dramatic monologue that can bear comparison with those of Robert Browning. With his feeling for medieval subjects, Rossetti also caught the spirit of the ballad. Few modern supernatural ballads are less artificial than “Sister Helen” and “Eden Bower”; and, among re-creations of the historical ballad, “The White Ship” and “The King’s Tragedy” are outstanding. Early in Rossetti’s career, the sight of the great winged bulls in the British Museum evoked his poem “Burden of Nineveh” (1850), a meditation on the unpredictable course of history that is rich in word-music and far-ranging in imaginative vision.

William Gaunt
John Bryson

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Dante Gabriel Rossetti. La Pia de' Tolomei
 
 
 
 
     
 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 

Stevens Alfred

 
Alfred Émile Léopold Stevens (11 May 1823 – 24 August 1906) was a Belgian painter.
 
Alfred Stevens was born in Brussels. He came from a family involved with the visual arts: his older brother Joseph (1816–1892) and his son Léopold (1866–1935) were painters, while another brother Arthur (1825–99) was an art dealer and critic. His father, who had fought in the Napoleonic wars in the army of William I of the Netherlands, was an art collector who owned several watercolors by Eugène Delacroix, among other artists. His mother's parents ran Café de l'Amitié in Brussels, a meeting place for politicians, writers, and artists. All the Stevens children benefited from the people they met there, and the social skills they acquired in growing up around important people.
 
 

Alfred Émile Léopold Stevens
  Education
After the death of his father in 1837, Stevens left middle school to begin study at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, where he knew François Navez, the Neo-Classical painter and former student of Jacques-Louis David who was its director and an old friend of Stevens's grandfather.

Following a traditional curriculum, he drew from casts of classical sculpture for the first two years, and then drew from live models. In 1843, Stevens went to Paris, joining his brother Joseph who already was there. He was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts, the most important art school in Paris. Although it is said that he became a student of its director Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, this is likely not true.
An early picture by Stevens, The Pardon or Absolution (Hermitage, St. Petersburg), signed and dated 1849, shows his mastery of a conventional naturalistic style which owes much to 17th-century Dutch genre painting. Like the Belgian painter and friend with whom he stayed in Paris, Florent Joseph Marie Willems (1823–1905), Stevens carefully studied works by painters such as Gerard ter Borch and Gabriel Metsu.

Career beginnings
Stevens's work was shown publicly for the first time in 1851, when three of his paintings were admitted to the Brussels Salon. He was awarded a third-class medal at the Paris Salon in 1853, and a second-class medal at the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1855.

 
 
His Ce qu'on appelle le vagabondage [What is called vagrancy] (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) attracted the attention of Napoleon III who, as a result of the scene in the picture, ordered that soldiers no longer be used to pick up the poor from the streets.

Two other paintings he exhibited at the Salon in Antwerp that year, Chez soi or At Home (present location unknown) and The Painter and his Model (Walters Art Museum, Baltimore), introduced subjects from "la vie moderne" for which he became known: an elegant young woman in contemporary dress and the artist in his studio. In 1857, Stevens made his first important sale to a private collector, when Consolation was bought for a rumored 6,000 francs by the Berlin collector and dealer Ravéné. At the same time, he and his brother were becoming part of the art world of Paris, meeting people such as the Goncourt brothers, Théophile Gautier, and Alexandre Dumas at the salons of Princess Mathilde as well as popular cafés. In 1858, Stevens married Marie Blanc, who came from a rich Belgian family and old friends of the Stevens's. Eugène Delacroix was a witness at the ceremony.
 
 
Mature career
During the 1860s, Stevens became an immensely successful painter, known for his paintings of elegant modern women. His exhibits at the Salons in Paris and Brussels attracted favorable critical attention and buyers. An excellent example of his work during this time is La Dame en Rose or Woman in Pink (Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels), painted in 1866, which combines a view of a fashionably dressed woman in an interior with a detailed examination of Japanese objects, a fashionable taste called japonisme of which Stevens was an early enthusiast. In 1863, he received the Legion of Honor (Chevalier) from the Belgian government. In 1867, he won a first-class medal at the Universal Exposition in Paris, where he and Jan August Hendrik Leys were the stars of the Belgian section, and was promoted to Officer of the Legion of Honor. His friends included Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Charles Baudelaire, Berthe Morisot, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Frédéric Bazille, and Puvis de Chavannes, and he was a regular in the group that gathered at the Café Guerbois in Paris.

Stevens fought for the French during the siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War, but returned to Belgium with his wife and family before the Paris Commune. They returned after the war, and Stevens continued to achieve critical acclaim as well as great success with collectors.

  In 1875, he bought a grand house and garden in Paris on rue des Martyrs, which appeared in his paintings as well as those of other artists, including Édouard Manet's The Croquet Party (Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main) from 1873. (He had to leave the house in 1880, however, to make way for the construction of a new street, which was named after him.) In 1878, he was made a Commander of the Legion of Honor and received another first-class medal at the Salon.

Despite earning a considerable income through the sale of his paintings, Stevens found that a combination of bad investments and excessive spending caused him great financial difficulties during the 1880s. An additional expense came from summers by the sea, which a doctor told Stevens in 1880 were essential for his health. Thus the artist was glad to agree when the Paris dealer Georges Petit offered him 50,000 francs to finance his vacation in exchange for the paintings Stevens produced during that time.

This deal, which lasted for three years, resulted in the sea becoming an important subject for him, and over the rest of his career, he painted hundreds of views of popular resorts along the Normandy coast and the Midi in the south. Many of them are painted in a sketchy style that shows the influence of the Impressionists. Stevens also began to take private students, including Sarah Bernhardt, who became a close personal friend, and William Merritt Chase.

 
 

Alfred Émile Léopold Stevens.The Bath
 
 
Late career
The single most important work from the second half of Stevens's career is the monumental Panorama du Siècle, 1789–1889, which he painted with Henri Gervex. Stevens painted the women and details and Gervex the men, with the help of fifteen assistants. It was shown to great acclaim at the International Exhibition held in Paris in 1889. He also received several great professional tributes. In 1895, a large exhibition of his work was held in Brussels. In 1900, Stevens was honored by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris with the first retrospective exhibition ever given to a living artist. Supported by patrons led by the Comtesse de Greffulhe, it achieved social cachet as well as popular success. In 1905, he was the only living artist allowed to exhibit in a retrospective show of Belgian art in Brussels. Despite these exhibitions, he was not able to sell enough of his work to manage well financially. Having outlived his brothers and most of his friends, he died in Paris in 1906, living alone in modest rooms.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
 
Alfred Stevens
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 

Stuart Gilbert

 
Gilbert Stuart, in full Gilbert Charles Stuart (born December 3, 1755, Saunderstown, Rhode Island colony [now in North Kingstown, Rhode Island, U.S.]—died July 9, 1828, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.), American painter who was one of the great portrait painters of his era and the creator of a distinctively American portrait style.
 

Gilbert Stuart portrait miniature by Sarah Goodridge, 1825
  Stuart grew up in Newport, Rhode Island, where he learned the rudiments of painting. In 1775 he went to London and entered the studio of the expatriate American artist Benjamin West, with whom he worked for about six years. His mature style owes more, however, to the work of Thomas Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds than to West. In 1782 Stuart opened his own London studio, and for five years he received portrait commissions from some of England’s most distinguished gentlemen. Despite this success, he fled to Dublin in 1787 to escape his creditors. After six years in Ireland he returned to the United States, where he quickly established himself as the nation’s leading portrait painter. He lived in New York City for a short time and moved to Philadelphia, where he lived for about 12 years. He finally settled in Boston in 1805.

Stuart’s work was hailed by his contemporaries, and modern critics have confirmed this judgment, praising his brushwork, luminous colour, and psychological penetration. Of his nearly 1,000 portraits, undoubtedly the most famous is the unfinished head of George Washington from 1796. Stuart produced more than 60 copies of this work at the time, and in 1869 the image began to appear on the one-dollar bill. The iconic status of this work was assured in 1932, when millions of prints were distributed to American classrooms as part of the bicentennial celebration of Washington’s birth. Other fine portraits by Stuart include those of Mrs. Richard Yates, Mrs. Perez Morton, Major General Henry Dearborn, and John Adams.

 
 

Although Stuart had no formal pupils, many young artists, including John Vanderlyn, Thomas Sully, and John Neagle, took advantage of the advice he freely gave. These artists were particularly impressed by Stuart’s working method: eschewing preliminary sketches, he painted his sitters faces directly onto the canvas or panel. Less talented artists, including his own daughter Jane, reduced his style to a formula that was reflected in much American portraiture of the succeeding generation.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 


Gilbert Stuart. George Washington, 1825, Walters Art Museum

 
 
 
     
 
Gilbert Stuart
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
 

La muette de Portici (The Dumb Girl of Portici, or The Mute Girl of Portici) originally called Masaniello, ou La muette de Portici, is an opera in five acts by Auber Daniel, with a libretto by Germain Delavigne, revised by Eugène Scribe. The work has an important place in musical history, as it is generally regarded as the earliest French grand opera.

 
Background
The opera was first given at the Salle Le Peletier of the Paris Opéra on 29 February 1828. The role of Masaniello was taken by the famous tenor Adolphe Nourrit and Princess Elvire was sung by Laure Cinti-Damoreau. The dancer Lise Noblet played the mute title role, a part later taken by other dancers such as Marie Taglioni and Fanny Elssler, also the actress Harriet Smithson (the future wife of Hector Berlioz). Alphonse was created by Alexis Dupont, who was Lise Noblet's brother-in-law. The conductor at the premiere was François Habeneck.

La muette was innovative in a number of ways. First, it marked the introduction into opera of mime and gesture as an integral part of an opera plot (although these formats were familiar to Parisian audiences from ballet and mélodrame). Its historic setting, liberal political implications, use of popular melodies, handling of large orchestra and chorus and spectacular stage effects immediately marked it as different from preceding types of opera, in retrospect earning it the title of the first of the genre of 'Grand Opera'. The journal Pandore commented after the premiere

  "for a long time, enlightened critics have thought that alongside the old tragédie lyrique it was possible to have a more realistic and natural drama which might suit the dignity of this theatre."

The new genre was consolidated by Rossini's Guillaume Tell (1829) and Meyerbeer's Robert le diable (1831).

La muette was revived in Paris immediately after the French July Revolution of 1830. Later, at a performance of this opera at the Théâtre de la Monnaie, Brussels on 25 August 1830, a riot broke out during the patriotic and revolutionary duet "Amour sacré de la patrie" that became the signal for the Belgian Revolution, which led to Belgian independence. Richard Wagner remarked, in his 1871 Reminiscences of Auber, that the opera

"whose very representation had brought [revolutions] about, was recognised as an obvious precursor of the July Revolution, and seldom has an artistic product stood in closer connection with a world-event."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Daniel-François-Esprit Auber - La Muette de Portici - Ouverture
 
La Muette de Portici, grand opéra in five acts, first performance 29 February 1828, Grand Opéra, Paris.

Libretto: Eugène Scribe/Germain Delavigne

Ouverture

Orchestra: Radio Bratislava Symphony Orchestra

Conductor: Ondrej Lenárd

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Daniel-Francois-Esprit  Auber
 
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
 

Der Vampyr (The Vampire) is a Romantic opera in two acts by Marschner Heinrich. The German libretto by Wilhelm August Wohlbrück (Marschner's brother-in-law) is based on the play Der Vampir oder die Totenbraut (1821) by Heinrich Ludwig Ritter, which itself was based on the short novel The Vampyre (1819) by John Polidori. The first performance took place on 29 March 1828 in Leipzig, where it was a hit.

 
The opera is still occasionally performed, and, in 1992, an updated adaptation, entitled The Vampyr: A Soap Opera, with new lyrics by Charles Hart, starring Omar Ebrahim and produced by Janet Street-Porter, was serialised on BBC television. The New Orleans Opera Association opened their 2013-14 season with Der Vampyr.

In June 2014, OperaHub in Boston premiered a new English-language of the adaptation of Der Vampyr by John J King that spoofs more modern vampire stories such as Twilight, Dracula, the Vampire Chronicles, and Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Marschner - Overture: Der Vampyr (The Vampire)
 
Overture to the 1828 opera "Der Vampyr" (The Vampire) by German composer Heinrich August Marschner (1795-1861), an pivotal figure in German Romantic opera. The opera is based on John Polidori's short story "The Vampyre."

Helmuth Froschauer conducts the WDR Rundfunkorchester Köln.

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Heinrich Marschner
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Schubert Franz , Aust. composer, d. (b. 1797)
 
 

Portrait of Franz Schubert by Franz Eybl (1827)
 
 
     
 
Franz Schubert
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel begins study of elliptic functions
 
 
Abel Niels Henrik
 

Niels Henrik Abel, (born August 5, 1802, island of Finnøy, near Stavanger, Norway—died April 6, 1829, Froland), Norwegian mathematician, a pioneer in the development of several branches of modern mathematics.

 


Niels Henrik Abel

  Abel’s father was a poor Lutheran minister who moved his family to the parish of Gjerstad, near the town of Risør in southeast Norway, soon after Niels Henrik was born. In 1815 Niels entered the cathedral school in Oslo, where his mathematical talent was recognized in 1817 with the arrival of a new mathematics teacher, Bernt Michael Holmboe, who introduced him to the classics in mathematical literature and proposed original problems for him to solve. Abel studied the mathematical works of the 17th-century Englishman Sir Isaac Newton, the 18th-century German Leonhard Euler, and his contemporaries the Frenchman Joseph-Louis Lagrange and the German Carl Friedrich Gauss in preparation for his own research.

Abel’s father died in 1820, leaving the family in straitened circumstances, but Holmboe contributed and raised funds that enabled Abel to enter the University of Christiania (Oslo) in 1821.
Abel obtained a preliminary degree from the university in 1822 and continued his studies independently with further subsidies obtained by Holmboe.

 
Abel’s first papers, published in 1823, were on functional equations and integrals; he was the first person to formulate and solve an integral equation. His friends urged the Norwegian government to grant him a fellowship for study in Germany and France. In 1824, while waiting for a royal decree to be issued, he published at his own expense his proof of the impossibility of solving algebraically the general equation of the fifth degree, which he hoped would bring him recognition. He sent the pamphlet to Gauss, who dismissed it, failing to recognize that the famous problem had indeed been settled.
 
 
Abel spent the winter of 1825–26 with Norwegian friends in Berlin, where he met August Leopold Crelle, civil engineer and self-taught enthusiast of mathematics, who became his close friend and mentor. With Abel’s warm encouragement, Crelle founded the Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (“Journal for Pure and Applied Mathematics”), commonly known as Crelle’s Journal. The first volume (1826) contains papers by Abel, including a more elaborate version of his work on the quintic equation.

Other papers dealt with equation theory, calculus, and theoretical mechanics. Later volumes presented Abel’s theory of elliptic functions, which are complex functions (see complex number) that generalize the usual trigonometric functions.

In 1826 Abel went to Paris, then the world centre for mathematics, where he called on the foremost mathematicians and completed a major paper on the theory of integrals of algebraic functions.

His central result, known as Abel’s theorem, is the basis for the later theory of Abelian integrals and Abelian functions, a generalization of elliptic function theory to functions of several variables.

  However, Abel’s visit to Paris was unsuccessful in securing him an appointment, and the memoir he submitted to the French Academy of Sciences was lost.
Abel returned to Norway heavily in debt and suffering from tuberculosis. He subsisted by tutoring, supplemented by a small grant from the University of Christiania and, beginning in 1828, by a temporary teaching position. His poverty and ill health did not decrease his production; he wrote a great number of papers during this period, principally on equation theory and elliptic functions. Among them are the theory of polynomial equations with Abelian groups. He rapidly developed the theory of elliptic functions in competition with the German Carl Gustav Jacobi. By this time Abel’s fame had spread to all mathematical centres, and strong efforts were made to secure a suitable position for him by a group from the French Academy, who addressed King Bernadotte of Norway-Sweden; Crelle also worked to secure a professorship for him in Berlin.

In the fall of 1828 Abel became seriously ill, and his condition deteriorated on a sled trip at Christmastime to visit his fiancée at Froland, where he died. The French Academy published his memoir in 1841.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Burdon-Sanderson John
 

Sir John Scott Burdon-Sanderson, 1st Baronet, FRS, D.Sc. (21 December 1828 – 23 November 1905) was an English physiologist born near Newcastle upon Tyne, and a member of a well known Northumbrian family.

 

John Scott Burdon-Sanderson in 1870
  Biography
He received his medical education at the University of Edinburgh and at Paris. Settling in London, he became Medical Officer of Health for Paddington in 1856 and four years later physician to the Middlesex Hospital and the Brompton Consumption hospitals.

When diphtheria appeared in England in 1858 he was sent to investigate the disease at the different points of outbreak, and in subsequent years he carried out a number of similar inquiries, e.g. into the cattle plague and into cholera in 1866. In 1871, he reported that Penicillium inhibited the growth of bacteria, an observation which places him among the forerunners of Alexander Fleming. He became first principal of the Brown Institution at Lambeth in 1871, and in 1874 was appointed Jodrell Professor of Physiology at University College London, retaining that post until 1882.

When the Waynflete Chair of Physiology was established at Oxford in 1882, he was chosen to be its first occupant, and immediately found himself the object of a furious anti-vivisectionist agitation. The proposal that the university should spend a large amount of money providing him with a suitable laboratory, lecture rooms, etc., in which to carry on his work, was strongly opposed, by some on grounds of economy, but largely because he was an upholder of the usefulness and necessity of experiments upon animals.

 
 
 It was, however, eventually carried by a small majority (88 to 85), and in the same year the Royal Society awarded him a Royal Medal in recognition of his researches into the electrical phenomena exhibited by plants and the relations of minute organisms to disease, and of the services he had rendered to physiology and pathology. In 1885 the University of Oxford was asked to vote £500 a year for three years for the purposes of the laboratory, then approaching completion. This proposal was fought with the utmost bitterness by Sanderson's opponents, the anti-vivisectionists including E. A. Freeman, John Ruskin and Bishop Mackarness of Oxford. Ultimately the money was granted by 412 to 244 votes.

In 1895 Sanderson was appointed Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, resigning the post in 1904. In 1899 he was created a Baronet, of Banbury Road in the Parish of Saint Giles in the City of Oxford. His attainments, both in biology and medicine, brought him many honours. He was Croonian Lecturer to the Royal Society in 1867 and 1877 and to the Royal College of Physicians in 1891. He gave the Harveian Oration before the College of Physicians in 1878, acted as President of the British Association at Nottingham in 1893 and served on three Royal Commissions: on Hospitals (1883), on Tuberculosis, Meat and Milk (1890), and on a University for London (1892).

In February 1902 he received the honorary degree Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) from the Victoria University of Manchester, in connection with the 50th jubilee celebrations of the establishment of the university.

He died in Oxford on 23 November 1905.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1828
 
 
Carroll Charles of Carrollton, the richest American of his time, inaugurates construction of the Baltimore
and Ohio, first railroad built in U.S. for the transportation of passengers and freight
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Cohn Ferdinand
 

Ferdinand Cohn, in full Ferdinand Julius Cohn (born January 24, 1828, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia [now Wrocław, Poland]—died June 25, 1898, Breslau), German naturalist and botanist known for his studies of algae, bacteria, and fungi. He is considered one of the founders of bacteriology.

 

Ferdinand Cohn
  Cohn was born in the ghetto of Breslau, the first of three sons of a Jewish merchant. His father spared no effort in the education of his precocious oldest child, and Ferdinand retained a melancholy recollection of his overly studious childhood. Cohn started his higher studies at the University of Breslau where, as a Jew, he could not be admitted to the candidacy for the doctor’s degree. So instead he received a Ph.D. from the more liberal University of Berlin, at the young age of 19.

In 1850 Cohn was named lecturer at the University of Breslau. He became extraordinary professor there in 1859 and finally became ordinary professor of botany at the university in 1871.
In 1866 he founded and in 1872 became the director of the Institute of Plant Physiology at the University of Breslau; this was the first institute of plant physiology in the world.

Cohn’s early research centred on the unicellular algae, the lowest forms of plant life. He applied to these organisms the principle that the phases of growth of microscopic plants could be learned only by observing every stage of their development under the microscope, just as differences in the youthful and adult appearance of an oak or a fern are traced by direct observation.

His accounts of the life histories of a number of algae species were of permanent value, and in 1855 he helped to establish the existence of sexual processes in algae, specifically in Sphaeroplea. He also instituted marked reforms in the classification of algae.

 
 
About 1868 Cohn started to study bacteria. From his accurate studies of their morphology, or bodily form, he was among the first to attempt to arrange the different varieties of bacteria into genera and species on a systematic basis. Up to that time, Louis Pasteur and others had been content with a rather arbitrary and confusing system of nomenclature. Cohn based the four groups and six genera of bacteria within his system on basic morphological differences, although he pointed out that morphology alone was an insufficient basis for classification and that differences in biochemical characteristics could also be important.
 
 
In 1870 Cohn founded a new journal entitled Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen (“Contributions to the Biology of Plants”), in which he played such a large part that it came to be known as “Cohn’s Beiträge.” Many of the founding papers of bacteriology were to be published in this journal.

Among Cohn’s most striking contributions was his discovery of the formation and germination of spores (called endospores) in certain bacteria, particularly in Bacillus subtilis. He was also the first to note endospores’ resistance to high temperatures, and by his observations he was able to refute contemporary experiments that seemed to lend support to the theory of spontaneous generation.

Cohn explained the quick reappearance of bacteria in thoroughly boiled flasks of hay and turnip–cheese infusions by speculating that the bacteria within them had formed thermoresistant spores and were thus able to survive the boiling intact, after which they reverted to their normal reproductive stages. He was thus able to refute other bacteriologists’ assumptions that all the bacteria in the boiled infusions had been killed by the heat, and he showed the fallacy of their reliance on spontaneous generation as the only remaining explanation.

  In 1876 Robert Koch, who was then unknown but was later to become the founder of medical bacteriology, turned to Cohn for a prepublication appraisal of his work on the cause of anthrax, a disease of cattle, sheep, and, sometimes, of humans. Cohn agreed to see the unknown country physician and quickly recognized Koch as “an unsurpassed master of scientific research.” It was in Cohn’s Beiträge that Koch published his paper demonstrating that Bacillus anthracis was the causative agent of anthrax, and it was through Cohn’s support that Koch was appointed to the Imperial Health Office in Berlin, where he continued his brilliant work.

During his lifetime Cohn was recognized as the foremost bacteriologist of his day. He is noted for his formulation of the concept that bacteria can be classified into species on the basis of their morphology and physiological characteristics, and for his discovery of the bacterial endospore, an advance that played an important part in the development of techniques of sterilization and in the rejection of the doctrine of spontaneous generation. But perhaps his greatest achievement was his introduction of the strict and systematic observation of the life histories of bacteria, algae, and other microorganisms.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1828
 
 
De Vinne Theodore
 
Theodore L. De Vinne, in full Theodore Low De Vinne (born December 25, 1828, Stamford, Connecticut, U.S.—died February 16, 1914, New York, New York), American author of many scholarly books on the history of typography.
 

Theodore L. De Vinne
  De Vinne entered the employ of Francis Hart, one of the leading printers in New York City, in 1849 and became a member of the firm in 1859. About 1864 he began to write on printing, at first on the economic aspects of the business but later on the aspects of typographic style and the history of the craft.

In 1873 the firm began to print St. Nicholas and soon after took on the Century, the illustrations for which set new printing standards. In 1883 the name of the firm was changed to Theodore L. De Vinne and Company, and it earned a reputation as the most outstanding printing plant in the nation.

De Vinne was a founder of the Grolier Club and one of its most active members, printing most of the early books issued by Grolier and writing or editing a number of them. As a printer, De Vinne was a craftsman of high standards, but he was not a great creative artist; his simplest books were regarded as his best. De Vinne’s most important contributions to typographic literature were The Practice of Typography (1900–04), a series of four manuals; The Invention of Printing (1876); Christopher Plantin and the Plantin-Moretus Museum at Antwerp (1888); and Notable Printers of Italy During the Fifteenth Century (1910).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Franklin John publishes an account of his Arctic explorations (1825—1827)
 
 
see also: British Admiralty Expeditions (Franklin:1818)
 
 
 
 
 
see also: Search for a Northern Seaway (Franklin:1819-1822, 1825-1827)
 
 
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Gall Franz Joseph , Ger. physician, founder of phrenology, d. (b. 1758)
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Stewart Balfour
 
Balfour Stewart (1 November 1828 – 19 December 1887) was a Scottish physicist. His studies in the field of radiant heat led to him receiving the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society in 1868. In 1859 he was appointed director of Kew Observatory. He was elected professor of physics at Owens College, Manchester, and retained that chair until his death, which happened near Drogheda, in Ireland, on 19 December 1887. He was the author of several successful science textbooks, and also of the article on "Terrestrial Magnetism" in the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
 

Balfour Stewart
  Balfour Stewart, (born Nov. 1, 1828, Edinburgh—died Dec. 19, 1887, Drogheda, Ire.), Scottish meteorologist and geophysicist noted for his studies of terrestrial magnetism and radiant heat. Stewart pursued a mercantile career for 10 years before becoming an assistant at Kew Observatory and later an assistant to James Forbes at Edinburgh University, where Stewart conducted his research on radiant heat. In 1859 he became director of Kew Observatory, and in 1870 he became professor of natural philosophy at Owens College, Manchester.
In his work on radiant heat, Stewart was the first to discover that bodies radiate and absorb energy of the same wavelength; his work in this field was soon surpassed, however, by that of the German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. In his studies of terrestrial magnetism, Stewart discovered that daily variation in the magnetic field could be explained by air currents in the upper atmosphere, which act as conductors and generate electrical currents as they pass through the Earth’s magnetic field.

Stewart wrote The Unseen Universe (with Peter Tait, 1875) and many other popular accounts of scientific discoveries of the day.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Swan Joseph
 
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan, (born October 31, 1828, Sunderland, Durham, England—died May 27, 1914, Warlingham, Surrey), English physicist and chemist who produced an early electric lightbulb and invented the dry photographic plate, an important improvement in photography and a step in the development of modern photographic film.
 

Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
  After serving his apprenticeship with a druggist in his native town, Swan became first assistant and later partner in a firm of manufacturing chemists in Newcastle. Working with wet photographic plates, he noticed that heat increased the sensitivity of the silver bromide emulsion. By 1871 he had devised a method of drying the wet plates, initiating the age of convenience in photography. Eight years later he patented bromide paper, the paper commonly used in modern photographic prints.

Some years earlier, in 1860, Swan developed a primitive electric light, one that utilized a filament of carbonized paper in an evacuated glass bulb. Lack of a good vacuum and an adequate electric source, however, resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb and inefficient light.

His design was substantially the one used by Thomas A. Edison nearly 20 years later. In 1880, after the improvement of vacuum techniques, both Swan and Edison produced a practical lightbulb. Three years later, while searching for a better carbon filament for his lightbulb, Swan patented a process for squeezing nitrocellulose through holes to form fibres.

In 1885 he exhibited his equipment and some articles made from the artificial fibres. The textile industry has utilized his process. Swan was knighted in 1904.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Friedrich Wohler's (Wohler Friedrich) synthesis of urea begins organic chemistry
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Wollaston William Hyde, Eng. scientist who discovered palladium and rhodium, invented camera lucida, and
discovered Frauenhofer lines and ultraviolet rays, d. (b. 1766)
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Ger. publisher Baedeker Karl publishes his guide book "The Rhine from Mainz to Cologne"
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Dunant Henri
 
Henri Dunant, in full Jean-Henri Dunant (born May 8, 1828, Geneva, Switzerland—died October 30, 1910, Heiden), Swiss humanitarian, founder of the Red Cross (now Red Cross and Red Crescent) and the World’s Young Men’s Christian Association. He was cowinner (with Frédéric Passy) of the first Nobel Prize for Peace in 1901.
 

Henri Dunant
  An eyewitness of the Battle of Solferino (June 24, 1859), which resulted in nearly 40,000 casualties, Dunant organized emergency aid services for the Austrian and French wounded. In Un Souvenir de Solférino (1862; A Memory of Solferino), he proposed the formation in all countries of voluntary relief societies for the prevention and alleviation of suffering in war and peacetime, without distinction of race or creed; he also proposed an international agreement covering the war wounded.

In 1863 he founded the International Committee for the Relief of the Wounded (now International Committee of the Red Cross), and the following year the first national societies and the first Geneva Convention came into being.

Having gone bankrupt because he neglected his business affairs, Dunant left Geneva in 1867 and spent most of the rest of his life in poverty and obscurity.

He continued to promote interest in the treatment of prisoners of war, the abolition of slavery, international arbitration, disarmament, and the establishment of a Jewish homeland.

After he was “rediscovered” by a journalist in Heiden, Switzerland, in 1895, Dunant received many honours and annuities.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Ger. youth Kaspar Hauser, central figure of the celebrated mystery, brought before the authorities of Nuremberg
 
 
Hauser Kaspar
 
Kaspar Hauser, (born April 30, 1812—died Dec. 17, 1833, Ansbach, Bavaria [Germany]), German youth around whom gathered one of the 19th century’s most celebrated mysteries.
 

Contemporary painting of Hauser
  On May 26, 1828, Hauser was brought before the authorities in Nürnberg, apparently bewildered and incoherent.

With him he had a letter purporting to have been written by a labourer, into whose custody, it stated, the boy had been delivered on Oct. 7, 1812, with the proviso that he should be instructed in reading, writing, and the Christian religion but kept in close confinement.

Enclosed with this letter was one purporting to have been written by the boy’s mother, giving his name and his date of birth and stating that his father was a deceased cavalry officer.

At first detained as a vagrant, the boy was later taken under the care of the educationist Georg Daumer.

Next, the 4th Earl of Stanhope took the boy under his protection (1832) and sent him to Ansbach, where he became a clerk in the office of the president of the court of appeal, Anselm von Feuerbach. The youth died from a wound that was either self-inflicted or, as he claimed, dealt by a stranger.

It was early alleged that he was the hereditary prince of Baden (afterward proved false), and other fanciful stories became associated with his origins.

The case inspired many creative works, including Paul Verlaine’s poem in Sagesse (1881); the novels by Jacob Wassermann (1908), Sophie Hoechstetter (1925), and Otto Flake (1950); the play by Erich Ebermayer (1928); and the film directed by Werner Herzog (1974).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1828
 
 
Working Men's Party
 
Workingmen’s Party, first labour-oriented political organization in the United States. Established first in Philadelphia in 1828 and then in New York in 1829, the party emanated out of the concerns of craftsmen and skilled journeymen over their low social and economic status. The “Workies” pressed for universal male suffrage, equal educational opportunities, protection from debtor imprisonment and compulsory service in the militia, and greater financial security and shorter working hours.
 
The Philadelphia party agitated for free public education and an end to competition from prison contract labour. The New York party, under the leadership of radical Thomas Skidmore, demanded the 10-hour working day, abolition of imprisonment for debt, and an effective mechanics’ lien law for labourers on buildings. Such a law would prevent the seizure of a craftsman’s tools as security for a debt. When the New York party came under the leadership of Frances Wright and Robert Dale Owen, it added a demand for universal secular education at public expense.

Party member George Henry Evans established the Working Man’s Advocate, the first labour newspaper, in 1829. The party grew rapidly, but factional disputes over doctrine and leadership split the ranks early in the 1830s. Some members formed the short-lived Equal Rights Party in 1833; others joined the reform wing—called the Locofocos—of New York’s Democratic Party.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 

 
 
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