Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1822 Part II NEXT-1823 Part II    
1820 - 1829
History at a Glance
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Trade Union
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Khan Dost Mohammad
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George

Pope Leo XII
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1823 Part I
Greek Revolution Timeline
Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)

1821, February 21: Revolt of Greek War of Independence declared by Alexandros Ypsilantis in Wallachia (Iaşi).
1821, March 25: According to tradition, Metropolitan Germanos of Patras blesses a big Greek flag at the Monastery of Agia Lavra in Peloponnesia and proclaims to people assembled the beginning of a Greek Revolution. Greece declares its independence. Beginning of the Greek War of Independence.
1821, 10 April, Easter Monday: Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople Alyssa central outside portal of the Patriarchate by the Turks. The door has remained shut and out of use ever since
1821, 17 April: Former Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril VI is hanged in the gate of the Adrianople's cathedral
1821, 4 April: Constantine Mourousis, Dimitrios Paparigopoulos and Antonios Tsouras are decapitated by the Ottomans in Constantinople
1821, 5 April: The Phanariotes Petros Tsigris, Dimitrios Skanavis and Manuel Hotzeris are decapitated by the Turks, while Georgios Mavrocordatos is hanged by the Sultan forces in Constantinople
1821, 23–24 April: Battle of Alamana. After the Greek defeat, Athanasios Diakos is impaled on a spit.
1821, 4 May: Metropolitans Gregorios of Derkon, Dorotheos of Adrianople, Ioannikios of Tyrnavos, Joseph of Thessaloniki, and the Phanariote Georgios Callimachi and Nikolaos Mourousis are decapitated on Sultan's orders in Constantinople
1821, May: The Turkish governor Yusuf Bey orders his men to kill every Greek in Thessaloniki that they find. The killings last for days, with the metropolitan and major notables among the victims
1821, 2 June: Destruction of Kydonies in Asia Minor by the Ottoman army. Tens of thousands of Greek inhabitants become refugees
1821, 24 June: The massacre of Heraklion or 'the great ravage' occurs against the Greek community in Crete. Among the victims are the metropolitan of Crete and bishops
1821, 9 July: The chief of the Cypriot Orthodox Church Archbishop Kyprianos, along with 486 prominent Greek Cypriots, amongst them the Metropolitans Chrysanthos of Paphos, Meletios of Kition and Lavrentios of Kyrenia, are executed by beheading or hanging by the Turks in Nicosia
1821, July: Küçük Mehmet carries out several days of massacres of Greek Cypriots in Cyprus since July 9 and continues on for forty days, despite the Vizier's command to end the plundering since 20 July 1821
1821, 11 September: Tripolitsa captured by the Greeks, who proceed to eliminate the Turkish garrison, officials and civilians. A total of about 30,000 people perish.
1821, 15 October: Turkish Cypriot mobs hang most of the Greek Cypriots in Larnaca and other towns, among them an archbishop, five bishops, thirty six ecclesiastics

1822, 9 April: After a month's resistance, the city of Naousa is captured by Abdul Abud, devastating the city and massacring its Greek population. Ending of the Greek revolution in Macedonia.
1822: The Chios massacre occurs. A total of about 100,000 people perish, mostly Greeks.
1822, 26 July, Battle at Dervenakia. A decisive victory of the Greeks which saved the revolution.

1823, 18 January: Nafplio becomes the site of the Revolutionary Government.
1823, March: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, represented by George Canning, recognizes the Greeks as a nation at war, thus recognizing de facto the Greek Independence.

1824, 7–8 June: The civilization of the island of Kasos is completely destroyed by the Turkish-Egyptian forces of Hussein Rushdi Pasha. About 7,000 people perish.
1824, 21 June: More than 15,000 Greeks of Psara are slaughtered by the forces of Husrev Pasha.
1824: The First Siege of Missolonghi occurs.

1825, 22 May: Laskarina Bouboulina is assassinated in Spetses.
1825, 5 June: Odysseas Androutsos is assassinated in Athens.
1825, 22 June: Ibrahim Pasha retakes Tripoli, kills the Greek population and destroys the city and its walls.
1825, 6 November: Beginning of the Third Siege of Missolonghi.

1826, 10–11 April: The Sortie of Missolonghi occurs. Approximately 8,000 Greek soldiers and civilians perish.
1826, 24 June: Battle of Vergas.
1826, 11 November: Prime Minister Andreas Zaimis transfers the site of the government to Aegina.

1827, 22–24 April: Battle of Phaleron. Georgios Karaiskakis is killed in action.
1827, July 6: Signing of the Treaty of London.
1827, 20 October: Battle of Navarino.

1828, 24 January: John Capodistria is elected Governor of Greece.
1828, 31 January: Alexander Ypsilantis dies in Vienna.

1829. First Hellenic Republic (1829–1832)
The First Hellenic Republi is a historiographic term used for a series of councils and "Provisional Governments" during the Greek War of Independence. During the first stages of the rebellion, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by united administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus during early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution. A series of National Assemblies ensued, while Greece was threatened with collapse due to civil war and the victories of Ibrahim Pasha. During 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen selected Count Ioannis Capodistrias as Governor of Greece for seven years. He arrived during 1828 and established the Hellenic State, commanding with quasi-dictatorial powers. He was assassinated by political rivals during 1831 and was succeeded by his brother, Augustinos Kapodistrias until the Great Powers declared Greece a Kingdom and selected the Bavarian Prince Otto to be its king.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Augustin de Iturbide (Iturbide Augustin) forced to abdicate
Guatemala, San Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica form Confederation of United Provinces of
Central America
Federal Republic of Central America

The Federal Republic of Central America (Spanish: República Federal de Centro América), also called United Provinces of Central America in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America, which consisted of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain. It existed from September 1821 to 1841, and was a republican democracy. It is also sometimes incorrectly referred to in English as the United States of Central America.

The republic consisted of the present-day states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. (Panama was part of Bolivar's Republica de Colombia in 1821, and Belize was a British colony.) In the 1830s, an additional sixth state was added – Los Altos, with its capital in Quetzaltenango – occupying parts of what are now the western highlands of Guatemala and Chiapas state in southern Mexico.

Shortly after Central America declared independence from the Spanish Empire, it was annexed by the First Mexican Empire in 1821. When the First Mexican Empire ended, Central America again became independent and formed the Federal Republic in 1823. From 1838 to 1840 the federation descended into civil war, with Conservatives fighting against Liberals and separatists fighting to secede. Without a sustained struggle for independence to cement a sense of national identity, the various political factions were unable to overcome their ideological differences and the federation dissolved after a series of bloody conflicts.


United Provinces of Central America (1823 to 1825)

From the 16th century through 1821, Central America formed the Captaincy General of Guatemala within the Spanish Empire. In 1821 a congress of Central American Criollos in Guatemala City composed the Act of Independence of Central America to declare the region's independence from Spain, effective on 15 September of that year.

That date is still marked as independence day by most Central American nations. Independence was short-lived, for the conservative leaders in Guatemala welcomed annexation by the First Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide on 5 January 1822.

The annexation was controversial, with some seeing the Mexican constitution with its abolition of slavery and establishment of free trade as an improvement over the status quo. Central American liberals objected to this, but an army from Mexico under General Vicente Filisola occupied Guatemala City and quelled dissent.

When Mexico became a republic the following year, it acknowledged Central America's right to determine its own destiny. On 1 July 1823, the congress of Central America declared absolute independence from Spain, Mexico, and any other foreign nation, and a Republican system of government was established.

Dissolution of the union
In practice, the federation faced insurmountable problems, and the union slid into civil war between 1838 and 1840. Its disintegration began when Nicaragua separated from the federation on November 5, 1838, followed by Honduras and Costa Rica (other sources give Nicaragua's secession date as April 30).

Because of the chaotic nature of this period an exact date of disestablishment does not exist, but on May 31, 1838, the congress met to declare that the provinces were free to create their own independent republics. In reality, this merely legally acknowledged the process of disintegration that had already begun.

The union effectively ended in 1840, by which time four of its five states had declared independence. The official end came only upon El Salvador's self-proclamation of the establishment of an independent republic in February 1841.

The liberal democratic project was strongly opposed by conservative factions allied with the Roman Catholic clergy and the wealthy landowners. Transportation and communication routes between the states were extremely deficient. The bulk of the population lacked any sense of commitment towards the broader federation, perhaps owing to their continued loyalty to the Roman Catholic Church in Spain.

The federal bureaucracy in Guatemala City proved ineffectual, and fears of Guatemalan domination of the union led to protests that resulted in the relocation of the capital to San Salvador in 1831. Wars soon broke out between various factions both in the federation and within individual states. The poverty and extreme political instability of the region prevented the proposed construction of an inter-oceanic canal (see Nicaragua Canal and Panama Canal), from which Central America could have obtained considerable economic benefits.

Name and emblems
Central American liberals had high hopes for the federal republic, which they believed would evolve into a modern, democratic nation, enriched by trade passing through it between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. These aspirations are reflected in the emblems of the federal republic: the flag shows a white band between two blue stripes, representing the land between two oceans. The coat of arms shows five mountains (one for each state) between two oceans, surmounted by a Phrygian cap, the emblem of the French Revolution.
The coat of arms on the nation's flag from 1823–1824 referred to the federation (in Spanish) as Provincias Unidas del Centro de América ("United Provinces of the Center of America"); however, its 1824 constitution, coat of arms, and flag called it República Federal de Centroamérica / Centro América ("Federal Republic of Central America").

The flag was introduced to the area by Commodore Louis-Michel Aury inspired by the Argentine flag. The term United Provinces was also used in Argentina's first title Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata ("United Provinces of the River Plate"). Commodore Aury established the first independent republic in Old Providence Island (Isla de Providencia) in 1818, off the coast of Nicaragua.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Switzerland refuses to give asylum to political refugees
The Monroe Doctrine closes Amer. continent to colonial settlements by European powers
Monroe Doctrine

Monroe Doctrine, (December 2, 1823), cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy enunciated by President James Monroe in his annual message to Congress. Declaring that the Old World and New World had different systems and must remain distinct spheres, Monroe made four basic points: (1) The United States would not interfere in the internal affairs of or the wars between European powers; (2) the United States recognized and would not interfere with existing colonies and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere; (3) the Western Hemisphere was closed to future colonization; and (4) any attempt by a European power to oppress or control any nation in the Western Hemisphere would be viewed as a hostile act against the United States.

The doctrine was an outgrowth of concern in both England and the United States that the continental powers would attempt to restore Spain’s former colonies, in Latin America, many of which had become newly independent nations. The United States was also concerned about Russia’s territorial ambitions in the northwest coast of North America.

As a consequence, George Canning, the British foreign minister, suggested a joint U.S.-British declaration forbidding future colonization in Latin America.

Monroe was initially favourable to the idea, and former presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison concurred. But Secretary of State John Quincy Adams argued that the United States should issue a statement of American policy exclusively, and his view ultimately prevailed.

The Monroe Doctrine, in asserting unilateral U.S. protection over the entire Western Hemisphere, was a foreign policy that could not have been sustained militarily in 1823. Monroe and Adams were well aware of the need for the British fleet to deter potential aggressors in Latin America.

Because the United States was not a major power at the time and because the continental powers apparently had no serious intentions of recolonizing Latin America, Monroe’s policy statement (it was not known as the “Monroe Doctrine” for nearly 30 years) was largely ignored outside the United States.

The United States did not invoke it nor oppose British occupation of the Falkland Islands in 1833 or subsequent British encroachments in Latin America.

  In 1845 and again in 1848, however, President James K. Polk reiterated Monroe’s principles in warning Britain and Spain not to establish footholds in Oregon, California, or Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula.
At the conclusion of the Civil War, the United States massed troops on the Rio Grande in support of a demand that France withdraw its puppet kingdom from Mexico. In 1867—in part due to U.S. pressure—France withdrew.

After 1870 interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine became increasingly broad. As the United States emerged as a world power, the Monroe Doctrine came to define a recognized sphere of influence. President Theodore Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904; it stated that, in cases of flagrant and chronic wrongdoing by a Latin American nation, the United States could intervene in the internal affairs of that nation. Roosevelt’s assertion of hemispheric police power was designed to preclude violation of the Monroe Doctrine by European countries seeking redress of grievances against unruly or mismanaged Latin American states.

From the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt to that of Franklin Roosevelt, the United States frequently intervened in Latin America, especially in the Caribbean. Since the 1930s, the United States has attempted to formulate its Latin American foreign policy in consultation with the individual nations of the hemisphere and with the Organization of American States. Yet the United States continues to exercise a proprietary role at times of apparent threat to its national security, and the Western Hemisphere remains a predominantly U.S. sphere of influence.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Monroe Doctrine

Although few in Spain missed Napoleon's rule in their country, the return of Ferdinand VII to the throne was also a matter of some concern. He was no benevolent despot, and his views on exercising his authority upset many in Spain just as they did in Latin America. In 1820, a revolution deposed him.
Other European monarchs had had their fill of revolutions, fearing that the principles of the American and French Revolutions could spread through Spain into their own countries. Thus, the collective powers of Europe under the auspices of Russia (via the Holy Alliance, which Czar Alexander I had established in 1815) moved to crush not only the Spanish revolt but also popular uprisings in Italy, Portugal, Naples, and Greece. The restored monarch of France, King Louis XVIII, sent his armies into Spain to restore Ferdinand's power, which they did by October 1823.

The Latin American independence movements were by this point in full swing, and the United States decided to recognize the sovereignty of the new governments and enter into relations with them. When die Holy Alliance offered to send troops to the Western Hemisphere to regain Spain's colonies, the United States had to decide what it would do should those foreign armies appear. President James Monroe, assisted by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, developed a policy statement that has come to be called the Monroe Doctrine. In short, it warned the Europeans away from the Americas. In his annual message to Congress in December 1823, Monroe stated that any attempt by Spain or any other European country to establish or reestablish colonies in the Western Hemisphere would be considered by the United States "as dangerous to our peace and safety" and "the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States" (Bailey, A Diplomatic History of the American People, p. 184). This statement applied not only to Latin America but also to possible Russian encroachment out of Alaska into the Oregon country.
Although this policy was viewed with either contempt or hilarity in the courts of European kings, the monarchies did not send troops. Ferdinand decided against asking for assistance, and the Russians, because of domestic problems, withdrew back into Alaska. The U.S. population viewed this as a victory for its diplomacy. In reality, it was Great Britain's power, not that of the United States, that kept the Europeans at bay. Even though Monroe had rejected a joint policy with the British, Britain feared losing its growing trade with the new Latin American countries, and so its navy stood solidly in the way of any attempt to restore Spanish colonies.

However, because the United States believed that its stand had cowed the Europeans, the Monroe Doctrine came to be the overriding policy governing relations with Latin America. From that time, the United States has considered itself the police of the hemisphere, to the consternation of practically every Latin American nation at one time or another since the 1820s.

Pope Pius VII d.; succeeded by Pope Leo XII (Annibale de la Genga)
Pope Leo XII (Annibale de la Genga).
Born at the Castello della Genga in the territory of Spoleto, 22 August, 1760; died in Rome, 10 February, 1829. His father's family had been ennobled by Leo XI in 1605; his mother was Maria Luisa Periberti of Fabriano. They had a large family, seven sons and three daughters, of which Annibale was the fifth son and sixth child. At the age of thirteen he was placed in the Collegio Campana of Osimo, whence he was transferred, in 1778, to the Collegio Piceno in Rome and shortly afterwards to the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. He was ordained subdeacon four years later, and deacon in 1783. Two months later he was ordained priest, dispensation being obtained for the defect of age, as he was only twenty-three. He was of handsome person and engaging manners and, soon after his ordination, attracted the notice of Pius VII, who was visiting the Accademia, and by him was raised to the prelature as cameriere segreto.

Pope Leo XII

  In 1790 he was chosen to deliver in the Sixtine Chapel the oration on the death of the Emperor Joseph II and accomplished his difficult task to the admiration of all hearers, without offending the susceptibilities of Austria or compromising the authority of the Holy See. In 1792 he became a canon of the Vatican church, and the following year was consecrated titular Archbishop of Tyre and sent as nuncio to Lucerne. Thence he was transferred to the nunciature at Cologne in 1794, a post which he occupied with great success for eleven years. In 1795 he was accredited as nuncio extraordinary to the Diet of Ratisbon by Pius VII in order that he might deal with the difficulties between the German Church and its Prussian rulers. Returning to Rome to confer with Consalvi on these matters, he learnt that Napoleon desired the substitution of another nuncio more devoted to his interests, in the person of Bernier, Bishop of Orléans. Pius VII, however, was firm and Della Genga returned to Munich. In 1798 he went with Cardinal Caprara to Paris with the object of arranging some agreement between the Holy See and Napoleon I. He was received, however, but coldly, and the negotiations soon came to nothing. Della Genga returned to Rome where he witnessed the indignities offered to Pius VII by the French. He returned in dismay to the Abbey of Monticelli, which had been granted to him in commendam for life by Pope Pius VI. Here he spent his time teaching his choir of peasants to play the organ and to sing plain-chant.
Expecting to end his days there, he built in the abbey church the tombs of his mother and himself. But in 1814, with the fall of Napoleon, Pius VII returned to Rome and Mgr Della Genga was sent to Paris as envoy extraordinary to convey the pope's congratulations to King Louis XVIII. Consalvi, however, who was accredited to all the sovereigns then at Paris, strongly resented this mission, which he held to be a slight to himself. Louis XVIII endeavoured to smooth over matters, but the powerful Secretary of State had his way, and Della Genga returned to Rome, whence he again retired to Monticelli. Here he remained for two years, when Pius VII created him cardinal of Santa Maria in Trastevere and appointed him Bishop of Sinigaglia. But his ill-health necessitated residence in the healthy air of Spoleto and he never entered his diocese, which he resigned two years later. In 1820, his health being improved, he was made Vicar of Rome, arch-priest of the Liberian Basilica and prefect of several congregations. Three years later, on 20 August, Pius VII died; and on 2 September the conclave opened at the Quirinal. It lasted for twenty-six days. At first the most prominent candidates were Cardinal Severoli, the representative of the Zelanti, and Cardinal Castiglioni (afterwards Pius VIII), the representative of the moderate party. Castiglioni was the candidate most desired by the great Catholic powers, but, in spite of their wishes Severoli's influence grew daily and by the morning of 21 September, he had received as many as twenty-six votes. As this meant that he would probably be elected at the next scrutiny, Cardinal Albani, who represented Austria at the conclave, informed his colleagues that the election of Cardinal Severoli would not be acceptable to the emperor and pronounced a formal veto.
The Zelanti were furious, but, at Severoli's suggestion, transferred their support to Della Genga, and before the powers realized what was happening, triumphantly elected him by thirty-four votes on the morning of 28 September. At first, however, the pope-elect was unwilling to accept the office. With tears he reminded the cardinals of his ill-health. "You are electing a dead man", he said, but, when they insisted that it was his duty to accept, he gave way and gracefully assuring Cardinal Castiglioni that he some day was to be Pius VIII, announced his own intention of taking the style of Leo XII.

Immediately after his election he appointed Della Somaglia, an octogenarian, Secretary of State, an act significant of the policy of the new reign. Leo was crowned on 5 October. His first measures were some not very successful attempts to repress the brigandage and license then prevalent in Maritima and the Campagna, and the publication of an ordinance that confined again to their Ghettoes the Jews, who had moved into the city during the period of the Revolution. These measures are typical of the temper and policy of Leo XII. There is something pathetic in the contrast between the intelligence and masterly energy displayed by him as ruler of the Church and the inefficiency of his policy as ruler of the Papal States. In face of the new social and political order, he undertook the defence of ancient custom and accepted institutions; he had little insight into the hopes and visions of those who were then pioneers of the greater liberty that had become inevitable. Stern attempts were made to purify the Curia and to control the crowd of inefficient and venal officials that composed its staff. Indifferentism and the Protestant proselytism of the period were combated; the devotion of the Catholic world was estimated by the jubilee of 1825, in spite of the opposition of timid and reactionary prelates or sovereigns; the persecution of the Catholics in the Netherlands was met and overcome, and the movement for the emancipation of the Catholics in the British Isles was managed and encouraged till success was assured. Popular discontent with the government of the Papal States was met by the severities of Cardinal Rivarola.

  The legitimist cause in France and in Spain, though marked in both countries by the misuse of religion as an instrument of political reaction, was supported, even when (as in the suppression of the Jesuit schools in France, and the vacancy of Mexican sees owing to the claims of Spain over her former colonies) the representatives of that cause showed themselves indifferent or opposed to the interests of the Faith. Consalvi was consulted and admired by the pope, who, both in this case and that of the treasurer Cristaldi, showed himself too magnanimous to allow personal grievances to weigh against the appreciation of merit, but the cardinal's death in 1824 prevented the contribution of his wisdom to the councils of the Holy See. The Collegio Romano was restored to the efficient hands of the Jesuits in 1824; the Free-masons and other secret societies were condemned in 1825; the Vatican printing press was restored and the Vatican Library enriched; scholars like Zurla, Martucci, and Champollion were encouraged; much was done towards the rebuilding of St. Paul's and the restoration of the seemliness of worship. But Leo's health was too frail to support his unremitting devotion to the affairs of the Church. Even in December, 1823, he had nearly died, and recovered only as by a miracle, through the prayers of the venerable Bishop of Marittima, Vincenzo Strambi, whose life was offered to God and accepted in the stead of the pope's. On 5 February, 1829, after a private audience with Cardinal Bernetti, who had replaced Somaglia as Secretary of State in 1828, he was suddenly taken ill and seemed himself to know that his end was near.

On the eighth he asked for and received the Viaticum and was anointed. On the evening of the ninth he lapsed into unconsciousness and on the morning of the tenth he died. He had a noble character, a passion for order and efficiency, but he lacked insight into, and sympathy with, the temporal developments of his period. His rule was unpopular in Rome and in the Papal States, and by various measures of his reign he diminished greatly for his successors their chances of solving the new problems that confronted them.

Catholic Encyclopedia

Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan, (born Feb. 28, 1823, Tréguier, Fr.—died Oct. 2, 1892, Paris), French philosopher, historian, and scholar of religion, a leader of the school of critical philosophy in France.
Early career.
Renan was educated at the ecclesiastical college in his native town of Tréguier. He began training for the priesthood, and in 1838 he was offered a scholarship at the seminary of Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet. He later went on to the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, where he soon underwent a crisis of faith that finally led him, reluctantly, to leave the Roman Catholic church in 1845. In his view, the church’s teachings were incompatible with the findings of historical criticism; but he kept a quasi-Christian faith in God.

Ernest Renan
  Early works.
For Renan, the February revolution of 1848 in France and other parts of Europe was a religion in the making. Sometimes enthusiastic, sometimes critical, he participated in the revolution’s messianic expectations and carried this ambiguous attitude over into L’Avenir de la science (1890; The Future of Science). The main theme of this work is the importance of the history of religious origins, which he regarded as a human science having equal value to the sciences of nature. Though he was now somewhat anticlerical, the French government sent him in 1849 to Italy, where the papacy was still politically important, to help classify manuscripts previously inaccessible to French scholars.

Renan returned to Paris in 1850 to live with his sister, Henriette, on her savings and the small salary attached to his own post at the Bibliothèque Nationale. He began to make a name for himself with his doctoral thesis, Averroès et l’Averroïsme (1852; “Averroës and Averroism”), concerning the thought of that medieval Muslim philosopher. He continued his scholarly writings with two collections of essays, Études d’histoire religieuse (1857; Studies of Religious History) and Essais de morale et de critique (1859; “Moral and Critical Essays”), first written for the Revue des Deux Mondes and the Journal des Débats. The Études inculcated into a middle-class public the insight and sensitivity of the historical, humanistic approach to religion.

Many of the Essais denounce the materialism and intolerance of the Second Empire (1852–70) in the name of Renan’s aristocratic ideal: intellectuals, acting as “bastions of the spirit,” must, he affirms, resist tyranny by intellectual and spiritual refinement.

In 1856 Renan married Cornélie Scheffer, niece of the painter Ary Scheffer. In October 1860 Renan was entrusted with an archaeological mission to Lebanon. The Phoenician inscriptions that he discovered were published in his Mission de Phénicie (1864–74; “Phoenician Expedition”). They were later included in the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum (“Corpus of Semitic Inscriptions”), which he helped to bring out through the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. But archaeology was not his main interest. In April 1861, with his wife and sister, he visited the Holy Land in search of materials and inspiration concerning a life of Jesus that he was bent on writing. He finished a first draft of it in Lebanon but at tragic cost, for Henriette died of malaria at ʿAmshīt on Sept. 24, 1861, while he himself fell desperately ill.

Religious controversies.
Renan had counted on the writing of his life of Jesus to secure election to the chair of Hebrew at the Collège de France. He was elected, before the book was ready, on Jan. 11, 1862. But in his opening lecture, on February 21, he referred to Jesus in the words of Jacques Bossuet, a French bishop and historian of the 17th and 18th centuries, as “an incomparable man.” Though this was, in his eyes, the highest praise one could bestow on a man, it was not sufficient for the clericals, who took advantage of its implied atheism and the uproar caused by the lecture to have Renan suspended. Contemptuously refusing an appointment to the Bibliothèque Imperiale (June 1864), Renan decided to live by his pen for the next few years. He had to wait until 1870, however, before the chair was restored to him. He was thus pushed into opposition to the church but had already begun to frequent such dissident salons as that of Princess Mathilde, niece of Napoleon Bonaparte, and to
  associate with such literary notables as Gustave Flaubert, Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Hippolyte Taine, and the Goncourt brothers.
When the Vie de Jésus (Life of Jesus) did appear in 1863, it was virulently denounced by the church. Though not Renan’s best historical work, it can still claim the attention of 20th-century readers because it presents a “mythical” account of the making of Christianity by the popular imagination and thus has a place, like his other historical works, in the literature of messianism. After a journey in Asia Minor in 1864–65 with his wife, he published Les Apôtres (1866; The Apostles) and Saint Paul (1869), to follow the Vie de Jésus as parts of a series, Histoire des origines du christianisme (The History of the Origins of Christianity). Both these volumes, containing brilliant descriptions of how Christianity spread among the rootless proletariat of the cities of Asia Minor, illustrate his preoccupation with the question: would the intellectuals of the 19th century lead the masses toward a new enlightenment?
Interest in politics.
Renan began to interest himself increasingly in politics. In 1869, at the beginning of the “liberal” phase of the Second Empire, he stood unsuccessfully for Parliament. In the same year he defended constitutional monarchy in an article, “La Monarchie constitutionnelle en France” (“Constitutional Monarchy in France”). Thus far he was a liberal. In the same spirit he tried, during the Franco-German War of 1870–71, to work across frontiers: he corresponded with David Friedrich Strauss, a German theologian, and tried to persuade the Prussian crown prince (later German emperor as Frederick III) to stop the war. But the bitterness of France’s defeat and his anger with democracy caused him to become authoritarian.

Thus, La Réforme intellectuelle et morale (1871), concerning intellectual and moral reform, argues that France, to achieve national regeneration, must follow the example set by Prussia after the Battle of Jena in 1806. By taking his advice, however, France would have become the sort of clerical monarchy that Renan soon found he did not want. He had to resign himself to accepting the Third Republic (1870–1940), but he withdrew from public life. Though he continued to travel zestfully all over Europe, visiting surviving Bonapartists, such as Prince Jérôme Napoléon, his life became more and more identified with his writings. He was elected to the Académie Française in 1878.

Renan in his study in the College of France.
  Later writings.
Renan’s ironical yet imaginative vision of the “festival of the universe” found expression in L’Antéchrist (1873; The Antichrist, 1896; vol. iv of the Histoire des origines), with its satirical portrait of Nero and its apocalyptic atmosphere—replete with expectations of a cataclysmic consummation of history—assuredly the most impressive of his historical narratives. The “festival of the universe” provides a visionary end to the Dialogues et fragments philosophiques (1876; Philosophical Dialogues and Fragments, 1899). In the first of these, however, Renan is more ironically skeptical about the hidden God than he had been. In fact, the Epicureanism of his later years masks an anxiety about death and the hereafter. His more superficial side is illustrated in the “philosophic dramas” (collected edition 1888), which trace his acceptance of the Republic, especially Caliban (written 1877) and L’Eau de jouvence (written 1879; “The Water of Youth”). In the former, the aristocracy (Prospero and Ariel) loses to democracy (Caliban) because alchemical spells (traditional sanctions) are powerless against a people infected by positivism; scientific power politics would be an effective answer, but this is out of the question because in practice it would mean a clerical monarchy.

As to the remaining volumes of the Histoire des origines, if Renan’s Epicureanism is hard to find in Les Évangiles (1877; The Gospels, 1889), it is present in L’Église chrétienne (1879; “The Christian Church”) in the portrait of the Roman emperor Hadrian; but in Marc-Aurèle (1882; Marcus Aurelius, 1904), the study of Marcus Aurelius, again a self-portrait, is dominated by the author’s preoccupation with death.

Since 1876 Renan had been working on his memoirs, Souvenirs d’enfance et de jeunesse (1883; Recollections of My Youth, 1883), in which he reconstructs his life so as to show that he was predestined to become a prêtre manqué (failed priest) and that, in spite of heavy odds, his wager on the hidden God had paid off in terms of happiness.

In the Souvenirs Renan is too serene for some tastes, though his irony keeps his complacency in check. In L’Ecclésiaste (1882; “Ecclesiastes”) and two articles on Amiel (1884), he is above all an ironist combatting the Pharisees (religious legalists). On the other hand, in some of his speeches at the Académie Française, on Claude Bernard, a French physiologist (1879), and Paul-Émile Littré, a French philologist (1882), he reveals his anguish in moments of doubt. Thus, he manifests a baffling variety of characteristics, but the moral heart of the man is to be found in one of the later dramas, Le Prêtre de Némi (1885; “The Priest of Némi”), and above all in his Histoire du peuple d’Israël (1887–93; History of the People of Israel, 1888–96). For him, the history of Jewish messianism bore witness to man’s capacity for faith when the odds are against him. Thus, it revived his own faith. He could therefore hope that, though Judaism would disappear, the dreams of its prophets would one day come true, so that “without a compensatory Heaven justice will really exist on earth.” Having exhausted himself in an effort to finish the work, he died shortly after its completion in 1892.

With his leanings toward liberalism and authoritarianism in politics and faith and skepticism in religion, Renan embodied the contradictions of the middle class of his time. Politically, his influence after his death was far-reaching, on nationalists, such as Maurice Barrès and Charles Maurras, on republicans, such as Anatole France and Georges Clemenceau. He succeeded in assuaging one of the great anxieties of his time, the antagonism between science and religion, but he very much felt this anxiety.

Harold W. Wardman

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  Ernest Renan

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Saint-Simon Henri: "Catechisme des industriels"
see also: Henri de Saint-Simon
Thiers Adolphe: "Histoire de la Revolution Franchise"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"

The Pioneers: The Sources of the Susquehanna; a Descriptive Tale is a historical novel, the first published of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of five novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper. While The Pioneers was published in 1823, before any of the other Leatherstocking Tales, the period it covers makes it the fourth chronologically.

Plot summary
The story takes place on the rapidly advancing frontier of New York State and features an elderly Leatherstocking (Natty Bumpo), Judge Marmaduke Temple of Templeton, whose life parallels that of the author's father Judge William Cooper, and Elizabeth Temple (based on the author's sister, Hannah Cooper), of the fictional Templeton, New York. The story begins with an argument between the judge and Leatherstocking over who killed a buck, and as Cooper reviews many of the changes to New York's Lake Otsego, questions of environmental stewardship, conservation, and use prevail. Leatherstocking and his closest friend, the Mohican Indian Chingachgook, begin to compete with the Temples for the loyalties of a mysterious young visitor, a "young hunter" known as Oliver Edwards, who eventually marries Elizabeth. Chingachgook dies, exemplifying the vexed figure of the "dying Indian", and Natty vanishes into the sunset.
The Pioneers was the first written of James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking series, featuring the character Natty Bumppo, a resourceful white American living in the woods. The story focuses on the evolution of the wilderness into a civilized community. The story takes place in the town of Тempleton, which is said to be modeled after Cooperstown, New York.

Naturalist Ideas: Although not classified as a naturalist novel, Cooper depicts many naturalist based ideas in the Pioneers. His use of language, dialogue and description help to convey this movement within this novel.

Landscape: In The Pioneers, Cooper thematically debates the complexity of landscape within a new American frontier. The battle between nature and civilization is a constant and competing force within the minds of the characters and in the general surroundings. Cooper evaluates his landscape as one that will be established by a civilization unable to escape its own traits of wastefulness and arrogance.
Characters: Cooper expands the conflict between nature and civilization in his characters. Specifically Cooper writes much more detailed and in depth dialogue for “Natty Bumpo’s” character than he does for any of the others. During these conversations Natty stresses the importance of respecting the land and disgraces the greed and selfishness of mankind. The “civil societal” characters are merely background characters to Natty’s heroic natural character. He emerges as the antithesis to wastefulness demonstrated and embodied in the settlers. This helps to establish and contribute to Coopers main theme of wilderness versus established society. While the settlers see wilderness as being tamed by their presence, Natty has a vision of civilized life coexisting with nature. Ideally, he wants to sustain the unique role that this vast unexplored wilderness contributes to the complexity of America.
“It is much better to kill only such you want, without wasting your powder and lead, then to be firing into God’s creatures in such a wicked manner.” (Natty to Judge Marmeduke) – Chapter III, The Slaughter of Pigeons

First edition title page
Description: Alternating between dialogues, Cooper writes vast paragraphs of only descriptive writing to paint the natural wilderness he wants the reader to envision. This description of the landscape exemplifies the peacefulness and Naturalist sense of the wilderness. When the dialogue begins it shows the disruption civilization wreaks on the natural abundance of the wilderness. This furthers Cooper’s contrast of the giving, natural and serene wilderness versus the arrogant and greedy society.
Tone: Cooper’s tone in The Pioneers is one of criticism and mock towards Puritan society, “established society”. The dialogue of the settlers displays the carelessness of their society towards the wilderness. Through this Cooper mocks and belittles their society because of their attitudes. The whole scene in Chapter II (The Judge’s History of Settlement) is an over exaggerated depiction of the reactions of the settler’s to a falling tree and storm. The naivety of the settler’s is portrayed in their responses to their journey into the wilderness. Cooper’s mocking and critical tone is seen throughout the novel, and the natural wilderness versus a civilized society furthers this tone.
Nathaniel "Natty" Bumppo, aka the Leather-stocking, aka. Hawk-eye - Our hero, an old hunter and patriot, the protagonist of the novel. He is a friend to the Indians and distrustful of civilization. (chapter 1, page 22). He was "a melodious synopsis of man and nature in the West". He emerges as the antithesis to wastefulness demonstrated and embodied in the settlers. Natty represents the frontier in conflict with civilization and the law.In Chapter III, The Slaughter of Pigeons, his character is introduced and exemplified as one of sustained living, and living off the land. Whereas the settlers hunt for sport and overkill the amount of pigeons needed, he merely shoots one for his meal.
Judge Marmaduke Temple - A widower and the founder of Templeton (chapter 1, page 18) He is the trail-blazing leader of the group of pioneers that settle the untamed wilderness of Otsego. He is a strong, natural leader with a practical and wise approach to settling wilderness. He is appreciative of nature and respectful of its ability to both sustain life and destroy it. His early endeavors with the new settlement force him to lead his people out of starvation. He is also nearly crushed by the falling of a dead tree in chapter 2. His fearful respect for the wilderness makes him a cautious, effective leader, but he also holds a genuine love for the untamed back country.
Illustration by Felix Octavius Carr Darley
His description of its splendor at the top of a mountain he named “Mount Vision” is a testament to his respect for the beauties of nature. Marmaduke’s opinions are synonymous with those of Leather-stocking, yet his seemingly incorruptible attitude is blemished at the end of the pigeon hunt, when he joins in the annihilation of hundreds of the creatures. When the hunt is over, the ‘Duke feels a pang of guilt, for “after the excitement of the moment has passed, that he has purchased pleasure at the price of miser to others.” Marmaduke’s character represents settlers who were conscious and aware of their intrusive and sometime destructive ways. Throughout the story he is respectful towards the Indian Leather-stocking as well as the lands he controls.

Agamemnon "Aggy" - A slave of the Judge
Elizabeth "Bess" Temple - Daughter of the Judge and romantic interest of Oliver (chapter 5, page 66)
Richard "Dick" Jones - The cousin of the Judge (chapter 4, page 47) “The Sheriff" He is the right hand man of Marmaduke. He holds a systematic, “ends-justify-the-means” approach to solving problems. When posed with the issue of falling dead trees, he takes a logical yet impractical stance on the issue. He claims that to avoid falling trees, one simply needs to avoid every tree in the forest with rotten base wood. When posed with the issue of bringing down the pigeons to feed the village, he uses an artillery cannon. Richard likes “fish with dynamite,” figuratively speaking. He is the foil of Leather-stocking, who is frugal and weighted by morals. Richard’s character represents settlers who were ignorant of the land and people they disturbed while trying to make a new life for themselves. His general mode of thinking involves only his own survival and prosperity with little regard to people like Leather-stocking and the land they inhabit.
  Squire Hiram Doolittle - An architect, justice of the peace, and buddy of Dick Jones
Monsieur Le Quoi - A former French nobleman and now shopkeeper in Templeton (chapter 4, page 47)
Major Frederick "Fritz" Hartmann - A German settler in the area and regular visitor to the Judge's house (chapter 4, page 48)
The Reverend Mr. Grant - An Anglican minister (chapter 4, page 48)
Ben Pump, aka Benjamin Penguillan - A servant to the Judge, and a former sea man who doesn't know how to swim (chapter 5, page 60)
Remarkable Pettibone - Housekeeper to the Judge (chapter 5, page 62)
Old Brave - The Temples' faithful dog.
Dr. Elnathan Todd - The town doctor (chapter 6, page 71)
Indian John, aka John Mohegan, aka Chingachgook - The last of the Mohicans and Natty's faithful companion (chapter 7, page 85)
Oliver Edwards, aka Young Eagle - The young hunter and friend to Natty and Indian John (chapter 3, page 38)
Captain and Mrs. Hollister - Owners of the inn The Bold Dragoon
Squire Chester Lippet - The obnoxious lawyer who talks too much when visiting the Bold Dragoon
Louisa Grant - The daughter of Mr. Grant, companion to Elizabeth, and the other possible love interest for Oliver
Billy Kirby - A lumberjack and crack-shot with a rifle (chapter 17, page 190)
Squire Van der School - The "honest" lawyer of Judge Marmaduke (chapter 25, page 277)
Jotham Riddle - A lazy fellow who is made a magistrate by Sheriff Jones
Sir Oliver Effingham

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see also: James Fenimore Cooper
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Lamartine Alphonse: "Nouvelles meditations poetiques"

Lamartine: "Nouvelles meditations poetiques"
see also: Alphonse de Lamartine
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Ostrovski Alexander

Aleksandr Nikolayevich Ostrovsky, (born March 31 [April 12, New Style], 1823, Moscow, Russia—died June 2 [June 14], 1886, Shchelykovo), Russian dramatist who is generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period.


Portrait of Ostrovsky by Vassily Perov
  The son of a government clerk, Ostrovsky attended the University of Moscow law school. From 1843 to 1848 he was employed as a clerk at the Moscow juvenile court. He wrote his first play, Kartiny semeynogo schastya (“Scenes of Family Happiness”), in 1847. His next play, Bankrot (“The Bankrupt”), later renamed Svoi lyudi sochtemsya (It’s a Family Affair, We’ll Settle It Among Ourselves), written in 1850, provoked an outcry because it exposed bogus bankruptcy cases among Moscow merchants and brought about Ostrovsky’s dismissal from the civil service. The play was banned for 13 years. Ostrovsky wrote several historical plays in the 1860s. His main dramatic work, however, was concerned with the Russian merchant class and included two tragedies and numerous comedies, including the masterpiece Bednost ne porok (1853; “Poverty Is No Disgrace”). His Snegurochka (1873; “The Snow Maiden”) was adapted as an opera by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov in 1880–81. Ostrovsky was closely associated with the Maly (“Little”) Theatre, Moscow’s only dramatic state theatre, where all his plays were first performed under his supervision. He served as the first president of the Society of Russia Playwrights, which was founded on his initiative in 1874, and in 1885 he became artistic director of the Moscow imperial theatres. The author of 47 original plays, Ostrovsky almost single-handedly created a Russian national repertoire. His dramas are among the most widely read and frequently performed stage pieces in Russia.

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see also: Aleksandr Ostrovsky
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Petofi Sandor

Sandor Petőfi, Hungarian form Petőfi Sándor (born January 1, 1823, Kiskőrös, Hungary, Austrian Empire—died probably July 31, 1849, Segesvár, Transylvania, Austrian Empire [now Sighișoara, Romania]), one of the greatest Hungarian poets and a revolutionary who symbolized the Hungarian desire for freedom.


Sandor Petőfi
  Petőfi had an eventful youth; he studied at eight different schools, joined for a short time a group of strolling players, and enlisted as a private soldier, but because of ill health he was soon dismissed from the army. He traveled extensively in Hungary, mostly on foot. As a schoolboy, he displayed a keen interest in the stage and in literature, and his first poem was published in 1842. After years of vicissitudes, in 1844, on the recommendation of Mihály Vörösmarty, then the leading Hungarian poet, he became an assistant editor of the literary periodical Pesti Divatlap. His first volume of poetry, Versek, appeared in the same year and made him famous at once, though the tone of his poems scandalized many. In 1847 he married Julia Szendrey, who inspired his best love poems.

Petőfi played a leading role in the literary life of the period preceding the outbreak of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. After 1847, together with Mór Jókai, he edited the magazine Életképek. A fervent partisan of the French Revolution, he castigated the social conditions of his country, attacking the privileges of the nobles and the monarchy. Politically, he was an extreme radical and an inspired agitator, but he was lacking in experience and failed to obtain a seat in the Diet. His poems glowed with political passion, and one of them, “Talpra magyar” (“Rise, Hungarian”), written on the eve of the revolution, became its anthem. During the revolution he became the aide-de-camp of Gen. Jozef Bem, then head of the Transylvanian army, who had great affection for the somewhat unsoldierly but enthusiastic poet.

Petőfi disappeared during the Battle of Segesvár, July 31, 1849, and was assumed to have died in the fighting, though his body was never discovered. (Later claims that Petőfi had been taken prisoner and sent to Siberia were discredited.)

Petőfi’s poetry is characterized by realism, humour, and descriptive power and imbued with a peculiar vigour. He introduced a direct, unpretentious style and a clear, unornamented construction adapted from national folk songs. This simplicity was the more arresting as it was used to reveal subtle emotions and political or philosophical ideas. Of his epic poems the János vitéz (1845), an entrancing fairy tale, is the most popular. Petőfi’s popularity has never diminished in Hungary.

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Yonge Charlotte Mary

Charlotte Mary Yonge (11 August 1823 – 24 May 1901) was an English novelist known for her huge output, now mostly out of print.

  Charlotte M. Yonge, in full Charlotte Mary Yonge (born August 11, 1823, Otterbourne, Hampshire, England—died March 24, 1901, Otterbourne), English novelist who dedicated her talents as a writer to the service of the church.

Her books helped to spread the influence of the Oxford Movement, which sought to bring about a return of the Church of England to the High Church ideals of the late 17th century.

Her first success came with The Heir of Redclyffe
(1853), whose hero made goodness attractive and romantic.

Her other novels include Heartsease (1854); The Daisy Chain (1856), which depicts the moral conflict of sheltered lives; and The Young Stepmother (1861).

She also edited a magazine for girls, The Monthly Packet, for which she wrote historical cameos, and composed religious tracts.

Her best work has a vitality that saves it from being propagandist.

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Charlotte Mary Yonge, ca. 1845
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