Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1824 Part II NEXT-1825 Part I    
1820 - 1829
History at a Glance
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Trade Union
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Khan Dost Mohammad
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
The Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 (sometimes known simply as "the Choral"), is the final complete symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven (Beethoven Ludwig). Completed in 1824, the symphony is one of the best-known works of the repertoire of classical music.] Among critics, it is almost universally considered to be Beethoven's greatest work, and is considered by many to be the greatest piece of music ever written.

The symphony was the first example of a major composer using voices in a symphony (thus making it a choral symphony). The words are sung during the final movement by four vocal soloists and a chorus. They were taken from the "Ode to Joy", a poem written by Friedrich Schiller in 1785 and revised in 1803, with additions made by the composer. Today, it stands as one of the most played symphonies in the world.

In 2001, Beethoven's autograph score of the Ninth Symphony, held by the Berlin State Library, was added to the United Nations World Heritage List, becoming the first musical score to be so honoured.

Beethoven - Symphony No. 9 in D major ("Choral"), Op. 127
Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125
1 - Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso
2 - Scherzo: Molto vivace -- Presto
3 - Adagio molto e cantabile -- Andante moderato -- Tempo primo -- Andante moderato -- Adagio -- Lo stesso tempo
4 - Recitative: (Presto -- Allegro ma non troppo -- Vivace -- Adagio cantabile -- Allegro assai -- Presto: O Freunde) -- Allegro molto assai: Freude, schöner Götterfunken -- Alla marcia -- Allegro assai vivace: Froh, wie seine Sonnen -- Andante maestoso: Seid umschlungen, Millionen! -- Adagio ma non troppo, ma divoto: Ihr, stürzt nieder -- Allegro energico, sempre ben marcato: (Freude, schöner Götterfunken -- Seid umschlungen, Millionen!) -- Allegro ma non tanto: Freude, Tochter aus Elysium! -- Prestissimo, Maestoso, Molto Prestissimo: Seid umschlungen, Millionen!

Anna Samuil soprano
Waltraud Meier mezzo-soprano
Michael König tenor
René Pape bass
National Youth Choir of Great Britain
West-Eastern Divan Orchestra
Daniel Barenboim, conductor
Royal Albert Hall, 27 July 2012

Ludwig van Beethoven
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Bruckner Anton

Anton Bruckner, in full Josef Anton Bruckner (born Sept. 4, 1824, Ansfelden, Austria—died Oct. 11, 1896, Vienna), Austrian composer of a number of highly original and monumental symphonies. He was also an organist and teacher who composed much sacred and secular choral music.


Anton Bruckner
  Life and career.
Bruckner was the son of a village schoolmaster and organist in Upper Austria. He showed talent on the violin and spinet by the age of four, and by age 10 he was deputizing at the church organ. In 1835–36 he studied in Hörsching with his godfather, J.B. Weiss, a minor composer. After his father’s death in 1837, Bruckner entered the monastery-school of St. Florian as a choir boy. This splendid Baroque foundation, with its magnificent organ, was to remain Bruckner’s spiritual home. He trained in Linz as an assistant schoolteacher in 1840–41, and after holding appointments in Windhaag and Kronstorf, he returned to St. Florian as a fully qualified elementary teacher in 1845.

Bruckner taught at St. Florian for about a decade, and in 1848 he became the principal organist of its abbey church. In the meantime his compositional skills steadily advanced, and the St. Florian period saw a fine Requiem in D Minor (1849), among other works. The influences of Franz Schubert and Felix Mendelssohn were added to the Viennese classical idiom in these works. Though Bruckner eventually grew unhappy with his limited prospects at the cloistered St. Florian monastery, he was hesitant to leave its security for a purely musical career. In 1856 he was reluctantly persuaded by his friends to apply for the post of cathedral organist at Linz, which he won easily. At the same time, he began a five-year correspondence course in advanced harmony and counterpoint with the Viennese teacher Simon Sechter.
Throughout his adult life Bruckner displayed an intense devotion to the spiritual life; an inexorable appetite for musical study, revision, and improvement; and a love of practice and improvisation at the organ.


With his provincial background and devout nature, he cut an odd figure among the sophisticated Romantic composers who were his contemporaries. He never lost his simplicity of character, his rural accent and dress, his social naivete, or his unquestioning deference to authority. Although his intellectual powers cannot be doubted in the light of his achievement, he remained inwardly insecure and constantly sought testimonials and certificates as to his ability. His private life took on an unhappy pattern of passionate but unrequited attachments to younger, usually teenage, girls.

In 1861 Bruckner concluded his arduous studies with Sechter with magnificent testimonials, and he also astonished his judges at an organ examination in Vienna. His style in works such as the seven-part Ave Maria (1861) displays new freedom, depth, and assurance. He now embarked on a study of form and orchestration with Otto Kitzler, and during this time he discovered the music of Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz, and above all Richard Wagner. Kitzler’s production of Wagner’s opera Tannhäuser in Linz in 1863 made an enormous impression on Bruckner. The first of his three choral-orchestral masses, the Mass in D Minor (1864), crowns this period of rigorous, self-imposed training and slow growth to maturity.

After two earlier essays in the orchestral form, Bruckner completed his Symphony No. 1 in C Minor in 1866. That same year he finished the Mass in E Minor, which, along with the Mass in F Minor (1868), completed his triptych of great festive masses. Throughout his creative maturity Bruckner also composed a beautiful series of motets that punctuate the colossal steps of his symphonic progress, among them Locus iste, Christus factus est, and Ecce sacerdos magnus. They rank among the highest achievements of Roman Catholic church music.

Late in 1866 Bruckner suffered a severe nervous collapse, from which he recovered after three months in a sanatorium, though intense depressions would later trouble him. In 1868 he succeeded his late teacher Sechter in a professorship at the Vienna Conservatory. There he taught harmony and counterpoint and endeared himself to pupils for his memorable and engaging academic style.

The story of the last 25 years of Bruckner’s life is essentially that of his symphonies: the creation of new concepts of form, time-span, and unity, and his struggle to achieve success in the face of fierce critical opposition. The boldness and originality of his music met with incomprehension and was mocked by the powerful Viennese critic Eduard Hanslick, who was a champion of the German composer Johannes Brahms and was antipathetic toward Wagner. Bruckner was a fervent admirer of Wagner, and he was erroneously branded as a disciple of that composer; his career suffered from his unwitting involvement in the fierce battle then raging between the adherents of Wagner and Brahms.

Bruckner received a long-sought appointment as a lecturer at the University of Vienna in 1875 over the opposition of Hanslick, who was dean of the university’s music faculty. In 1878 he was elected a member of the Hofkapelle, where he had been an unpaid organist for years. Bruckner’s principal work of chamber music, the String Quintet in F Major, was completed in 1879.

A monumental setting of the Te Deum followed in 1884. Later that year, the conductor Arthur Nikisch’s premiere of the Symphony No. 7 in E Major in Leipzig was Bruckner’s first unequivocal triumph and marked a turning point in his artistic fortunes. His other symphonies soon began to win wider appreciation throughout Germany and even in Vienna.

By the early 1890s Bruckner had become a famous and honoured figure, and he was awarded an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the University of Vienna in 1891. His last choral-orchestral works were Psalm 150 (1892) and Helgoland (1893). Three movements of his Symphony No. 9 in D Minor were ready by 1894, but he was unable to complete the finale before his death. He was buried at St. Florian.

  Works and achievement.
Bruckner had essentially only one symphonic conception, which evolved slowly over the course of his career. The key to his handling of large musical forms is a dramatic use of tonality over a long time span. (The adagio movement of a Bruckner symphony can be a profoundly emotional 30 minutes long.) His earliest symphonies represent the first stage of this development, while the Symphony No. 3 in D Minor (1873) uncovers the essence of his mature style. The Symphony No. 5 in B-flat Major (1875–76) perfected the mould, which Bruckner pursued in three more complete symphonies and an unfinished one.

The first movements of Bruckner’s symphonies open quietly, and the tonal interplay is often hinted at in the earliest bars. These movements are in sonata form, but Bruckner uses three contrasting themes in the exposition rather than the usual two. The second theme is often songlike, with melodic strands appearing simultaneously. The music builds up to climaxes in a terraced or stair-step fashion by means of climbing, sequential repetitions.

The adagios (second movements) typically consist of the long-drawn out alteration of two thematic groups in elaborations of the ABABA form. These slow movements, which build up to massive climaxes, often attain an incomparable sublimity. The scherzos (third movements) are based on dance rhythms, but they vary greatly in tempo, and their pounding, insistent themes achieve a gigantic or primeval quality in the later symphonies. The trio section of the scherzo usually contains a gentle peasant dance, like those Bruckner accompanied in his boyhood.

The final movements, like the first, are built on a three-subject expanded sonata form and incorporate elements of the first three movements. The last movement of the Fifth Symphony, which ends in a massive double fugue, is unique in Bruckner’s symphonies and is undoubtedly his greatest finale. Both the first and last movements of Bruckner’s symphonies usually have mightily expanded codas with blazing perorations.

With his disciplined academic training, strong religious inclinations, and unusually slow route to maturity, Bruckner more closely resembled a Baroque or Renaissance composer than one of the Romantic era.


Yet his mature compositional style is daring in form, harmony, and tonality. His immense polyphonic skill, his ability to incorporate archaic forms within his own advanced style, his fondness for sudden contrasts of timbre and dynamics, and his use of magnificent brass effects all testify to his boldness and originality. Bruckner’s orchestration is remarkably economical, however, and is quite unlike the lavish homogeneity of Wagner. Families of instruments are sounded alternately in contrasted groups (e.g., brasses against woodwinds), achieving a beauty and monumentality out of all proportion to the relatively modest number and type of instruments employed. None of Bruckner’s symphonies are programmatic except insofar as they are “charged with the grandeur of God.”

Because of the many revisions Bruckner made to his symphonic scores, there has always existed the problem of which version is best in performance. As a general rule, however, the first version is usually preferable. The second half of the 20th century saw a huge expansion in the public’s appreciation of Bruckner, whose music repays a patient approach on the part of the listener.

Derek Watson

Encyclopædia Britannica
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Gloucester Choral Society
Gloucester Cathedral

May 9th Concert - Make a Joyful Noise

Anton Bruckner
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Smetana Bedrich
Bedrich Smetana, (born March 2, 1824, Leitomischl, Bohemia, Austrian Empire [now Litomyšl, Czech Republic]—died May 12, 1884, Prague), Bohemian composer of operas and symphonic poems, founder of the Czech national school of music. He was the first truly important Bohemian nationalist composer.

Bedrich Smetana
  Smetana studied music under his father, an amateur violinist. He early took up piano under a professional teacher and performed in public at the age of six. He continued his studies and later became music teacher to the family of Leopold, Count von Thun. Encouraged by Franz Liszt he opened a piano school in Prague in 1848 and the next year married the pianist Kateřina Kolářová. In 1856 he wrote his first symphonic poems and in the same year was appointed conductor of the philharmonic society of Gothenburg (Sweden), where he remained until 1861. He then returned to Prague, where he played the leading part in the establishment of the national opera house.
Smetana’s first opera, Braniboři v Čechách (The Brandenburgers in Bohemia), was produced in Prague in 1866. This was followed by the production on May 30, 1866, of his second opera, Prodaná nevěsta (The Bartered Bride), which later established Smetana’s reputation as a distinctively Czech composer. His later operas were less successful. Dalibor, written under the influence of Wagner, was performed in 1868. Libuše, named after a legendary figure in the history of Prague and intended to celebrate the projected coronation (which never took place) of the emperor Francis Joseph as king of Bohemia, was not produced until 1881. In 1874 Smetana’s health began to deteriorate as a result of syphilis. Greatly concerned, he resigned his conductorship of the Prague Opera. He became totally deaf in late 1874, but between that year and 1879 he wrote the cycle of six symphonic poems bearing the collective title Má vlast (My Country), which includes Vltava (The Moldau), Z českých luhů a hájů (From Bohemia’s Meadows and Forests), and Vyšehrad (the name of a fortress in Prague).

From this period also came the string quartet to which he gave the title Z mého života (From My Life), considered among his finest works; Hubička (The Kiss), successfully produced in 1876; Čertova stěna (The Devil’s Wall), performed in 1882; and a number of piano solos, including many polkas. Smetana had been, from early in life, a virtuoso performer on the piano, and for many years most of his works were composed for it. Those compositions, augmented by the more mature piano pieces of his difficult last years, constitute an important body of piano literature. Following attacks of depression and symptoms of mental instability, Smetana entered an asylum at Prague and died there.

The Smetana Society, founded in Prague in 1931, maintains a museum containing the composer’s manuscripts and sponsors the publication and performance of his works. Smetana’s works, notably The Bartered Bride, My Country, and the piano trio, continue to be performed throughout the world.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Smetana - Die Moldau
Smetana - Die Moldau - Karajan
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra
Bedrich Smetana
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Portland Cement developed by Joseph Aspdin
Aspdin Joseph

Joseph Aspdin (December? 1778 – 20 March 1855) was an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.

Joseph Aspdin (or Aspden) was the eldest of the six children of Thomas Aspdin, a bricklayer living in the Hunslet district of Leeds, Yorkshire. He was baptised on Christmas Day, 1778. He entered his father's trade, and married Mary Fotherby at Leeds Parish Church (the Parish Church of St Peter at Leeds) on 21 May 1811.

By 1817 he had set up in business on his own in central Leeds. He must have experimented with cement manufacture during the next few years, because on 21 October 1824 he was granted the British Patent BP 5022 entitled An Improvement in the Mode of Producing an Artificial Stone, in which he coined the term "Portland cement" by analogy with the Portland stone, an oolitic limestone that is quarried on the channel coast of England, on the Isle of Portland in Dorset.

Almost immediately after this, in 1825, in partnership with a Leeds neighbour, William Beverley, he set up a production plant for this product in Kirkgate, Wakefield. Beverley stayed in Leeds, but Aspdin and his family moved to Wakefield (about nine miles away) at this point. He obtained a second patent, for a method of making lime, in 1825. The Kirkgate plant was closed in 1838 after compulsory purchase of the land by the Manchester and Leeds Railway Company, and the site was cleared. He moved his equipment to a second site nearby in Kirkgate.

At this time his eldest son James was working as an accountant in Leeds, and his younger son, William, was running the plant. However, in 1841, Joseph went into partnership with James, and posted a notice that William had left, and that the company would not be responsible for his debts. It can be assumed that William developed his modifications leading to "modern" Portland cement around the time of his departure. In 1844 Joseph retired, transferring his share of the business to James. James moved to a third site at Ings Road in 1848, and this plant continued in operation until 1900. Joseph Aspdin died on 20 March 1855, at home in Wakefield.

The Patent
The patent reads as follows:

TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, I, Joseph Aspdin, of Leeds, in the County of York, Bricklayer, send greeting. WHEREAS His present most Excellent Majesty King George the Fourth, by His Letters Patent under the Great Seal of Great Britain, bearing date at Westminster, the Twenty-first day of October, in the fifth year of His reign, did, for Himself, His heirs and successors, give and grant unto me, the said Joseph Aspdin, His special licence, that I, the said Joseph Aspdin, my exors, admors, and assigns, should at any time agree with, and no others, from time to time at all time during the term of years therein expressed, should and lawfully might make, use, exercise, and vend, within England, Wales and the Town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, my invention of

in which said Letters Patent there is contained a proviso obliging me, said Joseph Aspdin, by an instrument in writing under my hand and seal, particularly to describe and ascertain the nature of my said invention, and in what manner the same is to be performed, and to cause the same to be inrolled in his Majesty's High Court of Chancery within two calendar months next and immediately after the date of the said part recited Letters Patent (as in and by the same), reference being thereunto had, will more fully and at large appear.

Patent nr. BP 5022, "An Improvement in the Modes of Producing an Artificial Stone", Joseph Aspdin, 21 October 1824, page 1/2
NOW KNOW YE, that in compliance with the said proviso, I, the said Joseph Aspdin, do hereby declare the nature of my said Invention, and the manner in which the same is to be performed, are particularly described and ascertained in the following description thereof (that is to say):
My method of making a cement or artificial stone for stuccoing buildings, waterworks, cisterns, or any other purpose to which it may be applicable (and which I call Portland cement) is as follows:- I take a specific quantity of limestone, such as that generally used for making or repairing roads, and I take it from the roads after it is reduced to a puddle or powder; but if I cannot procure a sufficient quantity of the above from the roads, I obtain the limestone itself, and I cause the puddle or powder, or the limestone, as the case may be, to be calcined. I then take a specific quantity of argillaceous earth or clay, and mix them with water to a state approaching impalpability, either by manual labour or machinery. After this proceeding I put the above mixture into a slip pan for evaporation, either by heat of the sun or by submitting it to the action of fire or steam conveyed in flues or pipe under or near the pan till the water is entirely evaporated. Then I brake the said mixture into suitable lumps and calcine them in a furnace similar to a lime kiln till the carbonic acid is entirely expelled. The mixture so calcined is to be ground, beat, or rolled to a fine powder, and is then in a fit state for making cement or artificial stone. This powder is to be mixed with a sufficient quantity of water to bring it into the consistency of mortar, and thus applied to the purposes wanted.

In witness whereof, I, the said Joseph Aspdin, have hereunto set my hand seal, this Fifteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four.

Signed: Joseph Aspdin

AND BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the Fifteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord 1824, and aforesaid Joseph Aspdin came before our said Lord the King in His Chancery, and acknowledged the Specification aforesaid, and all and every thing therein contained and specified, in form above written. And also the Specification aforesaid was stamped according to the tenor of the statute made for that purpose.

Inrolled the Eighteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four.

  Implications of the patent
Aspdin called the product Portland cement because set mortar made from it resembled “the best Portland stone". Portland stone was the most prestigious building stone in use in England at the time. The patent clearly does not describe the product recognised as Portland cement today. The product was aimed at the market for stuccos and architectural pre-cast mouldings, for which a fast-setting, low-strength cement was required (see cement). It was fired at low temperature (below 1250 °C) and therefore contained no alite.

The product belongs to the category of "artificial cements" that were developed to compete with Parker's Roman cement, and was similar to that developed much earlier by James Frost. The process described is a "double burning" process in which the limestone is burned on its own first, then slaked, mixed with clay, and burned again. This was a common practice for manufacturers of both Artificial and Portland cements when only hard limestones were available. The grinding technology of the time consisted only of flat millstones, and it was more economic to comminute the limestone by burning and slaking than by grinding.

The limestone he used was the Pennine Carboniferous limestone of the area, which was used for paving in the towns and on the turnpike roads. The characteristic practise of the patent (and of his lime patent) is the use of "road sweepings" as a raw material. He says that if the sweepings are not available he obtains 'the limestone itself". It is significant that Aspdin was twice prosecuted for digging up whole paving blocks from the local roads. Limestone supply was clearly a major headache for Aspdin in the days before stone could be brought in by rail. This provides context for the friction that developed with his son William. William's innovation was to make a mix with a higher limestone content, to burn it at a higher temperature using more fuel, and to grind the hitherto-discarded hard clinkered material, hence increasing wear-and-tear in the grinding process. William subsequently moved south to north-east Kent, where inexhaustible supplies of soft chalk were available, and launched the "modern" Portland cement industry.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nicolas Carnot: "Puissance motrice du feu" (on thermodynamics)
Carnot Sadi

Sadi Carnot, in full Nicolas-léonard-sadi Carnot (born June 1, 1796, Paris, Fr.—died Aug. 24, 1832, Paris), French scientist who described the Carnot cycle, relating to the theory of heat engines.


Sadi Carnot

  Carnot was the eldest son of the French Revolutionary figure Lazare Carnot and was named for a medieval Persian poet and philosopher, Saʿdī of Shīrāz. His early years were a period of unrest, and the family suffered many changes of fortune. His father fled into exile soon after Sadi’s birth; in 1799 he returned to be appointed Napoleon’s minister of war but was soon forced to resign. A writer on mathematics and mechanics as well as military and political matters, the elder Carnot now had the leisure to direct his son’s early education.

Sadi entered the École Polytechnique in 1812, an institution providing an exceptionally fine education, with a faculty of famous scientists aware of the latest developments in physics and chemistry, which they based on a rigorous mathematics. By the time Sadi graduated in 1814, Napoleon’s empire was being rolled back, and European armies were invading France. Soon Paris itself was besieged, and the students, Sadi among them, fought a skirmish on the outskirts of the city.

During Napoleon’s brief return to power in 1815, Lazare Carnot was minister of the interior, but, following the emperor’s final abdication, he fled to Germany, never to return to France.

Sadi remained an army officer for most of his life, despite disputes about his seniority, denial of promotion, and the refusal to employ him in the job for which he had been trained. In 1819 he transferred to the recently formed General Staff but quickly retired on half pay, living in Paris on call for army duty. Friends described him as reserved, almost taciturn, but insatiably curious about science and technical processes.
The mature, creative period of his life now began. Sadi attended public lectures on physics and chemistry provided for workingmen. He was also inspired by long discussions with the prominent physicist and successful industrialist Nicolas Clément-Desormes, whose theories he further clarified by his insight and ability to generalize. The problem occupying Carnot was how to design good steam engines. Steam power already had many uses—draining water from mines, excavating ports and rivers, forging iron, grinding grain, and spinning and weaving cloth—but it was inefficient.

The import into France of advanced engines after the war with Britain showed Carnot how far French design had fallen behind. It irked him particularly that the British had progressed so far through the genius of a few engineers who lacked formal scientific education. British engineers had also accumulated and published reliable data about the efficiency of many types of engines under actual running conditions; and they vigorously argued the merits of low- and high-pressure engines and of single-cylinder and multicylinder engines.

Convinced that France’s inadequate utilization of steam was a factor in its downfall, Carnot began to write a nontechnical work on the efficiency of steam engines. Other workers before him had examined the question of improving the efficiency of steam engines by comparing the expansion and compression of steam with the production of work and consumption of fuel. In his essay, Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres à développer cette puissance (Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire), published in 1824, Carnot tackled the essence of the process, not concerning himself as others had done with its mechanical details.

  He saw that, in a steam engine, motive power is produced when heat “drops” from the higher temperature of the boiler to the lower temperature of the condenser, just as water, when falling, provides power in a waterwheel. He worked within the framework of the caloric theory of heat, assuming that heat was a gas that could be neither created nor destroyed.

Though the assumption was incorrect and Carnot himself had doubts about it even while he was writing, many of his results were nevertheless true, notably the prediction that the efficiency of an idealized engine depends only on the temperature of its hottest and coldest parts and not on the substance (steam or any other fluid) that drives the mechanism.

Although formally presented to the Academy of Sciences and given an excellent review in the press, the work was completely ignored until 1834, when Émile Clapeyron, a railroad engineer, quoted and extended Carnot’s results. Several factors might account for this delay in recognition; the number of copies printed was limited and the dissemination of scientific literature was slow, and such a work was hardly expected to come from France when the leadership in steam technology had been centred in England for a century.

Eventually Carnot’s views were incorporated by the thermodynamic theory as it was developed by Rudolf Clausius in Germany (1850) and William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) in Britain (1851).

Little is known of Carnot’s subsequent activities. In 1828 he described himself as a “constructor of steam engines, in Paris.” When the Revolution of 1830 in France seemed to promise a more liberal regime, there was a suggestion that Carnot be given a government position, but nothing came of it.

He was also interested in improving public education. When absolutist monarchy was restored, he returned to scientific work, which he continued until his death in the cholera epidemic of 1832 in Paris.

Eric Mendoza

Encyclopædia Britannica
Thomson William

William Thomson, Baron Kelvin, in full William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs, also called (1866–92) Sir William Thomson (born June 26, 1824, Belfast, County Antrim, Ire. [now in Northern Ireland]—died Dec. 17, 1907, Netherhall, near Largs, Ayrshire, Scot.), Scottish engineer, mathematician, and physicist who profoundly influenced the scientific thought of his generation.


William Thomson, Baron Kelvin, 1869
  Thomson, who was knighted and raised to the peerage in recognition of his work in engineering and physics, was foremost among the small group of British scientists who helped to lay the foundations of modern physics. His contributions to science included a major role in the development of the second law of thermodynamics; the absolute temperature scale (measured in kelvins); the dynamical theory of heat; the mathematical analysis of electricity and magnetism, including the basic ideas for the electromagnetic theory of light; the geophysical determination of the age of the Earth; and fundamental work in hydrodynamics. His theoretical work on submarine telegraphy and his inventions for use on submarine cables aided Britain in capturing a preeminent place in world communication during the 19th century. The style and character of Thomson’s scientific and engineering work reflected his active personality. While a student at the University of Cambridge, he was awarded silver sculls for winning the university championship in racing single-seater rowing shells. He was an inveterate traveler all of his life, spending much time on the Continent and making several trips to the United States. In later life he commuted between homes in London and Glasgow. Thomson risked his life several times during the laying of the first transatlantic cable.
Thomson’s worldview was based in part on the belief that all phenomena that caused force—such as electricity, magnetism, and heat—were the result of invisible material in motion. This belief placed him in the forefront of those scientists who opposed the view that forces were produced by imponderable fluids. By the end of the century, however, Thomson, having persisted in his belief, found himself in opposition to the positivistic outlook that proved to be a prelude to 20th-century quantum mechanics and relativity. Consistency of worldview eventually placed him counter to the mainstream of science.

But Thomson’s consistency enabled him to apply a few basic ideas to a number of areas of study. He brought together disparate areas of physics—heat, thermodynamics, mechanics, hydrodynamics, magnetism, and electricity—and thus played a principal role in the great and final synthesis of 19th-century science, which viewed all physical change as energy-related phenomena. Thomson was also the first to suggest that there were mathematical analogies between kinds of energy. His success as a synthesizer of theories about energy places him in the same position in 19th-century physics that Sir Isaac Newton has in 17th-century physics or Albert Einstein in 20th-century physics. All of these great synthesizers prepared the ground for the next grand leap forward in science.


William Thomson, Baron Kelvin, 1897
  Early life
William Thomson was the fourth child in a family of seven. His mother died when he was six years old. His father, James Thomson, who was a textbook writer, taught mathematics, first in Belfast and later as a professor at the University of Glasgow; he taught his sons the most recent mathematics, much of which had not yet become a part of the British university curriculum. An unusually close relationship between a dominant father and a submissive son served to develop William’s extraordinary mind.

William, age 10, and his brother James, age 11, matriculated at the University of Glasgow in 1834. There William was introduced to the advanced and controversial thinking of Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier when one of Thomson’s professors loaned him Fourier’s pathbreaking book The Analytical Theory of Heat, which applied abstract mathematical techniques to the study of heat flow through any solid object.

Thomson’s first two published articles, which appeared when he was 16 and 17 years old, were a defense of Fourier’s work, which was then under attack by British scientists. Thomson was the first to promote the idea that Fourier’s mathematics, although applied solely to the flow of heat, could be used in the study of other forms of energy—whether fluids in motion or electricity flowing through a wire.

Thomson won many university awards at Glasgow, and at the age of 15 he won a gold medal for “An Essay on the Figure of the Earth,” in which he exhibited exceptional mathematical ability. That essay, highly original in its analysis, served as a source of scientific ideas for Thomson throughout his life. He last consulted the essay just a few months before he died at the age of 83.

Thomson entered Cambridge in 1841 and took a B.A. degree four years later with high honours. In 1845 he was given a copy of George Green’s An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism. That work and Fourier’s book were the components from which Thomson shaped his worldview and that helped him create his pioneering synthesis of the mathematical relationship between electricity and heat. After finishing at Cambridge, Thomson went to Paris, where he worked in the laboratory of the physicist and chemist Henri-Victor Regnault to gain practical experimental competence to supplement his theoretical education.

The chair of natural philosophy (later called physics) at the University of Glasgow fell vacant in 1846. Thomson’s father then mounted a carefully planned and energetic campaign to have his son named to the position, and at the age of 22 William was unanimously elected to it. Despite blandishments from Cambridge, Thomson remained at Glasgow for the rest of his career. He resigned his university chair in 1899, at the age of 75, after 53 years of a fruitful and happy association with the institution. He was making room, he said, for younger men.


Photograph of William Thomson, Lord Kelvin
  Thomson’s scientific work was guided by the conviction that the various theories dealing with matter and energy were converging toward one great, unified theory. He pursued the goal of a unified theory even though he doubted that it was attainable in his lifetime or ever. The basis for Thomson’s conviction was the cumulative impression obtained from experiments showing the interrelation of forms of energy. By the middle of the 19th century it had been shown that magnetism and electricity, electromagnetism, and light were related, and Thomson had shown by mathematical analogy that there was a relationship between hydrodynamic phenomena and an electric current flowing through wires. James Prescott Joule also claimed that there was a relationship between mechanical motion and heat, and his idea became the basis for the science of thermodynamics.

In 1847, at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Thomson first heard Joule’s theory about the interconvertibility of heat and motion. Joule’s theory went counter to the accepted knowledge of the time, which was that heat was an imponderable substance (caloric) and could not be, as Joule claimed, a form of motion. Thomson was open-minded enough to discuss with Joule the implications of the new theory. At the time, though he could not accept Joule’s idea, Thomson was willing to reserve judgment, especially since the relationship between heat and mechanical motion fit into his own view of the causes of force.

By 1851 Thomson was able to give public recognition to Joule’s theory, along with a cautious endorsement in a major mathematical treatise, “On the Dynamical Theory of Heat.” Thomson’s essay contained his version of the second law of thermodynamics, which was a major step toward the unification of scientific theories.

Thomson’s work on electricity and magnetism also began during his student days at Cambridge. When, much later, James Clerk Maxwell decided to undertake research in magnetism and electricity, he read all of Thomson’s papers on the subject and adopted Thomson as his mentor. Maxwell—in his attempt to synthesize all that was known about the interrelationship of electricity, magnetism, and light—developed his monumental electromagnetic theory of light, probably the most significant achievement of 19th-century science. This theory had its genesis in Thomson’s work, and Maxwell readily acknowledged his debt.

Thomson’s contributions to 19th-century science were many.


William Thomson, Baron Kelvin,
with his compass, 1902
  He advanced the ideas of Michael Faraday, Fourier, Joule, and others. Using mathematical analysis, Thomson drew generalizations from experimental results. He formulated the concept that was to be generalized into the dynamic theory of energy. He also collaborated with a number of leading scientists of the time, among them Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Hermann von Helmholtz, Peter Guthrie Tait, and Joule. With these partners, he advanced the frontiers of science in several areas, particularly hydrodynamics. Furthermore, Thomson originated the mathematical analogy between the flow of heat in solid bodies and the flow of electricity in conductors.
Thomson’s involvement in a controversy over the feasibility of laying a transatlantic cable changed the course of his professional work. His work on the project began in 1854 when Stokes, a lifelong correspondent on scientific matters, asked for a theoretical explanation of the apparent delay in an electric current passing through a long cable. In his reply, Thomson referred to his early paper “On the Uniform Motion of Heat in Homogeneous Solid Bodies, and its Connexion with the Mathematical Theory of Electricity” (1842). Thomson’s idea about the mathematical analogy between heat flow and electric current worked well in his analysis of the problem of sending telegraph messages through the planned 3,000-mile (4,800-km) cable.
His equations describing the flow of heat through a solid wire proved applicable to questions about the velocity of a current in a cable.
The publication of Thomson’s reply to Stokes prompted a rebuttal by E.O.W. Whitehouse, the Atlantic Telegraph Company’s chief electrician. Whitehouse claimed that practical experience refuted Thomson’s theoretical findings, and for a time Whitehouse’s view prevailed with the directors of the company. Despite their disagreement, Thomson participated, as chief consultant, in the hazardous early cable-laying expeditions. In 1858 Thomson patented his telegraph receiver, called a mirror galvanometer, for use on the Atlantic cable. (The device, along with his later modification called the siphon recorder, came to be used on most of the worldwide network of submarine cables.) Eventually the directors of the Atlantic Telegraph Company fired Whitehouse, adopted Thomson’s suggestions for the design of the cable, and decided in favour of the mirror galvanometer. Thomson was knighted in 1866 by Queen Victoria for his work.

Lord Kelvin by Hubert von Herkomer
  Later life
After the successful laying of the transatlantic cable, Thomson became a partner in two engineering consulting firms, which played a major role in the planning and construction of submarine cables during the frenzied era of expansion that resulted in a global network of telegraph communication. Thomson became a wealthy man who could afford a 126-ton yacht and a baronial estate.

Thomson’s interests in science included not only electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, and hydrodynamics but also geophysical questions about tides, the shape of the Earth, atmospheric electricity, thermal studies of the ground, the Earth’s rotation, and geomagnetism. He also entered the controversy over Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. Thomson opposed Darwin, remaining “on the side of the angels.”

Thomson challenged the views on geologic and biological change of the early uniformitarians, including Darwin, who claimed that the Earth and its life had evolved over an incalculable number of years, during which the forces of nature always operated as at present. On the basis of thermodynamic theory and Fourier’s studies, Thomson in 1862 estimated that more than one million years ago the Sun’s heat and the temperature of the Earth must have been considerably greater and that these conditions had produced violent storms and floods and an entirely different type of vegetation.

His views, published in 1868, particularly angered Darwin’s supporters. Thomas Henry Huxley replied to Thomson in the 1869 Anniversary Address of the President of the Geological Society of London. Thomson’s speculations as to the age of the Earth and the Sun were inaccurate, but he did succeed in pressing his contention that biological and geologic theory had to conform to the well-established theories of physics.

In an 1884 series of lectures at Johns Hopkins University on the state of scientific knowledge, Thomson wondered aloud about the failures of the wave theory of light to explain certain phenomena. His interest in the sea, roused aboard his yacht, the Lalla Rookh, resulted in a number of patents: a compass that was adopted by the British Admiralty; a form of analog computer for measuring tides in a harbour and for calculating tide tables for any hour, past or future; and sounding equipment. He established a company to manufacture these items and a number of electrical measuring devices. Like his father, he published a textbook, Treatise on Natural Philosophy (1867), a work on physics coauthored with Tait that helped shape the thinking of a generation of physicists.

Thomson was said to be entitled to more letters after his name than any other man in the Commonwealth. He received honorary degrees from universities throughout the world and was lauded by engineering societies and scientific organizations. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1851 and served as its president from 1890 to 1895. He published more than 600 papers and was granted dozens of patents. He died at his estate in Scotland and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London.

Harold I. Sharlin

Encyclopædia Britannica
The Hume and Hovell expedition

The Hume and Hovell expedition was one of the most important journeys of explorations undertaken in eastern Australia. In 1824 the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Thomas Brisbane, commissioned Hamilton Hume and former Royal Navy Captain William Hovell to lead an expedition to find new grazing land in the south of the colony, and also to find an answer to the mystery of where New South Wales's western rivers flowed.

Surveyor General John Oxley asserted that no river could fall into the sea between Cape Otway and Spencer's Gulf , and that the country south of parallel of 34 degrees was ' uninhabitable and useless for all purposes of civilised men,' and for the time exploration in this direction was greatly discouraged. In 1824, newly appointed Sir Thomas Brisbane, who disbelieved this statement, offered to land a party of prisoners near Wilson's Promontory and grant them a free pardon, as well as a grant of land, to those who found their way overland to Sydney.

Mr. Alexander Berry recommended the Governor to secure the services of Mr. Hume to lead the exploring party. Mr. Hume declined to undertake that task but instead offered, if supplied with men and horses, to go from Lake George to Bass Straits.
This was not carried out. But shortly afterwards Mr. Hume and Captain W. H. Hovell, of Minto, agreed together to undertake an expedition in that direction. They found men and horses and bullocks; the Government furnished them with pack saddles, tarpaulins, tent, arms, ammunition, and skeleton charts.

The two leaders each possessing special qualifications, it was not unreasonably counted that their association would be highly advantageous. However nothing could be farther from the truth. The two men regarded one another as rivals and quarrelled at the start, wrangled throughout the entire journey, and maintained a bitter feud till death.

  The party
Apart from Hume and Hovell, there were six convict members of the expedition. These men played their own valuable role in making the journey a successful one.

Claude Barrois (stated as Bossawa in records)[citation needed], became one of Hume's men just before the expedition. He never married and died in the Sydney Convict Hospital in 1841.
Henry Angel, was one of Hume's men. Granted ticket of leave in July 1825. He later accompanied Sturt and Hume in 1828.
James Fitzpatrick, was one of Hume's men, who later took up land between Cootamundra and Gundagai; later bought 'Glenlee' station near Campbelltown, died at 86.
William Bollard, was one of Hovell's assigned servants. He later built and kept a hotel called the "Farriers Arms" in Upper Picton in the 1840's. He died on 21st August, 1854, and is buried in the Catholic Cemetery, Upper Picton.
Thomas Smith, was Hovell's assigned servant. He later married Sarah Dean, had two children and died at Eastern Creek, NSW in 1837.
Thomas Boyd, was known to Hume as a well-respected horseman, bushman and swimmer, was at the time indentured to the Kennedy family and Hume arranged for Boyd to join the party as one of Hovell's men. Returned to Tumut district and settled on Gilmore Creek. He married, had 12 children and died at 'Windowie', near Tumut, on 27 June 1885, aged 86 years. He is buried in the Tumut Pioneer Cemetery, where a headstone marks his grave.

Outfitting of the expedition
The expedition is considered to have been privately funded however the Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane furnished a six pack saddles and gear, one tent of Parramatta cloth, two tarpaulins, a suit of slops for each of the men, a few bush utensils, a small quantity of arms and ammunition, and two skeleton charts for tho tracing of our Journey, worth about 50 pounds.

The supplies were as follows: 7 pack saddles, 1 riding saddle, 8 stand of arms, 6 pounds of gunpowder, 60 rounds of ball cartridge, 6 blankets, 2 tarpaulins, 1 tent, 1200 lbs flour, 350 lbs pork, 170 ;lbs sugar, 38 lbs tea & coffee, 8 lbs tobacco, 16 lbs soap, 20 lbs salt, 8 gal rum, 1 false horizon, 1 sextant, 3 pocket compasses, 1 pram, and cooking utensils.

On 2 October 1824, Hovell and Hume met at Mr. Hume's house in Appin, and started upon their expedition. The party when complete, consisted of eight persons, Mr. Hume and his three men, Claude Bossowa, Henry Angel, and James Fitzpatrick. And Mr. Hovell and his three men, Thomas Boyd, William Bollard, and Thomas Smith.

They reached Mr. Hume's station near Lake George on the 13th and then started their journey on the 17th. On the 18th they camped near (the site of his late residence), Cooma Cottage. On the 19th they passed Yarrh - or as they are now called Yass Plains.

Their first great difficulty was in crossing the Murrumbidgee which was in full flood at the time. The timber growing on the banks of this river was too heavy to float, so Mr. Hume resolved to make a raft of the body of one of their carts. Mr. Hume and Mr. Hovell's man Boyd, swam across the river first, with a small rope between their teeth, to which was attached a line long enough to reach across the river. It was a work of peril, as the current was strong. But they succeeded, and then, with much labour, got the whole party, with baggage and cattle, safely over.

On 24 October they came up to what seemed an impenetrable mountain barrier. There was an argument between the leaders concerning the best route to take which resulted in the party splitting up. The equipment was divided, and they prepared to cut their one tent in halves. Hume and Hovell fought bitterly over the frying-pan, which fell apart in their hands. One of them taking the handle, the other the pan itself. Later, however, Hovell rejoined Hume when he found he had made a mistake. Mr. Hume, with two men, following a chain of ponds, came to a chasm through which the whole party afterwards descended.

  On the 31st they found themselves on the western edge of the tableland. The descent was not accomplished without much difficulty. And here they proved the great superiority of bullocks over horses for travelling over a mountainous country. On 6 November, they came insight of the snow covered Australian Alps. They came after this upon a very rich country, abounding in kangaroos and other animals, with frequent tracks of aborigines; and on Tuesday, 16 November, they arrived suddenly on the banks of a "fine river".

Mr. Hume was the first to see the river, near the site of Albury and named it "the Hume," (now the Murray River) after his father, the commissary. This river, where they first came upon it, is about eighty yards in breadth, and of considerable depth. The current was about three miles an hour, and the water clear. The course of the river is serpentine, and its banks covered with verdure.

They improvised a tarpaulin covered wicker boat, but nobody was keen on crossing in such a fragile craft. "If you don't do what tell you i'll throw you in!" thundered Hume at Hovell. And with that, they were able to eventually cross and continue into what is now known as Victoria.

They proceeded south crossing the Ovens River and Goulburn River by a route further to the east of the Hume Highway and closer to the foothills of Mount Buffalo. They reached the Great Dividing Range in rugged country around Mount Disappointment by following an aboriginal track roughly along the Yea to Kinglake road. From the summit of Mount Disappointment they observed bushfires and were unable to find a way through the range.

They then retraced their steps to what is now the Strath Creek road at Flowerdale then moved west along Sunday Creek to Mount Piper near Broadford.


Hume and Hovells 1824 expedition is shown by the broken line
Crossing the Great Divide
Hume and Hovell tried again to breach the Great Divide and finally succeeded at Pretty Sally. In the next few days they crossed the volcanic plains north and west of Melbourne. They continued southwards towards the junction of the Maribyrnong River and Jacksons Creek.

Soon they arrived at Corio Bay which the aboriginals called 'Iramoo Downs' near the present site of Geelong.[ Because of damaged instruments they believed they had reached Western Port, the large bay further east which had been discovered by Matthew Flinders and George Bass in 1798.

Twenty-two years later, in 1825, James Meehan, who had accompanied John Murray in exploring Port Phillip Bay 18 month earlier, was to tell Hume that there were no large islands in Port Phillip, and that therefore had reached Port Phillip, not Western Port as Hovell had insisted. They spent three days recuperating before retracing their steps back to Sydney arriving back to Mr. Hume's station near Lake George on 18 January 1825.

Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright, and Lieutenant Burchell were sent in H.M.S. Fly (Captain Wetherall) and the brigs Dragon and Amity, with orders to proceed to Western Port and establish a colony. On 18 November 1826. They took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Attached to the party was Hovell, who had travelled overland from Sydney to Port Phillip at a point about twelve miles from the present town of Geelong with Hamilton Hume the previous year. Hovell had insisted that it was Western Port, not Port Phillip they had visited on that occasion ; but on viewing the former water with the expedition under Colonel Stewart he was soon aware of his mistake.

  Return to Sydney
Relations between the "currency lad" (first-generation Australian) Hume and the aloof Englishman Hovell had deteriorated, and they raced each other back to Sydney to claim credit for their discoveries.

They arrived in January, and were both rewarded with large land grants by Governor Brisbane. They later published conflicting accounts of the journey, each claiming leadership, but today Hume is much the better remembered of the two.

The Hume and Hovell expedition disproved the widely held view that the interior of Australia was an uninhabitable wilderness. They found abundant well-watered grazing land between the Murrumbidgee and the Murray, and also in Victoria.

Soon streams of settlers were following their route, which is now the Hume Highway from Sydney to Melbourne via Albury. But their expedition only deepened the mystery of the western rivers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hume Hamilton

Hamilton Hume, in full Andrew Hamilton Hume (born June 19, 1797, near Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia—died April 19, 1873, Coomer Cottage, Yass, New South Wales), Australian explorer whose work did much to open up the Berrima–Bong Bong district.


Hamilton Hume
  Hume was the eldest son of Andrew Hamilton Hume (1762–1849), a farmer and a superintendent of convicts. The son began exploring at the age of 17 with his brother John and an Aboriginal and extended his range (1814–15). He travelled with Charles Throsby and James Meehan (1818), accompanied John Oxley and Meehan to Port Jervis (1819), and with others discovered the Yass Plains (1822).

Unable to get financial support from the government for an overland expedition to the southern coast of Australia, Hume accepted that of William Hovell, a sailor whose inexperience in the bush was compensated by his skill at navigation.

They traversed from Gunning to Corio Bay (October 1824–January 1825), discovering part of the Murray River and valuable farming and grazing lands. For this journey Hume was rewarded by a grant of 500 acres (200 hectares) on the Crookhaven River.
In 1828 Hume accompanied Charles Sturt on an expedition that discovered Darling River, but as a result his health was broken, and he settled on the Yass Plains, where he was granted 500 acres by Governor Darling.

When in 1853 Hovell visited Geelong, established after his and Hume’s 1824–25 exploration, and was celebrated as its discoverer, Hume wrote A Brief Statement of Facts in Connection with an Overland Journey from Lake George to Port Phillip (1855) to redress what he considered a slight. Hovell published A Reply (1855), and their friendship ended.

In 1860 Hume was elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and later he served as magistrate until his death.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Hovell William Hilton

William Hilton Hovell (26 April 1786 – 9 November 1875) was an English explorer of Australia.

Early life
Hovell was born in Yarmouth, Norfolk, England. His father was captain and part owner of a vessel trading to the Mediterranean, which, during a voyage in 1794, was captured by the French and taken into a port, where he became a prisoner of war for two years. William, when only 10 years of age, went to sea to earn his living. After going through the hard life of a foremast hand, at 20 years of age he was mate of Zenobia bound to Peru, and two years later he was a mercantile marine captain of the Juno bound to Rio Janeiro, and others. He decided to come to Australia, arriving at Sydney New South Wales by the ship Earl Spencer, with his wife Esther née Arndell (daughter of the surgeon Thomas Arndell). and two children, a boy and a girl, on 9 October 1813. Making an association with Simeon Lord, Hovell became master of a vessel and made several trading voyages along the east coast of Australia coast and to New Zealand.

In June 1816, while in command of The Brothers he was shipwrecked in the Kent Group, Bass Strait, and along with his crew of eight survived for 10 weeks on the wheat from their cargo that was washed up, before being rescued by the Spring. In 1819 he settled on the land near Sydney and did some exploring in a southerly direction; he discovered the Burragorang Valley in 1823.


William Hilton Hovell
In 1824 Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane asked Hovell to join with Hamilton Hume to undertake the exploration of what is now southern New South Wales and Victoria in an attempt to obtain more information about any rivers that might run south in the direction of Spencer Gulf. Hovell had little bush experience, but had great experience as a navigator.
The planned official expedition did not eventuate, and Hume and Hovell decided to make the journey at their own expense. Some pack-saddles, clothes, blankets and arms were provided from the government stores. The explorers left on 3 October 1824 with six men. They reached Hume's station on 13 October, and on 17 October began the expedition proper with five bullocks, three horses and two carts. On 22 October they found that the only way to pass the Murrumbidgee River, then in flood, was to convert one of the carts into a type of boat by passing a tarpaulin under it; the men, horses, and bullocks swam over, and everything was successfully got across.
A day or two later, in broken hilly country full of water-courses, they had great difficulty in finding a road for the loaded carts, deciding on 27 October to abandon them. Until 16 November their course lay through difficult mountainous country. On that day they came to a large river which Hovell called Hume's River "he being the first that saw it". This was an upper reach of the Murray River so named by Charles Sturt a few years later.
It was impossible to cross here, but after a few days a better place was found, and constructing the rough frame of a boat, they managed to get across. By 3 December they had reached the Goulburn River, which they were able to cross without a boat. During the next 10 days much difficult country was traversed but they then came to more level and open land, and on 16 December they sighted Port Phillip in the distance. Presently they skirted its shores south-westerly and came to what is now Corio Bay near Geelong. Here Hovell made a mistake of one degree in calculating his longitude, and they came to the conclusion that they were on Western Port.
The party returned on 18 December and wisely keeping more to the west had an easier journey. On 8 January 1825 they came to the end of their provisions, and for a few days subsisted on fish and a kangaroo they were able to shoot. On 16 January 1825 they reached the carts they had left behind them, and two days later came to Lake George.

On 25 March 1825 Governor Brisbane mentioned the discoveries of Hovell and Hume in a dispatch and said that he intended to send a vessel to Western Port to have it explored.
  However, nothing was done until his successor, Governor Darling, towards the end of 1826, sent an expedition under Captain Wright to Western Port. Hovell was attached to this expedition, and when it arrived the previous error made in his longitude was soon discovered. Hovell explored and reported on the land surrounding Western Port and to the north of it, and near the coast to the east at Cape Paterson he discovered "great quantities of very fine coal". This was the first discovery of coal in Victoria. Hovell was away five months on this expedition and afterwards did no more exploring. He made various efforts during the next 10 years to obtain some special recognition from the government in addition to the grants of 1,200 acres (5 km2) for the journey with Hume, and 1,280 acres (5 km2) for the journey to Western Port, "subject to restrictions and encumbrances so depreciatory of its value, as to render it a very inadequate remuneration". He appears to have had no success, but must have prospered on his run at Goulburn, where he lived for the rest of his life. He died on 9 November 1875, and in 1877 his widow left £6000 to the University of Sydney as a memorial of him, which was used to found the William Hilton Hovell lectureship on geology and physical geography.
Late life
In 1854 ill-feeling arose between Hume and Hovell which led to each writing a pamphlet with contradicting views on their expedition. In December 1853 Hovell was entertained at a public dinner in Geelong to celebrate the 29th anniversary of the discovery of the district.[8] Reports reached Hume that that Hovell was credited for the discovery of Geelong. The fullest report of Hovell's speech available does not justify Hume's contention.

Hume was the better bushman of the two, and more of a natural leader, but Hovell was a well-educated man of amiable character, and during their joint expedition they seem to have worked effectively together. Between them they were responsible for an excellent and important piece of exploration. Hovell's later discovery of coal during his visit to Western Port was also important; it is remarkable that the discovery was overlooked for a long period.

Hovell died in Sydney on 9 November 1875 and was buried at Goulburn, survived by a son.

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see also: Across the Blue Mountains
Athenaeum Club, London

The Athenaeum is a gentlemen's club in London, founded in 1824, that has had many well known persons as members. In 2002, the club's members voted to admit lady members. The distinctive clubhouse (located at 107 Pall Mall at the corner of Waterloo Place) was designed by Decimus Burton in the Neoclassical style with a Doric portico, above which is a statue of the classical goddess of wisdom, Athena. The bas-relief frieze is a copy of the frieze round the Parthenon in Athens. The club's facilities include an extensive library, a dining room known as the Coffee Room, a Morning Room, a Drawing Room on the first floor, a newly restored Smoking Room, where smoking is not permitted, and a suite of bedrooms.


The Athenaeum Club in 1830
John Wilson Croker, Sir Thomas Lawrence, and some friends founded the club in 1824 for individuals known for scientific, literary or artistic accomplishments as well as patrons of these endeavours. Sir Thomas Lawrence designed the club crest: a head of Athena inside an oval surrounded by the legend "ATHENÆUM CLUB·PALL MALL".

The club house was designed in Neoclassical taste by Decimus Burton. The main entrance and the front of the house on Waterloo Place has a Doric portico with paired columns. There is a continuous balustrade on the piano nobile, the main floor above the ground floor, with an outstanding but costly frieze copied from the Parthenon above. A statue of Pallas Athene by Edward Hodges Baily stands above the porch. The original design was for two storeys; the third was added later. Croker directed the later work, resisting pressure from some members (in those pre-refrigeration days) that an ice-house be part of the scheme; hence the rhyme:

I'm John Wilson Croker, I do as I please, instead of an Ice-House I give you a... Frieze!

For many years The Athenaeum Club was widely seen to represent the peak of London's clubland for the public intellectual. Most members of the Athenaeum were men of inherited wealth and status, but, under Rule II, the club additionally admitted men "... of distinguished eminence in Science, Literature, or the Arts, or for Public Service".

  The admission of men who had gained their social position through intellectual influence and achievement rather than by title gave the club an unusual diversity of membership.
The membership of the Athenaeum was originally limited to one thousand, and the waiting list was always long. The cost of the magnificent premises had resulted in a deficit of some £20,000 and 200 supernumerary members were elected in 1832 to restore the finances.

By 1838 the Club was again in straitened circumstances after undertaking expensive remedial action because of the damage caused by the gas lighting. (It was one of the earliest buildings to be lit by this means.) To alleviate the situation, 160 supernumeraries were admitted to ordinary membership and an additional forty brought forward from the waiting list. These "forty thieves", as they became known, included Charles Dickens and Charles Darwin. In 1886 the clubhouse was lit by electricity, a relative innovation for London buildings.

In 1853, Charles Manby Smith noted the importance of the club - "... from having been wise enough to join the grocer's Plum-pudding Club, they shall end by becoming prosperous enough to join the Whittington Club, or the Gresham Club, or the Athenaeum Club, or the Travellers' Club; or the House of Commons, or the House of Lords either."

In 2002 the members voted to admit women.

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Beginning of Ger. emigration to Brazil
"Le Globe"

Le Globe was a French newspaper, published in Paris by the Bureau du Globe between 1824 and 1832, and created with the goal of publishing Romantic creations. It was established by Pierre Leroux.

After 1828, the paper became political and Liberal in tone.

It was bought by the Saint-Simonists in 1830, and was the official voice of the movement under the July Monarchy. Le Globe was ultimately banned, following the denunciation of Saint-Simonianism as an anti-establishment "sect".

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Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity operating in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare.


A painting of the trial of Bill Burns, showing Richard Martin with the donkey in an astonished courtroom, leading to the world's first known conviction for animal cruelty, after Burns was found beating his donkey. It was a story that delighted London's newspapers and music halls.
In 2012, the RSPCA investigated 150,833 cruelty complaints.

It is the oldest and largest animal welfare organisation in the world and is one of the largest charities in the UK, with 1,453 employees (as of 2009).

The organisation also does international outreach work across Europe, Africa and Asia.

The charity's work has inspired the creation of similar groups in other jurisdictions, starting with the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (founded in 1836), and including the Scottish Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1839), the Dublin Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1840), the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1866), the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1882), and various groups which eventually came together as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Australia (1981), the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Hong Kong) (1997) - formerly known as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Hong Kong) (1903-1997).

The RSPCA is funded primarily by voluntary donations. In 2012, RSPCA total income was £132,803,000, total expenditure was £121,464,000. Its patron is Queen Elizabeth II.

The organisation was founded in 1824 (without the "royal" prefix) as the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; it was established by a group of 22 reformers led by Richard Martin MP, William Wilberforce MP, and the Reverend Arthur Broome in "Old Slaughter's Coffee House", St Martin's Lane, near the Strand. The foundation is marked by a plaque on the modern day building at 77-78 St Martin's Lane.

The society was the first animal welfare charity to be founded in the world. In 1824 it brought sixty three offenders before the courts. It was granted its royal status by Queen Victoria in 1840 to become the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as it is today. In the late 1830s the society began the tradition of the RSPCA inspector, which is the image best known of the organisation today. The RSPCA lobbied Parliament throughout the nineteenth century, resulting in a number of new laws. The Cruelty to Animals Act 1835 amended Martin's Act and outlawed baiting. In 1876 the Cruelty to Animals Act was passed to control animal experimentation. In 1911 Parliament passed Sir George Greenwood's Animal Protection Act.

Since that time the RSPCA has continued to play an active role, both in the creation of animal welfare legislation and in its enforcement. An important recent new law has been the Animal Welfare Act 2006.

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