Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1826 Part I NEXT-1827 Part I    
1820 - 1829
History at a Glance
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Trade Union
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Khan Dost Mohammad
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George

Scene from 'The Last of the Mohicans', by James Fenimore Cooper - Thomas Cole
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Wilhelm Liebknecht, (born March 29, 1826, Giessen, Hesse [Germany]—died Aug. 7, 1900, Berlin), German socialist, close associate of Karl Marx, and later cofounder of the German Social Democratic Party.

Wilhelm Liebknecht
  Liebknecht was still a child when his father died, but he was brought up comfortably. He attended the universities of Giessen, Marburg, and Berlin and developed an interest in French socialist thinking. He accepted an invitation to teach at a Swiss elementary school and then decided to study law and be called to the bar in Switzerland (1847).

On Feb. 23, 1848, revolution erupted in Paris. He arrived too late to become involved and returned to Germany, where he participated in several revolutionary insurrections that failed. During an attempt to fan the fading revolutionary embers in Baden, he was captured and held prisoner for eight months. In 1849, after his release, he returned to Switzerland.

Liebknecht’s stay in Switzerland was short, for the Austrian and Prussian governments, fearful of his growing influence among the Swiss workers, succeeded in having him expelled from Geneva. In 1849 he went to England, where he remained for 13 years. In London he joined the Communist League, working closely with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and supporting himself as London correspondent for the Augsburger allgemeine Zeitung (“Augsburg Gazette”). In 1862 the Prussian government granted him amnesty; he returned to Berlin and became a writer for the Norddeutsche allgemeine Zeitung (“North German Gazette”), soon becoming an influential socialist.

But Otto von Bismarck, who had become minister president (prime minister) in 1862, resented Liebknecht’s influence among the working classes and, failing to gain his support, had him expelled from Prussia in 1865.
In Leipzig, where he moved, Liebknecht joined the floundering Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein (General German Worker’s Association), founded by the socialist leader Ferdinand Lassalle in 1863. He also formed a friendship with August Bebel, a woodturner, who on his travels as a journeyman had become familiar with the poverty of the masses throughout Germany. Liebknecht, the writer, and Bebel, the orator and practical politician, complemented one another and together they provided the leadership for German socialism for the remainder of the century. In Leipzig, Liebknecht worked hard to win new recruits for the cause and continued his efforts to educate the masses through the Demokratisches Wochenblatt (“Democratic Weekly”). In 1867 the workers elected Liebknecht to the North German Reichstag, where he opposed Lassalle’s advocacy of a “paternalistic” state socialism. In 1869, at a congress at Eisenach, Liebknecht and Bebel organized the Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei (Social Democratic Labour Party) and affiliated it with the First International (International Workingmen’s Association), headquartered in London.

The outbreak of the Franco-German War in 1870 put Liebknecht’s devotion to international socialism to a practical test. His failure to vote for war credits and his writings against the war and the government resulted in his conviction on charges of “treasonable intentions” in 1872. He was sentenced to two years’ confinement in the fortress of Hubertusburg, along with Bebel, who was similarly charged.

  The Prussian military victory in 1871 did nothing to abate the socialists’ growing strength in the Reichstag, and Liebknecht continued to be a thorn in Bismarck’s side. Bismarck’s determination to repress the socialists brought about the merger of the Lassalleans and Liebknechtians as the Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (Socialist Labour Party) at Gotha in 1875. The Gotha Program, a compromise between the positions of the two parties—although criticized by Marx for its call for government-aided productive organizations—remained the charter of German socialism until the adoption of the Erfurt Program in 1891, which discarded the state-aid provisions of the Gotha Congress and pledged the party to a Marxist program. Bismarck won his battle to repress the socialists in 1878 when the Reichstag adopted the Anti-Socialist Law that, among other things, forbade the publication of socialist literature.

Notwithstanding a dozen years of repression, the party continued to grow significantly. When the law expired in 1890, it was obvious that Liebknecht’s tactic of education, not conspiracy, had been productive. When the liberated party met at Erfurt in 1891, it adopted a charter embodying the 19th century’s fullest expression of social democratic ideas. Thereafter, the party was known as the German Social Democratic Party. During the final nine years of his life, Liebknecht was one of its leading spokesmen, primarily as a writer for Vorwärts, the party’s most prominent newspaper.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Ruan Yuan edits the writings of Confucius (see also: Confucianism)
Ruan Yuan
Ruan Yuan (Chinese: 阮元; 1764–1849) was a scholar official of the Qing Dynasty in Imperial China.

Ruan Yuan
  He won the jinshi degree in the imperial examinations in 1789 and was subsequently appointed to the Hanlin Academy. He was known for his work Biographies of Astronomers and Mathematicians and for his editing the Shi san jing zhu shu (Commentaries and Notes on the Thirteen Classics) for the Qing emperor. Ruan Yuan was a successful official as well as a scholar. He was the Viceroy of Liangguang, the most important imperial official in Canton (Guangzhou), during the critical years 1817–1826, just before the First Opium War with Britain. It was a crucial time when Chinese trade with the outside world was allowed only through the Canton System, with all foreigners confined to Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province. During his tenure in Canton, Ruan is estimated to have earned more than 195,000 taels of silver.

He was widely recognized as an official, scholar, and patron of learning both by his contemporaries and by modern scholars. He was also praised as an honest official and an exemplary man of the ‘Confucian persuasion’ (see also: Confucianism). His name is mentioned in almost all works on Qing history or Chinese classics because of the wide range of his research and publications. A number of these publications are still reprinted. Ruan Yuan was a follower of the Han Learning tradition and as such, with the encouragement of Liu Fenglu, he edited and organized publication of the compendium of the imperial achievements in kaozheng scholarship, the Huang Qing Jingjie (zh:皇清经解) published in 1829.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"

This novel remains the most popular of Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, a classic story of the French and Indian War. The battles and exciting pursuits which constitute the book's plot are rounded out by interesting Indian lore and descriptions of the wilderness.

Principal Characters
Natty Bumppo, called Hawkeye, the hardy, noble frontier scout in his prime during the French and Indian Wars. Traveling with his Indian companions, Chingach-gook and his son Uncas, in Upper New York, he befriends an English soldier, a Connecticut singing master, and their two female charges.

When the travelers are ambushed by hostile Huron warriors, he leaves the party to get help, in turn ambushes their captors with the aid of Chingach-gook and Uncas, and leads the group to Fort William Henry, besieged by the French. In the massacre of English that takes place after the garrison is forced to surrender, the girls are captured again by Indians. Hawkeye assists once more in the escape of one of the girls; however, a renegade Huron chief, Magua, claims the other as his reluctant wife. In the ensuing fighting the girl and Hawk-eye's friend, the noble young Uncas, are killed. Hawkeye shoots Magua in return. In the end he and Chingachgook return sorrowfully to the wilderness.

Chingachgook (chin-gach'gook), a courageous, loyal Mohican Chief, Hawkeye's inseparable friend. An im-placable enemy of the Hurons, he is decorated as Death. Left to protect the English Colonel after the massacre, he joins the final battle with intense ferocity, only to see his son die. His grief is relieved somewhat by Hawkeye's companionship.

Uncas (un'kas), Chingachgook's stalwart son, the last of the Mohicans. A young and handsome chieftain, he falls in love with Cora Munro while protecting her and proves invaluable in tracking her after she has been captured. When a Delaware chief awards her to Uncas' rival, Magua, he follows them and is killed avenging her murder.

Major Duncan Heyward, the young English officer in charge of escorting the Munro girls from Fort Edward to Fort William Henry. Brave, good-looking and clever, he falls in love with Alice Munro and eventually succeeds in rescuing her from the Hurons. He finally marries her with Colonel Munro's blessing.
  Magua (ma'gu-э), "Le Renard Subtil," the handsome, renegade Huron chief. Both cunning and malicious, he seeks to avenge himself on Colonel Munro by turning his spirited daughter Cora into a servile squaw Twice thwarted by Hawkeye and his companions, he wins Cora by putting his case before Tamenund, a Delaware chieftain. This victory, however, is short lived. Cora is killed by another Huron and Magua, after killing Uncas, is shot by Hawkeye.
Cora Munro, the Colonel's beautiful older daughter. She is independent, equal to every situation, and bears up well under the strain of a capture, a massacre, and the threat of marrying Magua. Her love for Uncas, however, remains unrequited when she is carried off by Magua and then stabbed.

Alice Munro, the Colonel's younger daughter, a pale, immature, but lovely half sister of Cora. Frail and clinging, she excites Heyward's protective feelings during their adventures, and he marries her.
Colonel Munro, the able but unsuccessful defender of Fort William Henry and the affectionate father of Cora and Alice. After surrendering to the French he is forced to watch helplessly the slaughter of the men, women, and children from the fort. His sorrow is doubled when Cora is killed.
David Gamut, a mild, ungainly singing master who accompanies Heyward and the Munro girls. His school-book piety contrasts with Hawkeye's natural pantheism. A rather ineffective person, he is nevertheless useful to Hawkeye, for the Hurons believe him insane and let him pass without trouble.
The Marquis de Montcalm, the skilled, enterprising general who captures Fort William Henry and then allows the defeated English to be massacred by savage Hurons.
Tamenund (ta-тэ-пшкГ), the old Delaware chief who foolishly decides to give Cora to Magua.
Hard Heart, the Delaware chief whom Magua flatters to gain Cora.
General Webb, the incompetent commander of Fort Edward. He refused to aid Colonel Munro.
A Huron Chief. He calls on Heyward, who is impersonating a witch doctor, to cure a relative, and he is duped when his captives are released.
The Story
Major Duncan Heyward had been ordered to escort Cora and Alice Munro from Fort Edward to Fort William Henry, where Colonel Munro, father of the girls, was commandant. In the party was also David Gamut, a Con-necticut singing master. On their way to Fort William Henry they did not follow the military road through the wilderness. Instead, they placed themselves in the hands of a renegade Huron known as Magua, who claimed that he could lead them to their destination by a shorter trail.
It was afternoon when the little party met the woods-man, Hawkeye, and his Delaware Mohican friends, Chingachgook and his son Uncas. To their dismay, they learned they were but an hour's distance from their starting point. Hawkeye quickly decided Magua had been planning to lead the party into a trap. His Mohican comrades tried to capture the renegade, but Magua took alarm and fled into the woods.
At Heyward's urging the hunter agreed to guide the travelers to their destination. The horses were tied and hidden among some rocks along a river. Hawkeye pro-duced a hidden canoe from among some bushes and pad-dled the party to a rock at the foot of Glenn's Falls. There they prepared to spend the night in a cave.
That night a band of Iroquois led by Magua surprised the party. The fight might have been a victory for Hawk-eye if their supply of powder and ball had held out.
Unfortunately, their ammunition had been left in the canoe which, unnoticed until it was too late, was stolen by one of the enemy who had ventured to swim the swirling river.

The only hope then lay in the possibility of future rescue, for the capture of the rock and the little group was a certainty. Hawkeye, Chingachgook, and Uncas escaped by floating downstream, leaving the girls and Major Heyward to meet the savages.
Captured, Cora and Alice were allowed to ride their horses, but Heyward and David were forced by their captors to walk. Although they took a road paralleling that to Fort William Henry, Heyward could not determine the destination the Indians had in mind. Drawing close to Magua, he tried to persuade him to betray his companions and deliver the party safely to Colonel Munro. The Huron agreed, if Cora would come to live with him among his tribe as his wife. When she refused, the enraged Magua had everyone bound. He was threatening Alice with his tomahawk when Hawkeye and his friends crept silently upon the band and attacked them. The Iroquois fled, leaving several of their dead behind them. The party, under David's guidance, sang a hymn of thanksgiving and then pushed onward.
Toward evening they stopped at a deserted blockhouse to rest. Many years before, it had been the scene of a fight between the Mohicans and the Mohawks, and a mound still showed where bodies lay buried. While Chingachgook watched, the others slept.

Scene from 'The Last of the Mohicans', by James Fenimore Cooper - Thomas Cole
At moonrise they continued on their way. It was dawn when Hawkeye and his charges drew near Fort William Henry. They were intercepted and challenged by a sen-tinel of the French under Montcalm, who was about to lay siege to the fort. Heyward was able to answer him in French and they were allowed to proceed. Chingachgook killed and scalped the French sentinel. Through the fog which had risen from Lake George and through the enemy forces which thronged the plain before the fort, Hawkeye led the way to the gates of the fort.
On the fifth day of the siege, Hawkeye who had been sent to Fort Edward to seek help was intercepted on his way back and a letter he carried was captured. Webb, the commander of Fort Edward, refused to come to the aid of Munro.
Under a flag of truce, Montcalm and Munro held a parley. Montcalm showed Webb's letter to Munro and offered honorable terms of surrender. Colonel Munro and his men would be allowed to keep their colors, their arms, and their baggage, if they would vacate the fort the next morning. Helpless to do otherwise, Munro accepted these terms. During one of the parleys Heyward was surprised to see Magua in the camp of the French. He had not been killed during the earlier skirmish.
The following day the vanquished English started their trip back to Fort Edward. Under the eyes of the French and their Indian allies, they passed across the plain and entered the forest. Suddenly an Indian grabbed at a brightly colored shawl worn by one of the women. Terrified, she wrapped her child in it. The Indian darted toward her, grabbed the child from her arms, and dashed out its brains on the ground. Then under the eyes of Montcalm, who did nothing to discourage or hold back his savage allies, a monstrous slaughter began.
Cora and Alice, entrusted to David Gamut's protection, were in the midst of the killing when Magua swooped down upon them and carried Alice away in his arms. Cora ran after her sister, and faithful David dogged her footsteps. They were soon atop a hill, from which they watched the slaughter of the garrison.
  Three days later, Hawkeye. leading Heyward, Munro, and his Indian comrades, tracked the girls and David, following a path where they had found Cora's veil caught on a tree. Heyward was particularly concerned for the safety of Alice. The day before the massacre he had been given her father's permission to court her.
Hawkeye, knowing that hostile Indians were on their trail, decided to save time by traveling across the lake in a canoe which he discovered in its hiding place nearby. He was certain Magua had taken the girls north, where he planned to rejoin his own people. Heading their canoe in that direction, the five men paddled all day. at one point having a close escape from some of their intercepting enemies. They spent that night in the woods and the next day turned west in an effort to find Magua's trail.
After much searching Uncas found the trail of the captives. That evening, as the party drew near the Huron camp, they met David Gamut wandering about. He told his friends that the Indians thought him crazy because of his habit of breaking into song, and they allowed him to roam the woods unguarded. Alice, he said, was being held at the Huron camp. Cora had been entrusted to the care of a tribe of peaceful Delawares a short distance away.
Hey ward, disguising his face with paint, went to the Huron camp in an attempt to rescue Alice, while the others set about helping Cora. Hey ward was in the camp but a short time, posing as a French doctor, when Uncas was brought in as a captive. Called to treat an ill Indian woman, Heyward found Alice in the cave with his patient. He was able to rescue the girl by wrapping her in a blanket and declaring to the Hurons that she was his patient, whom he was carrying off to the woods for treatment. Hawkeye, attempting to rescue Uncas, entered the camp disguised in a medicine man's bearskin he had stolen. Uncas was cut loose and given the disguise, while the woodsman borrowed David Gamut's clothes. The singer was left to take Uncas' place while the others escaped, for Hawkeye was certain the Indians would not harm David because of his supposed mental condition. Uncas and Hawkeye fled to the Delaware camp.
The following day Magua and a group of his warriors visited the Delawares in search of their prisoners. The chief of that tribe decided the Hurons had a just claim to Cora because Magua wished to make her his wife.
Under inviolable Indian custom, the Huron was permitted to leave the camp unmolested, but Uncas warned him that in a few hours he and the Delawares would follow his trail.
During a bloody battle Magua fled with Cora to the top of a cliff. There, pursued by Uncas, he stabbed and killed the young Mohican and was in his turn sent to his death by a bullet from Hawkeye's long rifle. Cora too was killed by a Huron. Amid deep mourning by the Delawares, she and Uncas were laid in their graves in the forest. Colonel Munro and Heyward conducted Alice to English territory and safety. Hawkeye returned to the forest. He had promised to remain with his sorrowing friend Chingachgook forever.
Critical Evaluation
The Last of the Mohicans is the second title published in what was to become a series of five entitled collectively the Leatherstocking Tales. When Cooper published the first of these "romances," as he called them to dis-tinguish them from the somewhat more realistic contemporary novels, he had no plan for a series with a hero whose life would be shown from youth to old age and death. In The Pioneers (1823) Natty Bumppo or Leatherstocking is in his early seventies. Responding to a suggestion from his wife, Cooper went back in The Last of the Mohicans to Natty's early thirties when he was called Hawkeye.

The great popularity of The Last of the Mohicans led Cooper then to move chronologically beyond The Pioneers and to picture in The Prairie (1827) the last of Natty's life when he was in his eighties, living as a trapper and finally dying on the Great Plains far from his early home. At the time, Cooper did not intend to revive Natty in further romances. One minor romance of the forest, The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish (1829), was followed by a stream of nautical novels, socio-political novels, and nonfictional works of social and political criticism extending until 1840, when Cooper finally answered the pleas of many literary critics and readers and revived the hero whose death he had so touchingly portrayed at the end of The Prairie. In The Pathfinder (1840), Natty is called Pathfinder and the action shifts from land to the waters of Lake Ontario and back again.
Pleased by the resounding praise he gained for having brought back his famed hero, Cooper decided to write one final romance about him in which Natty would be younger than in any of the earlier books.

In The Deer slayer (1841), Natty is in his early twenties and goes by the nickname Deer-slayer. In 1850, Cooper brought out a new edition of all five Leatherstocking Tales arranged according to the order of events in Natty Bumppo's life: The Deerslayer, The Last of the Mohicans, The Pathfinder, The Pioneers, The Prairie. For this edition he wrote a preface in which he remarked (prophetically, as it turned out): "If anything from the pen of the writer of these romances is at all to outlive himself, it is, unquestionably, the series of The Leather-Stocking Tales Г Despite many complaints from Mark Twain and later critics about Cooper's style, plots, structure, characterization, and dialogue, the Leatherstocking Tales continue to be read, both in the United States and in many foreign countries, and they seem assured of a long life to come.
In Cooper's day, The Last of the Mohicans was the most popular of the five tales, and it has continued to be so. It has been filmed by American and British companies, and the British version was serialized on American television. Structurally, the novel is superior to the other tales, with three major plot actions and a transitional though bloody interlude (the massacre after the surrender of Fort William Henry). Cooper's action-filled plot, with bad characters chasing good ones or good characters chasing bad ones, has since become standard in many action novels as well as motion pictures and television dramas.
Romantic love was conventional in the plots of novels in Cooper's day. His portrayal of Duncan Hey ward and the Munro sisters, Cora and Alice—who carry most of the love interest in The Last of the Mohicans—shows no originality. They are all genteel characters and they speak in a stiff, formalized manner that seems unreal to present-day readers. Duncan is gentlemanly and the two "females" (as Cooper repeatedly calls them) are ladylike. Cooper contrasts Cora and Alice as he does the pairs of women who keep turning up in his books. Cora, the dark one, is passionate, independent, and unafraid, even defiant; blonde Alice is timid and easily frightened into faints— she resembles the sentimentalized helpless girls of popular early nineteenth century fiction.
Cooper does much better with his forest characters. Hawkeye is talkative, boastful, superstitious, scornful of the book learning he does not possess, and inclined to be sententious at times. Yet he is brave, resourceful, and loyal to his two Indian friends.
His French nickname. La Longue Carabine, attests to his shooting skill. He is religious but sometimes seems more pantheistic than Christian in any formal sense. Hawkeye's arguments with David Gamut oppose his generalized beliefs and Gamut's narrow Calvinism. With his dual background of white birth and early education by Moravian missionaries on the one side and his long experience of living with the Indians on the other, he is, as Balzac called him, "a moral hermaphrodite, a child of savagery and civilization."
Chingachgook and Uncas are idealized representatives of their race. As "good" Indians, they are dignified, taciturn, even noble despite their savage ways. Uncas is lithe, strong, and handsome; he reminds the Munro sisters of a Greek statue. Magua is the "bad" Indian, sullen, fierce, cunning, and treacherous. His desire for Cora as his squaw is motivated by his wish to avenge a whipping ordered by Colonel Munro.
In addition to the love theme, which provides for the marriage of Hey ward and Alice, Cooper includes others. Related to the love theme is miscegenation, which Cooper has been accused of evading by killing off both Cora, who is part black, and Uncas, who had wanted to marry her. Another theme is suggested by the title of the romance. Chingachgook is left mourning for his son, the last of the Mohican sagamores. He grieves also because he foresees the eventual vanishing of his race. Both he and Hawkeye despair as they envision the end of their way of life in the great American wilderness, which will gradually disappear.
It is easy to complain of Cooper's faulty style, his verbosity, his heavy-handed humor (with David Gamut), his improbable actions, the insufficient motivation of his characters, the inconsistency and inaccuracy of his dialogue, yet many readers willingly suspend their disbelief or modify their critical objections in order to enjoy the rush of action which makes up so much of The Last of the Mohicans. They sorrow over the deaths of Cora and Uncas, and their sympathies go out to Chingachgook and Hawkeye in the loss of what had meant so much in their lives. Also, especially in a time when ecologists are fighting to preserve some of the natural beauty of our country, they enjoy Cooper's respect for nature found in his descriptions of the northeastern wilderness as it was in the eighteenth century.
see also: James Fenimore Cooper
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"

Vivian Grey is Benjamin Disraeli's (Disraeli Benjamin ) first novel, published by Henry Colburn in 1826.

In 1827, a second volume was published. Originally published anonymously, ostensibly by a so-called "man of fashion," part 1 caused a considerable sensation in London society. Contemporary reviewers, suspicious of the numerous solecisms contained within the text, eventually identified the young Disraeli (who did not move in high society) as the author. Disraeli wrote a sequel to Vivian Grey, and this second part is Books 5–8 of the total work. The form in which Vivian Grey is published now is the revised 1853 edition, which was severely expurgated and, according to critic Wendy Burton, lost much of the charm and freshness of the 1826 edition. The book is a frequent touchstone for discussions of Disraeli's political and literary career.
Vivian Grey follows its eponymous hero from childhood through his attempt to succeed in the world of politics. The various systems of education through which Vivian Grey passes are analysed. The final system of education is experience, which proves the most instructive and the most shattering. Vivian chooses politics as his career and the novel traces his abortive attempt to gain political power through manipulation of an influential but ineffectual member of parliament. Vivian attempts to organise a party around the Marquess of Carabas, and is ultimately thwarted by his inexperience and naivete in dealing with the political machine. Vivian emerges as a misguided and arrogant young man who is ruthless in his pursuit of power. The catastrophe at the conclusion provides Vivian with a brutal but essential lesson in human behaviour. The novel offers a comment on the political and social temper of England in the early 1820s, and is specifically concerned with the question personal advancement in a rigidly restrictive social structure. The plot is commonly considered to be a thinly-disguised re-telling of Disraeli's involvement with John Murray in the publication and failure of a new newspaper, The Representative.

Vivian Grey provided a natural beginning for students of Disraeli, and a frequent touchstone for discussions of Disraeli's political and literary career. This situation is possible only when the scholar accepts the protagonist of Vivian Grey as a replica of the author, revealed in uncounselled and damaging testimony. The details of the composition of the first part of the novel, and the role of Sara Austen in that composition, as well as awareness of publishing practices in the 1820s in London, challenge the assumption that Vivian Grey is synonymous with the young Benjamin Disrael.

First edition title page.
Vivian Grey includes the first use in print in English of the word "millionaire" (I.ix): "Were I the son of a Millionaire or a noble, I might have all".

The British poet Mary Montgomerie Lamb took her pen name 'Violet Fane' from a character in this novel.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Hebel Johann Peter , Ger. author, d. (b. 1760)

Johann Peter Hebel by Philipp Jakob Becker
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Scheffel Josef Viktor

Joseph Victor von Scheffel, (born February 16, 1826, Karlsruhe, Baden [Germany]—died April 9, 1886, Karlsruhe, Germany), poet and novelist whose immensely popular humorous epic poem Der Trompeter von Säckingen (1854; “The Trumpeter of Säckingen”) and historical novel Ekkehard (1855) appealed to sentimental popular taste and made him one of the most widely read German authors of his time.


Joseph Victor von Scheffel
  Scheffel’s father was a Baden army engineer, and his mother was a poet. At his father’s insistence Scheffel was trained in law at the universities of Munich, Heidelberg, and Berlin and began a career in the Baden civil service in 1848. He soon obtained a leave of absence to travel and study painting in Italy, and in 1853 he resigned his legal post and turned to literature. He served as librarian to Prince Fürstenberg at Donaueschingen from 1857 to 1859. In 1865 he was given the title of privy councillor, and in 1876 he was given a patent of nobility.

Scheffel’s popularity was based on genuine talent as a fluent poet and on his romantic, nationalistic stance that rejected the strictures of contemporary realism in favour of a rosy view of Germany’s ancient glories. His meticulously researched book Ekkehard, set at the 10th-century monastery of St. Gall, was one of the most popular German novels of the century.

His other works include Hugideo (1884), a historical novel set in the 5th century; Frau Aventiure (1863; “Lady Adventure”), a book of verse; and Gaudeamus! (1868), a collection of student songs. Scheffel’s writings eventually fell out of favour with the critics, who viewed them as cloying and trivial.

Encyclopædia Britannica
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Scott: "Woodstock"
Woodstock, or The Cavalier. A Tale of the Year Sixteen Hundred and Fifty-one (1826) is a historical novel by Scott Walter. Set just after the English Civil War, it was inspired by the legend of the Good Devil of Woodstock, which in 1649 supposedly tormented parliamentary commissioners who had taken possession of a royal residence at Woodstock, Oxfordshire. The story deals with the escape of Charles II in 1652, during the Commonwealth, and his final triumphant entry into London on 29 May 1660.
Plot summary
At a thanksgiving service in Woodstock church for the victory at Worcester (3 September 1651), the Rev. Nehemiah Holdenough was compelled to cede the pulpit, which he had usurped from the late rector (Dr Rochecliffe), to Joseph Tomkins, who, in military attire, declaimed against monarchy and prelacy, and announced the sequestration of the royal lodge and park by Cromwell and his followers. Proceeding thither, he encountered Sir Henry Lee, accompanied by his daughter Alice, prepared to surrender his charge, and was conducted through the principal apartments by the forester Joliffe, who managed to send his sweetheart Phoebe and dog Bevis with some provisions to his hut, in which the knight and his daughter had arranged to sleep. On arriving there they found Colonel Everard, a Roundhead who had come to offer them his own and his father's protection; but Sir Henry abused and spurned his nephew as a rebel, and at Alice's entreaty he bade them farewell, as he feared, for ever. On his way to the lodge he met his Royalist friend, Captain Wildrake, whom he was sheltering in spite of his politics, and determined to send him with an appeal to Cromwell to reinstate his uncle at Woodstock. On reaching Windsor, the captain, disguised as a Roundhead, obtained an interview with Oliver Cromwell, and a compliance with Everard's request, on condition that he would aid in securing the murdered king's son, in the event of his seeking refuge with the Lees. Armed with the warrant of ejectment, the colonel and Wildrake, accompanied by the mayor and the minister, visited the Commissioners during their evening carouse, and took part in endeavouring to ascertain the cause of some startling occurrences by which they had been disturbed. Everard made his way alone to a dark gallery, in which he fancied he heard his cousin's voice, and suddenly felt a sword at his throat. Meeting Wildrake as he regained the hall, they hurried off to the hut where they found Dr Rochecliffe reading the Church service to Sir Henry and his daughter; and, after a reconciliation between uncle and nephew, the cousins were allowed a private interview, during which Alice warned her lover against betraying the king.
Frontispiece to Woodstock by Walter Scott.
Returning to the lodge they were told of other unaccountable events; and during the night Everard was ordered by an apparition to change his quarters. The sentinels also declared that they had heard strange sounds, and the Commissioners decided to retire to the village inn. Master Holdenough, too, confessed that he had been terribly shocked by the reflection in a mirror of the figure of a college friend whom he had seen drowned.

The following day Sir Henry Lee was induced to resume his post, and his son Albert arrived with one "Louis Kerneguy", whom he introduced as his Scotch page. Sir Henry having no suspicion who his guest really was treated him without ceremony; and while Dr Rochecliffe and the colonel were planning for his escape to Holland, the disguised Charles amused himself by endeavouring to gain Alice's love; but, in spite of a declaration of his rank, she made him ashamed of his suit. A quarrel, however, having arisen between him and Everard, she evinced her loyalty by preventing a duel they had arranged, at the risk of her reputation and the loss of her cousin's affection. A similar attempt by Tomkins to trifle with Phoebe was punished by a death-blow from Joliffe.

The next evening Everard and his friend, and Holdenough, were unexpectedly made prisoners by Cromwell, who, having received intelligence of their knowledge of the king's sojourn at Woodstock, had brought a large force to secure him. Wildrake, however, managed to send his page Spitfire to the lodge to warn them, and while Alice acted as Charles's guide, Albert, in his dress, concealed himself in Rosamond's tower. Cromwell and his soldiers arrived soon afterwards with Dr Rochecliffe and Joliffe, whom they had seized as they were burying Tomkins, and, having searched all the rooms and passages in vain, they proceeded to blow up the tower.
Albert, however, leapt from it just before the explosion, and Cromwell was furious when he discovered the deception. In his rage he ordered the execution of the old knight and all his abettors, including his dog; but afterwards released them, with the exception of Albert, who was imprisoned, and subsequently fell in the battle of Dunkirk (1658). Alice returned in safety, with the news that the king had effected his escape, and a letter from him to Sir Henry, approving of her marriage with Everard, whose political opinions had been considerably influenced by recent events.

Eight years later Wildrake arrived at Brussels with news for Charles. After Cromwell's son Richard abdicated, the Protectorate was abolished and the country descended into chaos.

Woodstock Palace
Order was restored when George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, marched into the City of London with his army and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament excluded during Pride's Purge. The Long Parliament dissolved itself and for the first time in almost 20 years, there was a general election. The Convention Parliament assembled and voted for Charles' restoration. In his progress to London, Charles, escorted by a brilliant retinue, amidst shouts of welcome from his assembled subjects, dismounted to salute a family group in which the central figure was the old knight of Ditchley, whose venerable features expressed his appreciation of the happiness of once more pressing his sovereign's hand, and whose contented death almost immediately followed the realisation of his anxious and long-cherished hopes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir Walter Scott

  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Voss Johann Heinrich, Ger. poet, d. (b. 1751)

Johann Heinrich Voss
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Moreau Gustave

Gustave Moreau, (born April 6, 1826, Paris, France—died April 18, 1898, Paris), French Symbolist painter known for his erotic paintings of mythological and religious subjects.


Self-portrait of Gustave Moreau, 1850
  The only influence that really affected Moreau’s development was that of his master, Théodore Chassériau (1819–56), an eclectic painter whose depictions of enigmatic sea goddesses deeply impressed his student. In the Salon of 1853 he exhibited Scene from the Song of Songs and the Death of Darius, both conspicuously under the influence of Chassériau.

Moreau’s Oedipus and the Sphinx (1864) and his The Apparition (Dance of Salome) (c. 1876) and Dance of Salome (c. 1876) show his work becoming increasingly concerned with exotic eroticism and violence, and his richly crowded canvases made greater use of dramatic lighting to heighten his brilliant, jewel-like colours. His last work, Jupiter and Sémélé (1896), is the culmination of such tendencies. Moreau’s art has often been described as decadent. He made a number of technical experiments, including scraping his canvases; and his nonfigurative paintings, done in a loose manner with thick impasto, have led him to be called a herald of Abstract Expressionism. Moreau succeeded Elie Delaunay as professor at the École des Beaux-Arts, and his teaching was highly popular. He was a very influential teacher of some of the artists of the Fauve movement, including Matisse and Rouault. At his death, Moreau left to the state his house and about 8,000 works, which now form the Musée Gustave Moreau in Paris.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Gustave Moreau. Apollo and the Nine Muses
see also: Symbolism
Gustave Moreau
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Weber: "Oberon"

Oberon, or The Elf King's Oath is a 3-act romantic opera in English with spoken dialogue and music by Weber Carl Maria.

The libretto by James Robinson Planche was based on a German poem, Oberon, by Christoph Martin Wieland, which itself was based on the epic romance Huon de Bordeaux, a French medieval tale.

Against his doctor's advice, Weber undertook the project commissioned by the actor-impresario Charles Kemble for financial reasons. Having been offered the choice of Faust or Oberon as subject matter, he travelled to London to complete the music, learning English to be better able to follow the libretto, before the premiere of the opera. However, the pressure of rehearsals, social engagements and composing extra numbers destroyed his health, and Weber died in London on 5 June 1826.

Weber - Oberon - Overture
Published on Mar 4, 2013
Overture to Oberon by Carl Maria von Weber
Gewandhausorchester Leipzig
David Oistrakh, conductor
Kongresshalle Leipzig, 28.I.1969
Carl Maria von Weber (Weber Carl Maria), Ger. composer, d. (b. 1786)

Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Ampere Andre: "Electrodynamics"
Lobachevsky Nikolay Ivanovich develops his system of non-Euclidean geometry
Galvanometer invented by Leopoldo Nobili
Nobili Leopoldo
Leopoldo Nobili, born in 1784 in Trassilico (Toscana) and died 5 August 1835 in Florence, was an Italian physicist who invented a number of instruments critical to investigating thermodynamics and electrochemistry.

Leopoldo Nobili
  Born Trassilico, Garfagnana, after attending the Military Academy of Modena he became an artillery officer.

He was awarded the Légion d'honneur for his service in Napoleon's invasion of Russia.

In 1825 he developed the astatic galvanometer.

He worked with Macedonio Melloni on the thermomultiplier, a combination of thermopile and galvanometer, before being appointed professor of physics at the Regal Museum of Physics and Natural History in Florence where he worked with Vincenzo Antinori on electromagnetic induction.

He was also credited with the discovery of 'Nobili's Rings'.

"When a dilute solution of copper acetate is placed on a bright silverplate and a strip of zinc is touched to the silver beneath the copper, a series of rings of copper are formed by electrolysis around the zinc."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A galvanometer is a type of sensitive ammeter: an instrument for detecting electric current.

It is an analog electromechanical actuator that produces a rotary deflection of some type of pointer in response to electric current flowing through its coil in a magnetic field.

Galvanometers were the first instruments used to detect and measure electric currents.

Sensitive galvanometers were used to detect signals from long submarine cables, and to discover the electrical activity of the heart and brain.

Some galvanometers use a solid pointer on a scale to show measurements, other very sensitive types use a miniature mirror and a beam of light to provide mechanical amplification of low level signals.

Initially a laboratory instrument relying on the Earth's own magnetic field to provide restoring force for the pointer, galvanometers were developed into compact, rugged, sensitive portable instruments essential to the development of electrotechnology.

A type of galvanometer that records measurements permanently is the chart recorder.

The term has expanded to include use of the same mechanism in recording, positioning, and servomechanism equipment.

Galvanometer of Nobili
Otto Unverdorben obtains aniline from indigo
Unverdorben Otto

Otto Unverdorben (October 13, 1806 - November 28, 1873) was a German chemist and merchant who was born in Dahme/Marke.

After completing his schooling in Dresden, he studied chemistry at Halle, Leipzig and Berlin.

In 1826 at the age of 20, Unverdorben discovered aniline, which he obtained from the distillation of natural vegetable indigo. He called his discovery Crystallin. Aniline is important in the manufacture of dyes, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. In 1829 he returned to his hometown of Dahme/Mark and became successful in the cigar industry.

Today the Otto-Unverdorben Dahme-Oberschule is named in his honor.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). Historically, indigo was a natural dye extracted from plants, and this process was important economically because blue dyes were once rare. Nearly all indigo dye produced today – several thousand tons each year – is synthetic. It is the blue of blue jeans.
Unterden Linden, Berlin, lit by gas
Stamford Raffles founds Royal Zoological Society, London
Raffles Stamford

Sir Stamford Raffles, in full Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (born July 6, 1781, at sea, off Port Morant, Jam.—died July 5, 1826, London, Eng.), British East Indian administrator and founder of the port city of Singapore (1819), who was largely responsible for the creation of Britain’s Far Eastern empire. He was knighted in 1816.


Sir Stamford Raffles
  Early life.
Born to an improvident merchant captain and his wife during a homeward voyage from the West Indies, Raffles grew up in an atmosphere of debt. Forced to cut short his schooling at the age of 14, he entered the service of the East India Company as a clerk in order to support his mother and four sisters.

Although his formal education was inadequate, he studied the sciences and several languages at his own leisure and conceived an interest in natural history that was to earn him a distinguished reputation. His industry won him such notice that at the age of 23 he was appointed assistant secretary to the newly formed government of Penang, a hitherto inconspicuous island at the northern entrance to the Strait of Malacca.

In Penang, which had been established to give Britain a foothold in the Dutch-held East Indies, Raffles shaped his career by an intensive exploration into the language, history, and culture of the Malayan peoples scattered over the islands of the archipelago.

This unique study caught the attention of Lord Minto, governor-general of India, at a time of crisis, when Napoleon was using Java as a springboard for the destruction of Britain’s slow and lumbering ships, the Indiamen, on the long haul to China. Determined to remove Java from French influence, Minto appointed Raffles his agent to prepare the way for a naval invasion.

Entrusted with an independent authority that aroused jealousy in Penang, Raffles established his headquarters in Malacca. Rewarded for his extraordinary work by an appointment to Minto’s staff, Raffles sailed with him to Java, where the expeditionary force landed without mishap on Aug. 6, 1811, and, after a short and sharp engagement with the Dutch-French forces, occupied the island. Minto gave considerable credit for the success to Raffles. Having already described him as “a very clever, able, active and judicious man,” he now recognized his intellectual and administrative ability and his humanism and concern for the Javanese, and on September 11 he proclaimed him lieutenant governor of Java.

Sir Stamford Raffles in 1817
  Shortly afterward Minto sailed for Calcutta, leaving Raffles at the age of 30 to rule not only Java but also an archipelagic empire of several million inhabitants.

Raffles inaugurated a mass of reforms aimed at transforming the Dutch colonial system and improving the condition of the native population. His reforms, however, proved too costly to a trading company primarily concerned with profit and were short-lived. After four and a half years in Java, suffering from increasing ill health and shattered by the death of his wife, he was recalled.

Left vulnerable to personal attack by the death of Minto, he sailed for England on March 25, 1816, thoroughly out of favour with the court of directors of the East India Company.

He never regained their full confidence. Despite a dazzling London success in both fashionable and learned society that culminated in his election as a fellow of the Royal Society and the award of knighthood, he resumed his Eastern service in a situation of reduced and restricted authority, as lieutenant governor of the dilapidated, fever-ridden pepper port of Bengkulu on the west coast of Sumatra. Yet it was from Bengkulu, as he watched the Dutch regain possession of the Indonesian archipelago and enforce a policy of complete commercial monopoly, that he made his next move to extend British influence in southeastern Asia.


The Plan of the Town of Singapore, or more commonly known as the Jackson Plan
In a voyage to Calcutta, which all but ended in shipwreck, he employed his wide knowledge of Eastern affairs and his powers of persuasion to convince Lord Hastings, then governor-general of India, that immediate and forceful action was essential to safeguard British trade with the Far East. On Dec. 7, 1818, he sailed from Calcutta, bearing Hastings’ qualified authority to establish a fortified post eastward of the Straits of Malacca and so placed as to wedge open the gateway to the China seas. On the morning of Jan. 29, 1819, he landed on the shore of a sparsely populated island off the southern tip of Malaya and, risking imminent collision with the Dutch, established by treaty the port of Singapore. Although he returned to his post at Bengkulu for three years, he went back to Singapore in October 1822, when he reorganized the various branches of the administration. His regulations of January 1823 stated, the Port of Singapore is a free Port, and the trade thereof is open to ships and vessels of every nation . . . equally and alike to all.

By a treaty of March 17, 1824, the Dutch relinquished all claim to Singapore. For Raffles, however, this was a time of rapidly deteriorating health, characterized by headaches of increasing ferocity, and he sailed for England, arriving there on Aug. 22, 1824. In London his vast collections illustrating natural history and Malayan lore won him acclaim as an Orientalist, and he assisted in founding the London Zoo, of which he was elected the first president. He died of a brain tumour in July 1826.

H.F. Pearson

Encyclopædia Britannica

First railroad tunnel, on Liverpool-Manchester line, in England

  BACK-1826 Part I NEXT-1827 Part I