Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1827 Part I NEXT-1828 Part I    
1820 - 1829
History at a Glance
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Trade Union
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Khan Dost Mohammad
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin (16 October 1827 – 16 January 1901) was a Swiss symbolist painter.

Arnold Bocklin. Self-Portrait
  Life and art
He was born at Basel. His father, Christian Frederick Böcklin (b. 1802), was descended from an old family of Schaffhausen, and engaged in the silk trade. His mother, Ursula Lippe, was a native of the same city.[1] Arnold studied at the Düsseldorf academy under Schirmer, and became a friend of Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. Schirmer, who recognized in him a student of exceptional promise, sent him to Antwerp and Brussels, where he copied the works of Flemish and Dutch masters. Böcklin then went to Paris, worked at the Louvre, and painted several landscapes.

After serving his time in the army, Böcklin set out for Rome in March 1850. At Rome, he married Angela Rosa Lorenza Pascucci in 1853. The many sights of Rome were a fresh stimulus to his mind. These new influences brought allegorical and mythological figures into his compositions. In 1856 he returned to Munich, and remained there for four years.

He then exhibited the Great Park, one of his earliest works, in which he treated ancient mythology. Of this period are his Nymph and Satyr, Heroic Landscape (Diana Hunting), both of 1858, and Sappho (1859). These works, which were much discussed, together with Lenbach's recommendation, gained him appointment as professor at the Weimar academy.

He held the office for two years, painting the Venus and Love, a Portrait of Lenbach, and a Saint Catherine.

He returned to Rome from 1862 to 1866, and there gave his fancy and his taste for violent colour free play in his Portrait of Mme Böcklin, and in An Anchorite in the Wilderness (1863), a Roman Tavern, and Villa on the Seashore (1864). He returned to Basel in 1866 to finish his frescoes in the gallery, and to paint, besides several portraits, The Magdalene with Christ (1868), Anacreon's Muse (1869), and A Castle and Warriors (1871). His Portrait of Myself, with Death playing a violin (1873), was painted after his return again to Munich, where he exhibited Battle of the Centaurs, Landscape with Moorish Horsemen and A Farm (1875). From 1876 to 1885 Böcklin was working at Florence, and painted a Pietà, Ulysses and Calypso, Prometheus, and the Sacred Grove.

From 1886 to 1892 he settled at Zürich. Of this period are the Naiads at Play, A Sea Idyll, and War. After 1892 Böcklin resided at San Domenico, near Florence.

Influenced by Romanticism his painting is symbolist with mythological subjects often overlapping with the Pre-Raphaelites. His pictures portray mythological, fantastical figures along classical architecture constructions (often revealing an obsession with death) creating a strange, fantasy world.

Böcklin is best known for his five versions (painted in 1880-1886) of Isle of the Dead, which partly evokes the English Cemetery, Florence, close to his studio and where his baby daughter Maria had been buried. An early version of the painting was commissioned by a Madame Berna, a widow who wanted a painting with a dream-like atmosphere.

Clement Greenberg wrote in 1947 that Böcklin's work "is one of the most consummate expressions of all that was now disliked about the latter half of the nineteenth century."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Arnold Bocklin. Meurtre dans le parc
Arnold Bocklin
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Constable: "The Cornfield"

Constable John. "The Cornfield"

Constable John. "The Cornfield"
John Constable
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Hunt William Holman

William Holman Hunt OM (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter, and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.


Hunt in his eastern dress,
photo by Julia Margaret Cameron
  William Holman Hunt, (born April 2, 1827, London, Eng.—died Sept. 7, 1910, London), British artist and prominent member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

His style is characterized by clear, hard colour, brilliant lighting, and careful delineation of detail.

In 1843 Hunt entered the Royal Academy schools where he met his lifelong friend, the painter John Everett Millais.

Public opinion was at first hostile toward Hunt; but, in 1854 “The Light of the World” (Keble College, Oxford), an allegory of Christ knocking at the door of the human soul, was championed by John Ruskin and brought Hunt his first public success.

In 1854 Hunt began a two-year visit to Syria and Palestine, where he completed in 1855 “The Scapegoat,” a painting depicting an outcast animal on the shores of the Dead Sea.

Among the most important of his later paintings are “The Triumph of the Innocents” (two versions: 1884, Tate Gallery, London; 1885, Liverpool), “May Morning on Magdalen Tower” (1889; Lady Lever Art Gallery), and “The Miracle of the Sacred Fire” (1898), finished just before his sight began to fail.

Encyclopædia Britannica


William Holman Hunt. The Hireling Shepherd
William Holman Hunt
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Beethoven Ludwig d. (b. 1770)

Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
J. J. Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Audubon John James

John James Audubon, original name Fougère Rabin, orJean Rabin, baptismal name Jean-Jacques Fougère Audubon (born April 26, 1785, Les Cayes, Saint-Domingue, West Indies [now in Haiti]—died Jan. 27, 1851, New York, N.Y., U.S.), ornithologist, artist, and naturalist who became particularly well known for his drawings and paintings of North American birds.


Audubon by John Syme, 1826
  The illegitimate son of a French merchant, planter, and slave trader and a Creole woman of Saint-Domingue, Audubon and his illegitimate half sister (who was also born in the West Indies) were legalized by adoption in 1794, five years after their father returned to France. Young Audubon developed an interest in drawing birds during his boyhood in France. At age 18 he was sent to the United States in order to avoid conscription and to enter business. He began his study of North American birds at that time; this study would eventually lead him from Florida to Labrador, Can. With Frederick Rozier, Audubon attempted to operate a mine and then a general store. The latter venture they attempted first in Louisville, Ky., and later in Henderson, Ky., but the partnership was dissolved after they failed utterly. Audubon then attempted some business ventures in partnership with his brother-in-law; these too failed. By 1820 he had begun to take what jobs he could to provide a living and to concentrate on his steadily growing interest in drawing birds; he worked for a time as a taxidermist and later made portraits and taught drawing, and his wife worked as a governess.

By 1824 he had begun to consider publication of his bird drawings, but he was advised to seek a publisher in Europe, where he would find better engravers and greater interest in his subject. In 1826 he went to Europe in search of patrons and a publisher. He was well received in Edinburgh and, after the king subscribed to his books, in London as well.

The engraver Robert Havell of London undertook publication of his illustrations as The Birds of America, 4 vol. (435 hand-coloured plates, 1827–38). William MacGillivray helped write the accompanying text, Ornithological Biography, 5 vol. (octavo, 1831–39), and A Synopsis of the Birds of North America (1839), which serves as an index. Until 1839 Audubon divided his time between Europe and the United States, gathering material, completing illustrations, and financing publication through subscription. His reputation established, Audubon then settled in New York City and prepared a smaller edition of his Birds of America, 7 vol. (octavo, 1840–44), and a new work, Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America, 3 vol. (150 plates, 1845–48), and the accompanying text (3 vol., 1846–53), completed with the aid of his sons and the naturalist John Bachman.

Critics of Audubon’s work have pointed to certain fanciful (or even impossible) poses and inaccurate details, but few argue with its excellence as art. To many, Audubon’s work far surpasses that of his contemporary (and more scientific) fellow ornithologist Alexander Wilson.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Audubon: "Birds of North America"

The Birds of America is a book by naturalist and painter John James Audubon, containing illustrations of a wide variety of birds of the United States. It was first published as a series in sections between 1827 and 1838, in Edinburgh and London.

The work consists of hand-coloured, life-size prints, made from engraved plates, measuring around 39 by 26 inches (99 by 66 cm). It includes images of six now-extinct birds: Carolina Parakeet, Passenger Pigeon, Labrador Duck, Great Auk, Esquimaux Curlew, and Pinnated Grouse.


Book cover shows Louisiana Heron, Egretta tricolor
Early publication history
About 1820, around the age of 35, Audubon declared his intention to paint every bird in North America. In his bird art, he mainly forsook oil paint, the medium of serious artists of the day, in favour of watercolours and pastel crayons (and occasionally pencil, charcoal, chalk, gouache, and pen and ink). As early as 1807, he developed a method of using wires and threads to hold dead birds in lifelike poses while he drew them.

In 1823, Audubon went to Philadelphia and New York, looking for financial support in the form of subscribers to enable him to publish his artwork, but he found support lacking. As a result, in 1826, he set sail for the United Kingdom with 250 of his original illustrations, looking for the financial support of subscribers and the technical abilities of engravers and printers. After exhibiting his drawings in Liverpool and Manchester, he journeyed to Edinburgh, where he met the accomplished engraver William H. Lizars. Lizars engraved up to ten of the first plates but was unable to continue the project when his colourists went on strike. In 1827, Audubon engaged the noted London animal engraver Robert Havell Jr., and his father, Robert Havell Sr. Havell Jr. oversaw the project through to its completion in 1838.

The original edition of Birds of America (sometimes called the Havell Edition after its printer, and sometimes called the "Double Elephant Folio", because of its size) was printed on handmade paper 39.5 inches tall by 28.5 inches wide. The principal printing technique was copperplate etching, but engraving and aquatint were also used. Watercolour was then added by hand.

Audubon funded the costly printing project through a pay-as-you-go subscription. From 1826 to 1829, he travelled around the UK and to Paris, lecturing on ornithology and frontier American life in an effort to entice wealthy patrons to subscribe to the series of prints. Subscribers included Charles X of France, Queen Adelaide of Britain (wife of William IV), Earl Spencer, and, later, the Americans Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.

  Prints were issued in sets of five every month or two in tin cases and each set usually included one very large bird, one medium-sized bird, and three small birds. In 1838, at the end of the thirteen-year project, 435 plates (87 sets of five) had been issued at a total cost of $870 or 175 British guineas (£183.75).

The plates were published unbound and without any text to avoid having to furnish free copies to the public libraries in England. It is estimated that not more than 200 complete sets were ever compiled. An accompanying text, issued separately, was written by Audubon and the Scottish naturalist and ornithologist William MacGillivray and published in five volumes in Edinburgh between 1831 and 1839, under the title Ornithological Biography, or, An account of the habits of the birds of the United States of America. The additional cost of the five volumes of text brought the total cost of plates and text to about $1000.

After the folio edition was completed, Audubon decided to produce a more affordable edition and employed a lithographer from Philadelphia named J. T. Bowen. Bowen and his team created a smaller Royal Octavo edition, which was issued to subscribers in seven volumes and completed in 1844 after selling 1,199 sets. Five more octavo editions were completed through 1877.

The octavo edition used the text of the Ornithological biography but increased the number of plates to 500, separating some birds which had originally appeared together. Some new drawings were included, mostly by John Woodhouse though Audubon and members of Bowen's team also contributed.

The Bien Edition (after chromolithography pioneer Julius Bien), was a full-sized reissue published in 1858 by Roe Lockwood in New York under the supervision of Audubon's youngest son, John Woodhouse Audubon.
Due in part to the Civil War, the edition was never finished; only 15 parts of the 44 part series were completed. This edition consisted of 105 plates and included none of the original text. Fewer than 100 subscriptions were sold, making this edition rarer than other early editions.


Peregrine Falcon
(Falco peregrinus)
Public exhibition
Since 1992, the Louisiana State University Libraries have hosted "Audubon Day," a semi-annual public showing of all four volumes of LSU's copy of the Birds of America. The set formerly belonged to one of the original subscribers, the Duke of Northumberland, and was purchased with a grant from the Crown Zellerbach Corporation in 1964. In recent years, the event has drawn more than 200 visitors. It was profiled in a 2011 Wall Street Journal article titled "The Joys of Slow Looking."

A full 8-volume, double-elephant folio version is on public display in the Audubon Room at the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. One page is turned weekly. This, the first book purchased by the University, was bought in 1839 for $970 (equivalent to $70,000 in 2014), at the time an amazing sum. The entire volume of 425 plates is also available for viewing online at the University of Michigan's website.

The California Academy of Sciences displays pages from its four-volume set of Birds of America in the Academy Library, and selects pages which correlate to current exhibits in both the library and museum.

In 2003, the University of Pittsburgh, which owns a complete collection of Birds of America that had been recently restored and preserved by the Etherington Conservation Center, mounted a major exhibition of 62 selected plates and other materials in its University Art Gallery. Following this, the university constructed an exhibit case on the ground floor of the school's Hillman Library to continuously display a rotating selection of plates to the public.

Single plates are exhibited for two weeks at a time in plate number order. In 2007, the university undertook a project to digitise every plate from Birds of America, as well as Audubon's Ornithological Biography, and, for the first time, presented the complete set for public viewing in one place on the web.

  The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, an original subscriber to Birds of America has a daily "page turning" event at 3:15 p.m. in the Academy's Ewell Sale Stewart Library. The Academy's website also includes a digital version of the event.

In 2007 the book was the subject of an exhibition by the Teylers Museum in Haarlem, which owns a copy it ordered from the original subscription, along with the table sold to house and display it. The book's subsections fit into special drawers around a fly-leaf table; the table formed the centerpiece for gatherings of the Teyler's gentleman's society of science. To commemorate the book's record-breaking sale, the museum decided to display its copy (for which the museum eventually paid 2200 guilders—a fortune at the time—during the years 1827–1838) until January 2011.

All of Audubon's known extant watercolors preparatory for Birds of America are housed at the New-York Historical Society in New York City.

The Stark Museum of Art in Orange, Texas owns and exhibits John James Audubon's personal copy of Birds of America.

In 2010 the North Carolina Museum of Art began a five-year exhibition of its restored four-volume set purchased for the state by Governor William Alexander Graham in 1846.

Liverpool Central Library currently has a copy of Birds of America on display in a glass case, with its pages turned weekly, as well as being displayed through an interactive kiosk, allowing readers to get up close and personal with the book's contents without damaging the original copy using an Evoke Ev5 Kiosk.

One of the original books was bought by Laurance Spelman Rockefeller, who had each plate individually framed. They are all hanging throughout the public areas of the Woodstock Inn, in Woodstock, Vermont, which he built in 1969.


Trumpeter Swan
(Cygnus buccinator)
Recent sales
In March 2000 Sheikh Saud Al-Thani of Qatar purchased a copy of The Birds of America at a Christie's auction for $8.8 million, a record for any book at auction.

In December 2010, The Economist magazine estimated that, adjusted for inflation, five of the ten highest prices ever paid for printed books were paid for copies of Birds of America. Of the 119 copies known to survive, only eleven are held in private collections. In March 2000 the Fox-Bute copy sold at Christie's (New York) for $8,802,500. In December 2005 an unbound copy, the Providence Athenaeum Set, sold, again at Christie's (New York), for $5.6 million.

On 6 December 2010, a complete copy of the first edition was sold in London at Sotheby's for £7,321,250 (approximately $11.5 million) during the sale of Magnificent Books, Manuscripts and Drawings from the Collection of Frederick, Second Lord Hesketh. The winning bid was a record auction price for a printed book and was placed by London-based art dealer Michael Tollemache, who outbid three others during the auction. According to the provenance details reported by the auction house, the copy's original owner was Henry Witham of Durham, listed as subscriber 11 in Audubon's Ornithological Biography; the first volume of the set bears a presentation inscription from Witham's wife, dated 24 June 1831. Lord Hesketh had bought the copy from a descendant of Witham at a Christie's auction on 3 July 1951, paying £7,000.

On 20 January 2012 a complete copy of the first edition was sold, by heirs of the Fourth Duke of Portland, at Christie's auction house in Manhattan, for $7.9 million. The buyer was identified only as "an American collector who bid by phone." The sale brought to 120 the number of copies known to have survived – 107 in institution collections and 13 in private hands.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carolina pigeon, Zenaida macroura (now called mourning dove).   Prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea)
in plate 3
Great horned owl(Bubo virginianus)   Bird of Washington, possibly a rare species or a misidentified juvenile Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Turkey Vulture
(Cathartes aura)
  Carolina Parrot
(Conuropsis carolinensis)extinct
Canada Goose
(Branta canadensis)
  American Flamingo
(Phoenicopterus ruber)
Wild Turkey
(Meleagris gallopavo)
  Brasilian Caracara Eagle
Barn Owl
(Tyto alba)
  Ivory-billed Woodpecker
(Campephilus principalis) probably extinct
(Falco rusticolus)
  Rough-legged Falcon
(Buteo lagopus)
Columbia Jay   Three Paridae species
(Clockwise from top right: Psaltriparus minimus, Parus atricapillus, Parus rufescens)
Karl von Baer: "Epistola de Ova Mammalium et Hominis Generis"
Baer Karl Ernst

Karl Ernst, Ritter von Baer, (born Feb. 29, 1792, Piep, Estonia, Russian Empire—died Nov. 28, 1876, Dorpat, Estonia), Prussian–Estonian embryologist who discovered the mammalian ovum and the notochord and established the new science of comparative embryology alongside comparative anatomy. He was also a pioneer in geography, ethnology, and physical anthropology.


Karl Ernst, Ritter von Baer
  Baer, one of 10 children, spent his childhood with an uncle and aunt before he returned at the age of seven to his own family. His parents, of Prussian descent, were first cousins. After private tutoring Baer spent three years at a school for members of the nobility. In 1810 he entered the university at Dorpat to study medicine, receiving his medical degree in 1814.

Dissatisfied with his medical training, Baer studied in Germany and Austria from 1814 to 1817. The crucial year of his education was the academic year 1815–16, when his training in comparative anatomy at the University of Würzburg with Ignaz Döllinger introduced him to a new world that included the study of embryology.

In 1817 Baer began his teaching in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia), where he remained until 1834. In 1820 he married Auguste von Medem of Königsberg, by whom he had six children. Although Döllinger had suggested that Baer begin a study of chick development, he was unable to meet the expense of purchasing the eggs and paying an attendant to watch the incubators. This work was done instead by Baer’s more affluent friend Christian Pander, who in 1817 described the early development of the chick in terms of what are now known as the primary germ layers—that is, ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

From 1819 to 1834 Baer devoted most of his time to embryology, extending Pander’s concept of germ-layer formation to all vertebrates. In so doing Baer laid the foundation for comparative embryology. He made many important technical discoveries.

In 1827 he described his discovery of the mammalian ovum (egg) in his De Ovi Mammalium et Hominis Genesi (“On the Mammalian Egg and the Origin of Man”), thereby establishing that mammals, including human beings, develop from eggs. He opposed the popular idea that embryos of one species pass through stages comparable to adults of other species. Instead, he emphasized that embryos of one species could resemble embryos, but not adults of another, and that the younger the embryo the greater the resemblance. This was in line with his epigenetic idea—basic to embryology ever since—that development proceeds from simple to complex, from homogeneous to heterogeneous.
One of the most important books in embryology is Baer’s Über Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (vol. 1, 1828; vol. 2, 1837; “On the Development of Animals”), in which he surveyed all existing knowledge on vertebrate development and from which he derived his far-reaching conclusions. He identified the neural folds as precursors of the nervous system, discovered the notochord, described the five primary brain vesicles, and studied the functions of the extra-embryonic membranes. This pioneering work established embryology as a distinct subject of research, at least in its descriptive aspects. He marked out the main lines of descriptive and comparative study that had to be accomplished before the modern approach—the causal analysis of development—could emerge.

In 1834 Baer moved to St. Petersburg, Russia, where he became a full member of the Academy of Sciences; he had been a corresponding member since 1826. His first duties were as librarian of the foreign division, but he eventually served the academy in a variety of administrative positions. He retired from active membership in 1862 but continued to work as an honorary member until 1867. After moving to Russia, Baer abandoned embryology. Particularly interested in the Russian north, he became a courageous explorer there; he was the first naturalist to collect specimens from Novaya Zemlya, which was then uninhabited. During his extensive travels throughout Russia, Baer developed a great scientific and practical interest in its fisheries. He made significant discoveries in geography, including one concerning the nature of the forces responsible for the configuration of riverbanks in Russia. Baer’s travels also increased his long-standing interest in ethnography. He contributed to the Academy at St. Petersburg by establishing an extensive skull collection.

  As a result of his interest in skull measurements, he called a meeting of craniologists in Germany in 1861, which led to the establishment of the German Anthropological Society and to the founding of the journal Archiv für Anthropologie. He was also responsible for the founding of the Russian Geographical Society and the Russian Entomological Society, of which he was the first president.

In his early days as an embryologist Baer had begun to consider possible relationships, in terms of kinship, between animals. In 1859, the year that Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species appeared, Baer published a work on human skulls suggesting that stocks now distinct might have originated from one form; the ideas of the two men were formulated completely independently. Baer, however, was no strong adherent to the doctrine of transformation (the pre-Darwinian term for evolution). Although he believed that some very similar animals, such as goats and antelopes, might be related, he was vehemently against the concept expressed in the Origin of Species that all living creatures might have evolved from one or a few common ancestors.

In his philosophical writings—and all his embryological writings were philosophical to some degree—Baer saw nature as a whole, even though not in terms of modern evolutionary theory. He viewed the development of organisms and of the cosmos in the same light, and his all-encompassing view of the universe brought together what might otherwise have seemed diverging threads in his thought.

Jane M. Oppenheimer

Encyclopædia Britannica

Eng. physician Richard Bright describes Bright's disease
Bright Richard

Richard Bright (28 September 1789 – 16 December 1858) was an English physician and early pioneer in the research of kidney disease.


Richard Bright
  He was born in Bristol, Gloucestershire, the third son of Sarah and Richard Bright Sr., a wealthy merchant and banker. Bright Sr. shared his interest in science with his son, encouraging him to consider it as a career. In 1808, Bright Jr. joined the University of Edinburgh to study philosophy, economics and mathematics, but switched to medicine the following year. In 1810, he accompanied Sir George Mackenzie on a summer expedition to Iceland where he conducted naturalist studies. Bright then continued his medical studies at Guy's Hospital in London and in September 1813 returned to Edinburgh to be granted his medical doctorate. His thesis was De erysipelate contagioso (On contagious erysipelas).

During the 1820s and 1830s Bright again worked at Guy's Hospital, teaching, practising and researching medicine. There he worked alongside two other celebrated medical pioneers, Thomas Addison and Thomas Hodgkin. His research into the causes and symptoms of kidney disease led to his identifying what became known as Bright's disease. For this, he is considered the "father of nephrology". He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1821.
Bright had a special affection for Hungary and in 1815 he lived in Festetics Castle in Keszthely, where there is a large plaque: “To the memory of the English physician scientist and traveller who was one of the pioneers in the accurate description of Lake Balaton.”

He delivered the Harveian Oration in 1830, the Lumleian Lectures in 1837 on "Disorders of the Brain" and the Gulstonian lectures in 1833 on the "Function of the Abdominal Viscera" at the Royal College of Physicians.

On 11 December 1858, Bright became severely ill due to complications of heart disease and was unable to recover. He died in London aged 69 and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery.

Bright had two sons. The younger also became a physician; the elder, James Franck Bright, a historian.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace (Laplace Pierre-Simon), Fr. mathematician and astronomer, d. (b. 1749)

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace
Lister Joseph

Joeph Lister, Baron Lister, also called (1883–97) Sir Joseph Lister, Baronet (born April 5, 1827, Upton, Essex, Eng.—died Feb. 10, 1912, Walmer, Kent), British surgeon and medical scientist who was the founder of antiseptic medicine and a pioneer in preventive medicine. While his method, based on the use of antiseptics, is no longer employed, his principle—that bacteria must never gain entry to an operation wound—remains the basis of surgery to this day. He was made a baronet in 1883 and raised to the peerage in 1897.


Joeph Lister, Baron Lister
Lister was the second son of Joseph Jackson Lister and his wife, Isabella Harris, members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers. J.J. Lister, a wine merchant and amateur physicist and microscopist, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society for his discovery that led to the modern achromatic (non-colour-distorting) microscope.

While both parents took an active part in Lister’s education, his father instructing him in natural history and the use of the microscope, Lister received his formal schooling in two Quaker institutions, which laid far more emphasis upon natural history and science than did other schools. He became interested in comparative anatomy, and, before his 16th birthday, he had decided upon a surgical career.

After taking an arts course at University College, London, he enrolled in the faculty of medical science in October 1848. A brilliant student, he was graduated a bachelor of medicine with honours in 1852; in the same year he became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons and house surgeon at University College Hospital. A visit to Edinburgh in the fall of 1853 led to Lister’s appointment as assistant to James Syme, the greatest surgical teacher of his day, and in October 1856 he was appointed surgeon to the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. In April he had married Syme’s eldest daughter. Lister, a deeply religious man, joined the Scottish Episcopal Church. The marriage, although childless, was a happy one, his wife entering fully into Lister’s professional life.

When three years later the Regius Professorship of Surgery at Glasgow University fell vacant, Lister was elected from seven applicants. In August 1861 he was appointed surgeon to the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, where he was in charge of wards in the new surgical block. The managers hoped that hospital disease (now known as operative sepsis—infection of the blood by disease-producing microorganisms) would be greatly decreased in their new building. The hope proved vain, however. Lister reported that, in his Male Accident Ward, between 45 and 50 percent of his amputation cases died from sepsis between 1861 and 1865.
Work in antisepsis
In this ward Lister began his experiments with antisepsis. Much of his earlier published work had dealt with the mechanism of coagulation of the blood and role of the blood vessels in the first stages of inflammation. Both researches depended upon the microscope and were directly connected with the healing of wounds. Lister had already tried out methods to encourage clean healing and had formed theories to account for the prevalence of sepsis. Discarding the popular concept of miasma—direct infection by bad air—he postulated that sepsis might be caused by a pollen-like dust. There is no evidence that he believed this dust to be living matter, but he had come close to the truth. It is therefore all the more surprising that he became acquainted with the work of the bacteriologist Louis Pasteur only in 1865.

Pasteur had arrived at his theory that microorganisms cause fermentation and disease by experiments on fermentation and putrefaction. Lister’s education and his familiarity with the microscope, the process of fermentation, and the natural phenomena of inflammation and coagulation of the blood impelled him to accept Pasteur’s theory as the full revelation of a half-suspected truth. At the start he believed the germs were carried solely by the air. This incorrect opinion proved useful, for it obliged him to adopt the only feasible method of surgically clean treatment. In his attempt to interpose an antiseptic barrier between the wound and the air, he protected the site of operation from infection by the surgeon’s hands and instruments. He found an effective antiseptic in carbolic acid, which had already been used as a means of cleansing foul-smelling sewers and had been empirically advised as a wound dressing in 1863. Lister first successfully used his new method on Aug. 12, 1865; in March 1867 he published a series of cases. The results were dramatic. Between 1865 and 1869, surgical mortality fell from 45 to 15 percent in his Male Accident Ward.

In 1869, Lister succeeded Syme in the chair of Clinical Surgery at Edinburgh. There followed the seven happiest years of his life when, largely as the result of German experiments with antisepsis during the Franco-German War, his clinics were crowded with visitors and eager students. In 1875 Lister made a triumphal tour of the leading surgical centres in Germany. The next year he visited America but was received with little enthusiasm except in Boston and New York City.

  Lister’s work had been largely misunderstood in England and the United States. Opposition was directed against his germ theory rather than against his “carbolic treatment.” The majority of practicing surgeons were unconvinced; while not antagonistic, they awaited clear proof that antisepsis constituted a major advance.

Lister was not a spectacular operative surgeon and refused to publish statistics. Edinburgh, despite the ancient fame of its medical school, was regarded as a provincial centre. Lister understood that he must convince London before the usefulness of his work would be generally accepted.

His chance came in 1877, when he was offered the chair of Clinical Surgery at King’s College. On Oct. 26, 1877, Lister, at King’s College Hospital, for the first time performed the then-revolutionary operation of wiring a fractured patella, or kneecap. It entailed the deliberate conversion of a simple fracture, carrying no risk to life, into a compound fracture, which often resulted in generalized infection and death. Lister’s proposal was widely publicized and aroused much opposition. Thus, the entire success of his operation carried out under antiseptic conditions forced surgical opinion throughout the world to accept that his method had added greatly to the safety of operative surgery.

More fortunate than many pioneers, Lister saw the almost universal acceptance of his principle during his working life. He retired from surgical practice in 1893, after the death of his wife in the previous year. Many honours came to him. Created a baronet in 1883, he was made Baron Lister of Lyme Regis in 1897 and appointed one of the 12 original members of the Order of Merit in 1902. He was a gentle, shy, unassuming man, firm in his purpose because he humbly believed himself to be directed by God.
He was uninterested in social success or financial reward. In person he was handsome, with a fine athletic figure, fresh complexion, hazel eyes, and silver hair. For some years before his death, however, he was almost completely blind and deaf. Lister wrote no books but contributed many papers to professional journals. These are contained in The Collected Papers of Joseph, Baron Lister, 2 vol. (1909).

Frederick F. Cartwright

Encyclopædia Britannica

Joseph Niepce produces photographs on a metal plate
Niepce Nicephore

Nicephore Niepce, in full Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (born March 7, 1765, Chalon-sur-Saône, France—died July 5, 1833, Chalon-sur-Saône), French inventor who was the first to make a permanent photographic image.


Nicephore Niepce
  The son of a wealthy family suspected of royalist sympathies, Niépce fled the French Revolution but returned to serve in the French army under Napoleon Bonaparte. Dismissed because of ill health, he settled near his native town of Chalon-sur-Saône, where he remained engaged in research for the rest of his life.

In 1807 Niépce and his brother Claude invented an internal-combustion engine, which they called the Pyréolophore, explaining that the word was derived from a combination of the Greek words for “fire,” “wind,” and “I produce.” Working on a piston-and-cylinder system similar to 20th-century gasoline-powered engines, the Pyréolophore initially used lycopodium powder for fuel, and Niépce claimed to have used it to power a boat.

When lithography became a fashionable hobby in France in 1813, Niépce began to experiment with the then-novel printing technique. Unskilled in drawing, and unable to obtain proper lithographic stone locally, he sought a way to provide images automatically. He coated pewter with various light-sensitive substances in an effort to copy superimposed engravings in sunlight.

From this he progressed in April 1816 to attempts at photography, which he called heliography (sundrawing), with a camera. He recorded a view from his workroom window on paper sensitized with silver chloride but was only partially able to fix the image.
Next he tried various types of supports for the light-sensitive material bitumen of Judea, a kind of asphalt, which hardens on exposure to light.

Using this material he succeeded in 1822 in obtaining a photographic copy of an engraving superimposed on glass. In 1826/27, using a camera, he made a view from his workroom on a pewter plate, this being the first permanently fixed image from nature.

Metal had the advantage of being unbreakable and was better suited to the subsequent etching process to produce a printing plate, which was Niépce’s final aim. In 1826, he had produced another heliograph, a reproduction of an engraved portrait, which was etched by the Parisian engraver Augustin-François Lemaître, who pulled two prints. Thus Niépce not only solved the problem of reproducing nature by light, but he invented the first photomechanical reproduction process. While on a visit to England in 1827, Niépce addressed a memorandum on his invention to the Royal Society, London, but his insistence on keeping the method secret prevented the matter from being investigated.

Unable to reduce the very long exposure times by either chemical or optical means, Niépce in 1829 finally gave in to the repeated overtures of Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, a Parisian painter, for a partnership to perfect and exploit heliography. Niépce died without seeing any further advance, but, building on his knowledge, and working with his materials, Daguerre eventually succeeded in greatly reducing the exposure time through his discovery of a chemical process for development of (making visible) the latent (invisible) image formed upon brief exposure.

Encyclopædia Britannica

George S. Ohm formulates Ohm's Law, defining electrical current potential and resistance
Ohm Georg Simon

Georg Simon Ohm, (born March 16, 1789, Erlangen, Bavaria—died July 6, 1854, Munich), German physicist who discovered the law, named after him, which states that the current flow through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference (voltage) and inversely proportional to the resistance.


Georg Simon Ohm
  Ohm became professor of mathematics at the Jesuits’ College at Cologne in 1817.

The most important aspect of Ohm’s law is summarized in his pamphlet Die galvanische Kette, mathematisch bearbeitet (1827; The Galvanic Circuit Investigated Mathematically).

While his work greatly influenced the theory and applications of current electricity, it was so coldly received that Ohm resigned his post at Cologne.

He accepted a position at the Polytechnic School of Nürnberg in 1833.

Finally his work began to be recognized; in 1841 he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London and was made a foreign member a year later.

The ohm, the physical unit measuring electrical resistance, also was named for him.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Aust. engineer Joseph Ressel invents ship's screw propeller
Ressel Joseph

Joseph Ludwig Franz Ressel (Czech: Josef Ludvík František Ressel; 29 June 1793 – 9 October 1857) was an a German Bohemian forester and inventor who designed one of the first working ship's propellers.


Joseph Ludwig Franz Ressel
  Ressel was born in Chrudim, Bohemia (then part of Habsburg Monarchy, now the Czech republic). His father Anton Herrmann Ressel was a native German speaker, while his mother Marie Anna Konvičková was a native Czech. He studied in the Linz Gymnasium, České Budějovice artillery school, University of Vienna and the Mariabrunn Forestry Academy at Mariabrunn Monastery near Vienna.

He worked for the Austrian government as a forester in the more southern parts of the monarchy, including in Motovun, Istria (modern-day Croatia). His work was to secure a supply of quality wood for the Navy. He worked in Landstrass (Kostanjevica on the Krka river in Carniola in modern-day Slovenia), where he tested his ship propellers for the first time. In 1821 he was transferred to Trieste (modern-day Italy), the biggest port of the Austrian Empire, where his tests were successful. He was awarded a propeller patent in 1827. He modified a steam-powered boat Civetta by 1829 and test-drove it in the Trieste harbor at six knots before the steam conduits exploded. Because of this misfortune, the police banned further testing. The explosion was not caused by the tested propeller as many believed at the time.

As early as 1804, the American John Fitch is credited with a screw propeller, which was unsuccessful. In 1836, the Englishman Francis Pettit Smith tested a screw propeller similar to Ressel's.

The first transatlantic journey of a ship powered by a screw-propeller was by the SS Great Britain in 1845. Propeller design stabilized in the 1880s.

Besides having been called "the inventor of the propeller", he was also called the inventor of the steamship and a monument to him in a park in Vienna commemorates him as “the one and only inventor of the screw propeller and steam shipping”.

Among other Ressel's inventions are pneumatic post and ball and cylinder bearings. He was granted numerous patents during his life.

He died in Ljubljana (present Slovenia), and was buried there in the St. Christopher Cemetery (now called "Navje Cemetery") in the Bežigrad district.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James Simpson constructs sand filter for purification of London's water supply
Simpson James

Sir James Young Simpson, 1st Baronet (7 June 1811 – 6 May 1870) was a Scottish obstetrician and an important figure in the history of medicine. Simpson discovered the anaesthetic properties of chloroform and successfully introduced it for general medical use.


Sir James Young Simpson
  Sir James Young Simpson, 1st Baronet, (born June 7, 1811, Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, Scot.—died May 6, 1870, London), Scottish obstetrician who was the first to use chloroform in obstetrics and the first in Britain to use ether.

Simpson was professor of obstetrics at the University of Edinburgh, where he obtained an M.D. in 1832. After news of the use of ether in surgery reached Scotland in 1846, Simpson tried it in obstetrics the following January. Later that year he substituted chloroform for ether and published his classic Account of a New Anaesthetic Agent. Simpson persisted in the use of chloroform for relief of labour pains, against opposition from obstetricians and the clergy. He was appointed one of the queen’s physicians for Scotland in 1847 and in 1866 was created a baronet.

Simpson introduced iron wire sutures and acupressure, a method of arresting hemorrhage, and developed the long obstetrics forceps that are named for him. He is also known for his writings on medical history (especially on leprosy in Scotland) and on fetal pathology and hermaphroditism.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Volta Alessandro, Ital. physicist, d. (b. 1745)

Conte Alessandro Volta
Friedrich Wohler obtains metallic aluminum from clay
Wohler Friedrich

Friedrich Wohler, (born July 31, 1800, Eschersheim, near Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died Sept. 23, 1882, Göttingen, Ger.), German chemist who was one of the finest and most prolific of the 19th century.

Early life
Wöhler, the son of an agronomist and veterinarian, attended the University of Marburg and then the University of Heidelberg, from which he received a medical degree with a specialty in obstetrics (1823). However, his passion always was chemistry. The eminent professor of chemistry at Heidelberg, Leopold Gmelin, judged Wöhler to be already too advanced to profit from his courses, so he sent him to study with the world-famous Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius. A year of mineral analysis in Stockholm not only provided Wöhler with the best chemical training then available but also cemented a close lifelong bond between the two men. Wöhler quickly mastered the Swedish language and subsequently served as Berzelius’s translator and advocate in Germany.

Friedrich Wohler
  Aluminum and urea papers
In 1825 Wöhler was hired at the new Berlin Gewerbeschule (trade school), and in 1831 he moved to the Technische Hochschule (institute of technology) in Kassel. By the time of his arrival in Kassel, he had already gained international renown from two pathbreaking papers. In 1827 Wöhler prepared the first pure sample of aluminum. This metal is the third most prevalent element in the Earth’s crust, but it was exceedingly difficult to isolate from its compounds.

Wöhler announced his second discovery in a letter of February 1828 to his Swedish mentor, telling Berzelius that he had discovered how to make urea in the laboratory without the use of a living kidney.

This discovery was important because at that time some scientists still thought that an ineffable “vital force” in living creatures was necessary to synthesize organic compounds and that such synthesis was impossible by artificial means. It was also noteworthy, remarked Wöhler, that urea had exactly the same composition as a different novel substance, ammonium cyanate.

As early as the 1840s, Wöhler’s supporters began to tout his discovery as the “death knell” of vitalism—and it is still usually described that way—but recent historical inquiry has shown that the situation was more complex; Wöhler’s own antivitalist claims were necessarily muted and qualified. His discovery was at least as important for the history of isomerism as for vitalism, since very few cases were then known of two distinct compounds having identical compositions. Two years after Wöhler’s synthesis of urea, Berzelius defined the concept and introduced the new word isomerism.
Collaboration with Liebig
German chemistry was in the ascendant at this time, aided by such groundbreaking studies. The acknowledged leader of this movement was not Wöhler, however, but his best friend, Justus Liebig, a professor at the University of Giessen (in Hesse).
Wöhler and Liebig had first become acquainted when they published identical analyses for two different substances, silver cyanate and silver fulminate, and each suspected that the other had been sloppy. Two years of dueling papers (1824–26) sufficed to prove that both analyses had been accurate (thus confirming an example of the yet-unnamed concept of isomerism). The men then became fast friends.

Wöhler was gentle, unassuming, and self-effacing; Liebig was ambitious, mercurial, and often arrogant. Both were superb and enormously prolific laboratory scientists. In 1829 they began to collaborate on occasion, and they continued this practice until Liebig’s death 44 years later. Sometimes their cowritten papers were quickly completed; such was the case with their classic paper on the “benzoyl radical” (1832).

Wöhler and Liebig showed that a certain group of atoms persisted unchanged through a series of important related compounds, including benzoic acid. This article is rightly regarded as one of the foundations of the emergent theory of organic radicals and one of the first successful efforts to discern the interior construction of molecules. Sometimes their collaborations were more extended in nature. After years of difficult work, in 1838 Wöhler and Liebig published a long and influential paper on nitrogenous organic compounds, including uric acid and many related substances.

  Education reform
Two years before this paper appeared, Wöhler had accepted a professorship at the University of Göttingen, and he remained the head of chemistry at this leading German university until his death. He had a very large number of students, including many Britons and Americans in the later stages of his career, and he was one of the most revered instructors in Germany. In the first few years of his tenure at Göttingen, Wöhler (in parallel with Liebig at Giessen) pioneered a new pattern of science education and scientific research. Contrary to the nearly universal practice of lecturing science students and performing selected demonstrations in front of them, Wöhler and Liebig began to require that all of their students fulfill a laboratory practicum in which they carried out laboratory manipulations themselves. This pedagogical innovation was rapidly adopted throughout Germany and then abroad. It forms the basis of modern laboratory-based university education today.

Simultaneously, and contrary to the prior nearly universal custom of solo research, these men began to build research groups in which their practicum students assisted in their research projects. This also was widely copied during the course of the 19th century and is accepted practice today in the laboratory sciences. Consequently, in reforming the science of chemistry in Germany around 1840, Wöhler, Liebig, and a handful of other colleagues began a series of innovations that would soon transform all of the laboratory sciences and also the teaching of laboratory science.

Marriage and honours
Unlike both Liebig and Berzelius, Wöhler rarely made enemies, and he always conducted himself with dignity and kindness. One of the greatest disappointments in his life was the fact that these men, his two best friends, who had enjoyed an intimate friendship in the 1830s, began to quarrel and eventually became bitter enemies. Wöhler was married twice. His first marriage, to his cousin Franziska Wöhler in 1828, ended with her death four years later; he then married Julie Pfeiffer. He had a son and a daughter by his first wife and four daughters by his second. In his later years he enjoyed high honours, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London and foreign membership in the French Academy of Sciences.

Alan J. Rocke

Encyclopædia Britannica


Starting from Kakondy near Boké on the Rio Nuñez on April 19, 1827, Caillié travelled east along the hills of Fouta Djallon, passing the head streams of the Senegal and crossing the Upper Niger at Kurussa.

Still going east he came to the Kong highlands, where at the village of Tiémé in present day Ivory Coast, he was detained for five months (3 August 1827 to 9 January 1828) by illness. Resuming his journey in January 1828 he went north-east and reached the city of Djenné where he stayed from 11 to the 23 March. From Djenné he continued his journey to Timbuktu by boat. After spending a fortnight (April 20 - May 4) in Timbuktu he joined a caravan crossing the Sahara to Morocco, reaching Fez on the August 12. From Tangier he returned to France.

Postcard published by Edmond Fortier showing the mosque in 1905-06
Timbuktu, French Tombouctou, city in the western African country of Mali, historically important as a trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route and as a centre of Islamic culture (c. 1400–1600). It is located on the southern edge of the Sahara, about 8 miles (13 km) north of the Niger River. The city was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1988. In 2012, in response to armed conflict in the region, Timbuktu was added to the UNESCO List of World Heritage in Danger.

Timbuktu was founded about 1100 ce as a seasonal camp by Tuareg nomads. There are several stories concerning the derivation of the city’s name.
According to one tradition, Timbuktu was named for an old woman left to oversee the camp while the Tuareg roamed the Sahara. Her name (variously given as Tomboutou, Timbuktu, or Buctoo) meant “mother with a large navel,” possibly describing an umbilical hernia or other such physical malady. Timbuktu’s location at the meeting point of desert and water made it an ideal trading centre. In the late 13th or early 14th century it was incorporated into the Mali empire.

By the 14th century it was a flourishing centre for the trans-Saharan gold and salt trade, and it grew as a centre of Islamic culture. Three of western Africa’s oldest mosques—Djinguereber (Djingareyber), Sankore, and Sidi Yahia—were built there during the 14th and early 15th centuries.

After an extravagant pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, the Mali emperor Mansa Mūsā built the Great Mosque (Djinguereber) and a royal residence, the Madugu (the former has since been rebuilt many times, and of the latter no trace remains). The Granada architect Abū Isḥāq al-Sāḥili was then commissioned to design the Sankore mosque, around which Sankore University was established. The mosque still stands today, probably because of al-Sāḥili’s directive to incorporate a wooden framework into the mud walls of the building, thus facilitating annual repairs after the rainy season. The Tuareg regained control of the city in 1433, but they ruled from the desert. Although the Tuareg exacted sizable tributes and plundered periodically, trade and learning continued to flourish in Timbuktu.

Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu
By 1450 its population increased to about 100,000. The city’s scholars, many of whom had studied in Mecca or in Egypt, numbered some 25,000.

In 1468 the city was conquered by the Songhai ruler Sonni ʿAlī. He was generally ill-disposed toward the city’s Muslim scholars, but his successor—the first ruler of the new Askia dynasty, Muḥammad I Askia of Songhai (reigned 1493–1528)—used the scholarly elite as legal and moral counselors. During the Askia period (1493–1591) Timbuktu was at the height of its commercial and intellectual development.

Merchants from Ghudāmis (Ghadames; now in Libya), Augila (now Awjidah, Libya), and numerous other cities of North Africa gathered there to buy gold and slaves in exchange for the Saharan salt of Taghaza and for North African cloth and horses.

After it was captured by Morocco in 1591, the city declined. Its scholars were ordered arrested in 1593 on suspicion of disaffection; some were killed during a resulting struggle, while others were exiled to Morocco. Perhaps worse still, the small Moroccan garrisons placed in command of the city offered inadequate protection, and Timbuktu was repeatedly attacked and conquered by the Bambara, Fulani, and Tuareg.
European explorers reached Timbuktu in the early 19th century. The ill-fated Scottish explorer Gordon Laing was the first to arrive (1826), followed by the French explorer René-Auguste Caillié in 1828. Caillié, who had studied Islam and learned Arabic, reached Timbuktu disguised as an Arab. After two weeks he departed, becoming the first explorer to return to Europe with firsthand knowledge of the city (rumours of Timbuktu’s wealth had reached Europe centuries before, owing to tales of Mūsā’s 11th-century caravan to Mecca). In 1853 the German geographer Heinrich Barth reached the city during a five-year trek across Africa. He, too, survived the journey, later publishing a chronicle of his travels.
  Timbuktu was captured by the French in 1894. They partly restored the city from the desolate condition in which they found it, but no connecting railway or hard-surfaced road was built. In 1960 it became part of the newly independent Republic of Mali.

Timbuktu is now an administrative centre of Mali. In the late 1990s, restoration efforts were undertaken to preserve the city’s three great mosques, which were threatened by sand encroachment and by general decay. An even greater threat came in 2012 when Tuareg rebels, backed by Islamic militants, took control of the northern part of the country.

The Tuaregs claimed the territory, which included Timbuktu, as the independent state of Azawad. However, the Tuareg rebels were soon supplanted by the Islamic militants, who then imposed their strict version of Sharīʾah (Islamic law) on the inhabitants.

The Islamic militants—in particular, one group known as Ansar Dine—deemed many of Timbuktu’s historic religious monuments and artifacts to be idolatrous; to that end, they damaged or destroyed many of them, including tombs of Islamic saints housed at the Djinguereber and Sidi Yahia mosques. Pop. (2009) 54,453.

Encyclopædia Britannica
see also: Caillie Rene-Auguste
see also: The Desert
Karl Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides
Baedeker Karl
Karl Baedeker, (born Nov. 3, 1801, Essen, Duchy of Oldenburg—died Oct. 4, 1859, Koblenz, Prussia), founder of a German publishing house known for its guidebooks.

Karl Baedeker
  Baedeker was the son of a printer and bookseller. In 1827 he started a firm at Koblenz and two years later brought out a guidebook to the town. It was in the second edition of a guide to the Rhine from Mainz to Cologne (which had appeared in 1828) that Baedeker evolved the system on which he based his series. His aim was to give the traveller the practical information necessary to enable him to dispense with paid guides. He checked the reliability of his publications by making incognito journeys and by consulting the best sources and experts. A notable feature of Baedeker’s guides was the use of “stars” to indicate objects and views of special interest, as well as to designate reliable hotels. By the time of his death much of Europe had been covered by his guidebooks.

Under the ownership of his sons, Ernst (1833–61), Karl (1837–1911), and, especially, Fritz (1844–1925), the firm expanded still more. The first French edition appeared in 1846, and the first English one followed in 1861. The house moved to Leipzig in 1872, to Hamburg in 1948, and to Freiburg im Breisgau in 1956.

Encyclopædia Britannica
"London Evening Standard"

The London Evening Standard (simply the Evening Standard before May 2009) is a local, free daily newspaper, published Monday to Friday in tabloid format in London.

It is the dominant regional evening paper for London and the surrounding area, with coverage of national and international news and City of London finance. In October 2009, the paper ended a 180-year history of paid circulation and became a free newspaper, doubling its circulation as part of a change in its business plan.

The newspaper was founded by barrister Stanley Lees Giffard on 21 May 1827, as the Standard. The early owner of the paper was Charles Baldwin. Under the ownership of James Johnstone, The Standard became a morning paper from 29 June 1857. The Evening Standard was published from 11 June 1859. The Standard gained eminence for its detailed foreign news, notably its reporting of events of the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, all contributing to a rise in circulation.

The newspaper has sponsored the annual Evening Standard Theatre Awards since the 1950s.[citation needed] The newspaper has also awarded the annual Evening Standard Pub of the Year (discontinued 2007) and the Evening Standard British Film Awards since the 1970s.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pestalozzi Johann Heinrich , Swiss educator, d. (b. 1746)

Pestalozzi with the orphans in Stans; painting by Konrad Grob, 1879

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