The Missa solemnis
in D major, Op. 123, was composed by Ludwig van
from 1819 to 1823. It was first performed on 7 April
1824 in St. Petersburg, Russia, under the auspices of
Beethoven's patron Prince Nikolai Galitzin; an
incomplete performance was given in Vienna on 7 May
1824, when the Kyrie, Credo, and Agnus Dei were
conducted by the composer. It is generally considered
one of the composer's supreme achievements and, along
with Bach's Mass in B minor, one of the most significant
Mass settings of the common practice period.
Despite critical recognition
as one of Beethoven's great works from the height of his
composing career, Missa solemnis has not achieved the same
level of popular attention that many of his symphonies and
sonatas have enjoyed. Written around the same time as his
Ninth Symphony, it is Beethoven's second setting of the
Mass, after his Mass in C, Op. 86.
The Mass is scored for 2
flutes; 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (in A, C, and B♭); 2 bassoons;
contrabassoon; 4 horns (in D, E♭, B♭ basso, E, and G); 2
trumpets (D, B♭, and C); alto, tenor, and bass trombone;
timpani; organ continuo; strings (violins I and II, violas,
cellos, and basses); soprano, alto, tenor, and bass
soloists; and mixed choir.
Beethoven - Missa Solemnis
- Philharmonia / Karajan
Missa Solemnis op.123
Agnus Dei 01:07:59
Singverein des Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien
Herbert von Karajan
Sir Henry Rowley
Bishop (18 November 1786 – 30 April 1855) was an English
composer. He is most famous for the songs "Home! Sweet
Home!" and "Lo! Here the Gentle Lark." He was the composer
or arranger of some 120 dramatic works, including 80 operas,
light operas, cantatas, and ballets. Knighted in 1842, he
was the first musician to be so honoured. Bishop worked for
all the major theatres of London in his era — including the
Royal Opera House at Covent Garden, the Theatre Royal, Drury
Lane, Vauxhall Gardens and the Haymarket Theatre, and was
Professor of Music at the universities of Edinburgh and
Oxford. His second wife was the noted soprano Anna Bishop,
who scandalised British society by leaving him and
conducting an open liaison with the harpist Nicolas-Charles
Bochsa until the latter's death in Sydney.
Bishop was born in London, where his father was a watchmaker
and haberdasher. At the age of 13, Bishop left full-time
education and worked as a music-publisher with his cousin.
After training as a jockey at Newmarket, he took some
lessons in harmony from Francisco Bianchi in London. In 1804
he wrote the music to a piece called "Angelina", which was
performed at Margate. Bishop's "operas" were written in a style and format that
satisfied the audiences of his day. They have more in common
with the earlier, native English ballad opera genre, or with
modern musicals, than the classical opera of continental
Europe with full recitatives. His first opera, The
Circassian's Bride (1809), had one performance at Drury Lane
before the theatre burned down and the score was lost. Between 1816 and 1828, Bishop composed the music for a
series of Shakespearean operas staged by Frederic Reynolds.
But these, and the numerous works, operas, burlettas,
cantatas, incidental music etc. which he wrote are mostly
forgotten. Even his limited partnering with various
composers including Joseph Edwards Carpenter and Stephen
Glover are overlooked. 1816 also saw the composition of a
string quartet in C minor.
His most successful operas were The Virgin of the Sun
(1812), The Miller and his Men (1813), Guy Mannering (1816),
and Clari, or the Maid of Milan (1823). Clari, with a
libretto by the American John Howard Payne, included the
song Home! Sweet Home!, which became enormously popular.
In 1852 Bishop 'relaunched' the song as a parlour ballad. It
was popular in the United States throughout the American
Civil War and after. Also of note is Bishop's 1819 musical
comedy adaptation of William Shakespeare's The Comedy of
Errors, which included the popular coloratura soprano aria
"Lo! Here the Gentle Lark."
In 1825 Bishop was induced by Robert Elliston to transfer
his services from Covent Garden to the rival house in Drury
Lane, for which he wrote the opera Aladdin, based on the
story from 1001 Nights. It was intended to compete with
Weber's Oberon, commissioned by the other house. Aladdin
failed, and Bishop's career as an operatic composer came to
He did, however, rework operas by other composers. An
1827 Covent Garden playbill records a performance of the
Marriage of Figaro with "The Overture and Music selected
chiefly from Mozart’s operas – the new music by Mr Bishop".
It included an aria called Follow, follow o’er the mountain,
sung by Miss Paton.
Bishop was one of the original directors of the
Philharmonic Society when it was founded in 1813. He
conducted at Covent Garden and at the London Philharmonic
concerts. In 1841 he was appointed Reid Professor of Music
in the University of Edinburgh, but resigned the office in
1843. In 1848 he became Professor of Music at the University
of Oxford, succeeding William Crotch. His last work was the
commissioned music for the ode at the installation of Lord
Derby as chancellor of the university in 1853.
According to William Denslow, Bishop was a free-mason.
Bishop was knighted in 1842, the first musician to be so
Bishop's later years were clouded by scandal. He had
married his second wife, the singer Ann Rivière, in 1831.
She was twenty-three years younger than he and they had
three children. In 1839, Anna Bishop (as she was now
known) abandoned her husband and three children to run off
with her lover and accompanist, the harpist and composer
Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. They left England to give concert
tours abroad until Bochsa died in Sydney, Australia in 1856. Anna Bishop sang in every continent and was the
most widely travelled opera singer of the 19th century.
Sir Henry Bishop died in poverty in London, although he
had a substantial income during his lifetime. He is buried
in East Finchley Cemetery in north London.
Home!" (also known as "Home, Sweet Home") is a song that has
remained well known for over 150 years. Adapted from
American actor and dramatist John Howard Payne's 1823 opera
Clari, or the Maid of Milan, the song's melody was composed
by Englishman Sir Henry Bishop with lyrics by Payne.
words are as follows:
Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam, Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home; A charm from the skies seems to hallow us there, Which seek thro' the world, is ne'er met elsewhere. Home! Home! Sweet, sweet home! There's no place like home There's no place like home!
As soon as 1827 this song was quoted by Swedish composer
Franz Berwald in his Konzertstück for Bassoon and Orchestra
(middle section, marked Andante). Gaetano Donizetti used the
theme in his Opera Anna Bolena (1830) Act 2, Scene 3 as part
of Anna’s Mad Scene to underscore her longing for her
It is also used with Sir Henry Wood's
Fantasia on British Sea Songs and in Alexandre Guilmant's
Fantasy for organ Op. 43, the Fantaisie sur deux mélodies
anglaises, both of which also use "Rule, Britannia!".
1857 composer/pianist Sigismond Thalberg wrote a series of
variations for piano (op. 72) on the theme of Home! Sweet
In 1909, it was featured[citation
needed] in the silent film The House of Cards, an Edison
Studios film. In the
particular scene, a frontier bar was hurriedly closed due to
a fracas. A card reading "Play Home Sweet Home" was
displayed, upon which an on-screen fiddler promptly supplied
a pantomime of the song. This may imply a popular
association of this song with the closing hour of drinking establishments.
The song was reputedly banned from being played in Union
Army camps during the American Civil War for being too
redolent of hearth and home and so likely to incite
Cover of the
sheet music for a version published in 1914.
The song is famous in Japan as "Hanyū no Yado"
("埴生の宿"?) ("My Humble Cottage"). It has been used in such
movies as The Burmese Harp and Grave of the Fireflies. It is also
used at Senri-Chūō Station on the Kita-Osaka Kyūkō Railway.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
sings Home, Sweet Home by Sir Henry Bishop
British Contralto sings Home, sweet home bu Sir Henry Rowley
Bishop Lyrics: John Howard Payne Paul Hamburger at the piano
Kanawa - Home, Sweet Home
New Zealand Wellington outdoors Concert in 1990.
New Zealand symphony orchestra.
Conducted by John Hophins.
DEANNA DURBIN -
"Home, Sweet Home"
singing "Home, Sweet Home" from her 1939 movie, First Love.
Rosamunde, Fürstin von
Zypern (Rosamunde, Princess of Cyprus) is a play by
Helmina von Chézy, which is primarily remembered for
the incidental music which
Schubert Franz composed
for it. Music and play premiered in Vienna's Theater
an der Wien on 20 December 1823.
The text version of von Chézy's original play, in
four acts, as premiered with Schubert's music, is
lost. However, a later modified version of the play,
in five acts, was discovered in the State Library of
Württemberg, and was published in 1996. Fragmentary
autograph sources relating to the first version of
the play have been recovered too.
The story concerns
the attempt of Rosamunde, who was brought up
incognito as a shepherdess by the mariner's widow
Axa, to reclaim her throne. The long-established
governor Fulgentius (Fulvio in the revised version),
who already has Rosamunde's parents on his
conscience, attempts to thwart Rosamunde, initially
by intrigue, then by a marriage proposal and finally
by an attempt at poisoning. Rosamunde, whose claim
is backed by a deed in her father's hand, enjoys the
support of Cypriots and the Cretan Prince Alfonso,
her intended husband. Finally, all the attempts of
Fulgentius fail; he dies by his own poison, and
Rosamunde ascends the throne.
Franz Schubert -
String Quartet, in A minor, D 804 "Rosamunde"
Thomas Brandis, violin. Peter Brem, violin. Wilfried
Strehle, viola. Wolfgang Boettcher, cello.
Franz Schubert - String Quartet, in A minor, D 804 "Rosamunde"
I. Allegro ma non troppo
III. Menuetto, allegro
IV. Allegro moderato
Euryanthe is a
German "grand, heroic, romantic" opera by Carl Maria von
first performed at the Theater am Kärntnertor, Vienna on
25 October 1823.
Though acknowledged as one of
Weber's most important operas, the work is rarely staged
because of the weak libretto by Helmina von Chézy (who,
incidentally, was also the author of the failed play
Rosamunde, for which Franz Schubert wrote music). Euryanthe
is based on the 13th-century romance "L'Histoire du très-noble
et chevalereux prince Gérard, comte de Nevers et la
très-virtueuse et très chaste princesse Euriant de Savoye,
Only the overture, an
outstanding example of the early German Romantic style
(heralding Richard Wagner), is regularly played today. Like
Schubert's lesser-known Alfonso und Estrella, of the same
time and place (Vienna, 1822), Euryanthe parts with the
German Singspiel tradition, adopting a musical approach
without the interruption of spoken dialogue characteristic
of earlier German language operas such as Mozart's Die
Zauberflöte, Beethoven's Fidelio, and Weber's own Der
Carl Maria von Weber - Euryanthe -
Conductor: Marek Janowski
Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresd
(born December 26, 1791, London, England—died October 18,
1871, London), English mathematician and inventor who is
credited with having conceived the first automatic digital
In 1812 Babbage helped found the Analytical Society,
whose object was to introduce developments from the European
continent into English mathematics. In 1816 he was elected a
fellow of the Royal Society of London. He was instrumental
in founding the Royal Astronomical (1820) and Statistical
The idea of mechanically calculating mathematical tables
first came to Babbage in 1812 or 1813. Later he made a small
calculator that could perform certain mathematical
computations to eight decimals. Then in 1823 he obtained
government support for the design of a projected machine
with a 20-decimal capacity. Its construction required the
development of mechanical engineering techniques, to which
Babbage of necessity devoted himself. In the meantime
(1828–39) he served as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at
the University of Cambridge.
During the mid-1830s Babbage developed plans for the
Analytical Engine, the forerunner of the modern digital
computer. In this device he envisioned the capability of
performing any arithmetical operation on the basis of
instructions from punched cards, a memory unit in which to
store numbers, sequential control, and most of the other
basic elements of the present-day computer. The Analytical
Engine, however, was never completed. Babbage’s design was
forgotten until his unpublished notebooks were discovered in
1937. In 1991 British scientists built Difference Engine No.
2—accurate to 31 digits—to Babbage’s specifications.
Babbage made notable contributions in other areas as
well. He assisted in establishing the modern postal system
in England and compiled the first reliable actuarial tables.
He also invented a type of speedometer and the locomotive
FRS (29 December 1766 – 25 July 1843) was a Scottish chemist
and inventor of waterproof fabrics. The Mackintosh raincoat
(the variant spelling is now standard) is named for him.
(born Dec. 29, 1766, Glasgow—died July 25, 1843, near
Glasgow), Scottish chemist, best known for his invention in
1823 of a method for making waterproof garments by using
rubber dissolved in coal-tar naphtha for cementing two
pieces of cloth together. The mackintosh garment was named
In 1823, while trying to find uses for the waste products
of gasworks, Macintosh noted that coal-tar naphtha dissolved
india rubber. He then took wool cloth, painted one side of
it with the rubber preparation, and placed another thickness
of wool cloth on top, thereby producing a waterproof fabric.
Soon after he began the manufacture of coats and other
But problems developed. In the process of seaming
a garment, tailors punctured the fabric, allowing rain to
penetrate; the natural oil in woollen cloth caused the
rubber cement to deteriorate; and, in the earlier years, the
garments became stiff in winter and sticky in hot weather.
The mackintosh, as it came to be known, was greatly improved
when vulcanized rubber, which resisted temperature changes,
became available in 1839.
In 1822 an
expedition backed by the British Government, and
officered by Hugh Clapperton, Dixon Denham, and Walter
Oudney, set out from Tripoli. This venture wras
concerned as much with the pioneering of commercial
openings as with exploration, but it did locate Lake
Chad and provide useful information from the states of
Sokoto and Borno in modern northern Nigeria. The results
were promising enough from the trading point of view for
Clapperton to be sent back to Africa in 1825,
accompanied by his manservant Richard Lander.
Clapperton and Lander
Explorers are on the whole an
unlikeable lot, jealous of their own fame and ruthless in
overcoming both material and human obstacles. Richard
Lander, however, is one of the most engaging travelers ever
to set foot on the African continent. The almost illiterate
son of a Cornish innkeeper, he was cheerful and
affectionate, and had a mania for travel.
He carried a bugle with him on which he played appropriate
homely airs - "Over the hills and far away" - as he and
Clapperton set off on their second mission. As Clapperton
lay dying at Sokoto, the furthest point of their journey,
Lander recited to cheer him a "little poem 'My native
Highland home' " (Clapperton was a Scot). When the end came
"I flung myself on the bed of death and prayed Heaven would
in mercy take my life." Fortunately, Heaven turned a deaf
ear, and Lander returned to England with his master's papers
and his own pertinent comments.
Sandstorms, such as this one painted by J. S. Lyon in the
Libyan Desert in 1820, were among the hazards faced by Barth
and his companions on their journey south from Tripoli to
Lake Chad. According to James Bruce, the best way of dealing
with a sandstorm was to lie flat on one's face until it had
blown itself out.
The Lander brothers
Lander was sent again to
Africa in 1830, accompanied by his brother John (to whom His
Majesty's Government paid no salary), with rather casual
instructions from the Colonial Office to follow the Niger.
They landed at Badagri (an evil haunt of slave dealers),
dressed strangely in scarlet tunics, full Turkish trousers,
and straw hats bigger than umbrellas, causing much amusement
to the local people.
The simple Cornish brothers were to succeed where the more
sophisticated Mungo Park had failed. In the face of every
possible setback they sailed down the Niger from Bussa,
south of Timbuktu, not far beyond where Park lost his life.
John Lander graphically describes the river banks: "They
were embellished with mighty trees and elegant shrubs, which
were clad in thick and luxuriant foliage, some of lively
green, and others of darker hue." The brothers noted as they
went the great confluence of the Bcnue with the Niger, and
emerged at the delta, thus establishing the course of the
They were shabbily treated by the Government on their
return, Richard receiving £100 reward, John nothing; private
enterprise did better in that the publisher John Murray paid
£1000 for their book. Richard was the first traveler to be
honored by the newly founded (later Royal) Geographical
Society of London, receiving 50 guineas. He died on a
subsequent expedition designed to open up trade in the Niger
delta and upstream, and launched as a result of his and his
brother's earlier success.
The Lander brothers at Badagri, in their idiosyncratic
costumes: "So unusual a dress might well cause the people to
laugh heartily... but the more modest of the females,
unwilling to give us any uneasiness, turned aside to conceal
the titter from which they were quite unable to refrain."
The "white man's grave"
The Landers' epic journey
proved the Niger to be navigable into the interior of Africa
at a time when the abolition of the slave trade was
encouraging the pursuit of legitimate trade and of Christian
missions. Expeditions, both privately and officially
sponsored, followed after the journey of Richard and John
Lander to the Niger's delta, but the death toll from fever
on the river, which came to be known as the "white man's
grave," was so heavy that progress came to a halt.
Eventually, with improvements in medical knowledge and
better observance of hygiene, it became possible to pursue
the Niger adventure.
Much was due to Dr William Baikie, who first sailed up the
river in 1854, and from 1857 to 1864 was in charge of a
government trading settlement at Lokoja at the confluence of
the Niger and Benue. Baikie was a true pioneer, proving the
efficacy of quinine against malaria and moreover adjusting
himself to local conditions and mastering local tongues. He
translated the Book of Genesis into Hausa and compiled a
grammar of the Fuldi language. He adopted the comfortable
local dress of a long cotton shirt and baggy trousers, and
lived with a black mistress who bore him several children.
It is sad to relate that, although he avoided the deadly
local fever by dosmg himself regularly with quinine, he died
Heinrich Barth made this sketch of Kano, which he visited
after having learned of its existence from a Hausa slave. He
spent a month there early in 1851 and became extremely
knowledgeable about the city and its environs.
Heinrich Barth: a scholarly
Neither the commercial nor the
anti-slavery lobbies were to remain satisfied with a
foothold on the Niger at Lokoja. What Clapperton had
reported of the states of Borno and Sokoto along the south
bank of the river suggested a promising field for trade. The
philanthropists, on the other hand, felt that penetration of
these lands would provide a chance to destroy the slave
trade at one of its sources. An expedition was officially
sanctioned by the British Government in 1849, to be led by
James Richardson of the Anti-Slavery Society accompanied by
a geographer and a geologist to study the lie of the land.
The geographer chosen was Heinrich Barth, a well-recommended
young German from Berlin, who was to prove himself one of
Africa's most successful explorers. Barth was a master of
Arabic and had all the painstaking thoroughness associated
with German scholarship. The expedition's route was south
from Tripoli across the Sahara to Lake Chad.
Richardson and later Overweg (the geologist) died at an
early stage, but Barth was not discouraged. He traveled on
alone, covering a distance of some 10,000 miles (16,000
kilometers) over a period of five years, with pitifully
little cash from a parsimonious British Government and often
in danger as a Christian in a Muslim country.
Barth thoroughly examined Lake Chad anci, striking south,
explored the upper waters of the Benue, which he proved to
have no connection with the lake. Later on he traveled west
to Timbuktu, before returning to England in 1855. His
meticulous observations were incorporated in five volumes,
but they were not written in the lively style expected by
Victorian readers, who showed far more interest in other
explorers' accounts. Barth received the Patron's Medal from
the Royal Geographical Society and various other honors, but
he died feeling that his achievements had not been fully
(1790–1824) was a Scottish physician and African
In 1817 he received his
medical doctorate at Edinburgh. A few years afterwards he
was appointed by the British government as consul for
promotion of trade to the Kingdom of Bornu in sub-Saharan
Africa. In early 1822 he departed from Tripoli with
explorers Dixon Denham (1786–1828) and Hugh Clapperton
(1788–1827), reaching Bornu in February 1823, and thus
becoming the first Europeans to accomplish a north-south
crossing of the Sahara Desert.
Stricken by illness, Oudney
died in January 1824 in the village of Murmur, located near
the town of Katagum. On the journey he collected regional
plants, and after his death Scottish botanist Robert Brown
(1773–1858) named the botanical genus Oudneya from the
family Brassicaceae in his honor.
In 1826 the two-volume
"Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and
Central Africa in the years 1822, 1823, and 1824" was
published, describing the African exploits of Oudney, Denham
Dixon Denham (1
January 1786 – 9 June 1828) was an English soldier,
explorer of West Central Africa, and ultimately Governor
of Sierra Leone.
Dixon Denham was born at Salisbury Square, Fleet Street,
London on New Year's Day, 1786, the son of James Denham, a
haberdasher, and his wife Eleanor, née Symonds. The youngest
of their three sons, Denham was educated at Merchant Taylors'
School from 1794 to 1800; on leaving he was articled to a
solicitor, but joined the army in 1811.
Initially in the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, and
later the 54th Foot, Denham served in the campaigns
in Portugal, Spain, France, and Belgium, receiving
the Waterloo Medal. Denham was considered a brave
soldier, who had carried his wounded commander out
of the line of fire at the Battle of Toulouse, and
had become a close acquaintance of the Duke of
Wellington, with whom he regularly corresponded. At
the end of hostilities, Lieutenant Denham served at
Cambray and with the occupation of Paris. Placed on
half pay in 1818, he travelled for a time in France
and Italy. In 1819, Denham entered the Royal
Military College, Sandhurst, as a student, intending
to become a staff officer in the Senior Department
of the Royal Military College.
He attracted the favourable attention of the
Commandant of the College, Sir Howard Douglas, but
became very bored; 'he was the kind of man who must
have adventure or he rots', wrote a friend. Alas, he
was also domineering, insecure, jealous, and
possessed of a mean streak.
The Bornu Mission
Denham had met the explorer Captain George Lyon on
the latter's return to London from Africa, and
became determined to join the British government's
second mission to establish trade links with the
west African states.
Perhaps because of his
influential acquaintances, Denham's wish was granted and,
now promoted to Major, he was despatched by Lord Bathurst in
the autumn of 1821 to join the other members of the mission,
Dr Walter Oudney and Lt. Hugh Clapperton, arriving at
Tripoli aboard the schooner Express on 19 November.
with a view
of the Niger
on 5 March
to find his
ill of an
absent on a
on 13 June
to write to
be no loss
a saving to
not read his
knew not a
star in the
Denham was to find the
bashaw as obdurate as Murzuk's bey. Outraged, he
decided to return to London to report the situation
to Lord Bathurst and also seek promotion, so that he
could return as commanding officer of the
expedition. Boarding a ship bound for Marseilles, he
warned the bashaw's lieutenants of his government's
displeasure when it learned of the bashaw's
Duly alarmed, the bashaw wrote to him, proposing
that the 300 - man escort of a wealthy merchant
about to depart for Bornu could, for a fee of 10,000
dollars to be shared with him, be persuaded to
protect the mission as well. Denham received the
letter while in quarantine in Marseilles. Still very
angry, he sent an ill-judged letter to Bathurst
complaining of Oudney's incompetence.
The missal was not well received in London, and
Denham found a letter awaiting him on his return to
Tripoli, rebuking him for his lack of diplomacy,
although acknowledging the frustrations he had
endured. News of Denham's conduct left his
compatriots at Murzuk dumbfounded.
Oudney wrote a bitter letter of complaint about
Denham to Warrington, the British Consul in Tripoli,
comparing Denham to a snake hidden in the grass. In
an unfortunate breach of confidence, Warrington
showed the letter to Denham, thereby souring
relations within the mission party still further.
By the end of September 1822,
Denham was on his way back to Murzuk with the merchant and
the promised escort. Recognizing that matters had been
aggravated by the absence of any official instruction
regarding leadership of the expedition, the Colonial Office
wrote that Clapperton should become Oudney's aide, not
Denham's. The mission, now comprising four Britons
(including Hillman, the carpenter), five servants, and four
camel drivers, eventually left Murzuk for Bornu on 19
November 1822. Clapperton and Oudney were in poor health,
having succumbed to fevers, and all were overwought as they
made their way due south across the Sahara, the route
littered with the skeletal remains of slaves that had
perished of thirst. The mission reached the northern shore
of Lake Chad on 4 February 1823, the Britons becoming the
first white men to see the lake; the party continued
westward, reaching Kuka in the Bornu Empire, (now Kukawa,
Nigeria) on 17 February.
It was from
his life. By
this time, a
with one of
based on a
spread by a
he had done
set out for
Chad was not
aided in his
surveys by a
soon died of
by Denham on
of the lake.
sent to act
Lancer of Sultan of Begharmi, engraving by Finden,
from drawing by Dixon Denham, from Travels in
Africa, 1822-1824, by Dixon Denham, Hugh Clapperton
and Walter Oudney, 19th century
Denham took Tyrwhitt with him
on an excursion to the southern tip of the Lake Chad. When
the pair returned to Kuka, Denham found Clapperton there,
all but unrecognizable. Oudney had died at Murmur in January
1824, but Clapperton had continued to Kano and Sokoto;
forbidden to continue further by Sultan Bello, he had had no
option but to return.
On 14 September 1824, their
antipathy unabated, the pair, with carpenter Hillman, left
Kuka for Tripoli not speaking a word to each other during
the 133 - day journey. Tyrwhitt elected to remain at Kuka
and do his duty, a decision that cost him his life only
several months later after he succumbed to fever,
alcoholism, and loneliness.
Denham and Clapperton
returned to England and a heroes' reception on 1 June 1825.
had left on
his own role
at 18 George
a Fellow of
the end of
started on a
In May 1828
had died in
in London at
Garden on 20
1815, but no
his wife or
Denham and Clapperton received by Sheikh al-Kaneimi
After administering Sierra Leone for only five weeks, Denham
died of 'African Fever' (probably malaria) at Freetown on 9
June 1828, aged 42. The fourth governor of the colony to
perish in as many years in that 'pestilential climate', he
died owing several thousand pounds to his brother, John
Charles. Denham was buried at the city's Circular Road
cemetery on 15 June.
Denham in literature
Denham's exploits are briefly mentioned in Jules Verne's
Five Weeks in a Balloon, Chapter 30: 'My dear fellow, we are
now upon the very track of Major Denham. It was at this very
city of Mosfeia that he was received by the Sultan of
Mandara; he had quitted the Bornou country; he accompanied
the sheik in an expedition against the Fellatahs; he
assisted in the attack on the city, which, with its arrows
alone, bravely resisted the bullets of the Arabs, and put
the sheik's troops to flight. All this was but a pretext for
murders, raids, and pillage. The major was completely
plundered and stripped, and had it not been for his horse,
under whose stomach he clung with the skill of an Indian
rider, and was borne with a headlong gallop from his
barbarous pursuers, he never could have made his way back to
Kouka, the capital of Bornou.' 'Who was this Major Denham?'
'A fearless Englishman, who, between 1822 and 1824,
commanded an expedition into the Bornou country, in company
with Captain Clapperton and Dr. Oudney. They set out from
Tripoli in the month of March, reached Mourzouk, the capital
of Fez, and, following the route which at a later period Dr.
Barth was to pursue on his way back to Europe, they arrived,
on the 16th of February, 1823, at Kouka, near Lake Tchad.
Denham made several explorations in Bornou, in Mandara, and
to the eastern shores of the lake.'
Bain Hugh Clapperton
(18 May 1788 – 13 April 1827) was a Scottish naval
officer and explorer of West and Central Africa.
Clapperton was born in Annan, Dumfriesshire, where his
father was a surgeon. He gained some knowledge of practical
mathematics and navigation, and at thirteen was apprenticed
on board a vessel which traded between Liverpool and North
America. After having made several voyages across the
Atlantic Ocean, he was impressed for the navy, in which he
soon rose to the rank of midshipman. During the Napoleonic
Wars he saw a good deal of active service, and at the
storming of Port Louis, Mauritius, in November 1810, he was
first in the breach and hauled down the French flag.
In 1814 Clapperton went to
Canada, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and to the
command of a schooner on the Canadian lakes. In 1817, when
the flotilla on the lakes was dismantled, he returned home
on half-pay. In 1820 Clapperton removed to Edinburgh, where
he made the acquaintance of Walter Oudney, who aroused his
interest in African travel.
Lieutenant G. F. Lyon having returned from an
unsuccessful attempt to reach Bornu from Tripoli,
the British government determined on a second
expedition to that country. Walter Oudney was
appointed by Lord Bathurst, then colonial secretary,
to proceed to Bornu as consul, accompanied by Hugh
Clapperton . From Tripoli, early in 1822, they set
out southward to Murzuk, where they were later
joined by Dixon Denham, who found both men in a
wretched condition. They eventually proceeded south
from Murzuk on 29 November 1822.
By this time, a deep antipathy had developed between
Clapperton and Denham, Denham secretly sending home
malicious reports about Clapperton having homosexual
relations with one of the Arab servants. The
accusation, based on a rumour spread by a
disgruntled servant dismissed by Clapperton for
theft, was almost certainly unfounded, and Denham
later withdrew it but without telling Clapperton he
had done so, leading the historian Bovill to observe
that 'it remains difficult to recall in all the
checkered (sic) history of geographic discovery....
a more odious man than Dixon Denham'.
On 17 February 1823, the party
eventually reached Kuka (now Kukawa in Nigeria), capital of
the Bornu Empire, where they were well received by the
sultan Sheikh al-Kaneimi, having earlier become the first
white men to see Lake Chad. Whilst at Kuka, Clapperton and
Oudney parted company with Denham on 14 December to explore
the course of the Niger River. Denham remained behind to
explore and survey the western, south and south-eastern
shores of Lake Chad, and the lower courses of the rivers
Waube, Logone and Shari. However, only a few weeks later,
Oudney died at Murmur on the road to Kano.
Bello he was
was only a
by way of
not a word
home to a
welcome on 1
1822 - 1823
Immediately after his
return to England, Clapperton was raised to the rank
of commander, and sent out with another expedition
to Africa, the sultan Bello of Sokoto having
professed his eagerness to open up trade with the
west coast. Clapperton came out on HMS Brazen, which
was joining the West Africa Squadron for the
suppression of the slave trade.
He landed at Badagry in the Bight of Benin, and
started overland for the Niger on 7 December 1825,
having with him his servant Richard Lemon Lander,
Captain Pearce, and Dr. Morrison, navy surgeon and
naturalist. Before the month was out Pearce and
Morrison were dead of fever. Clapperton continued
his journey, and, passing through the Yoruba
country, in January 1826 he crossed the Niger at
Bussa, the spot where Mungo Park had died twenty
now at war
the news of
Clapperton was the first European to make known from
personal observation the Hausa states, which he
visited soon after the establishment of the Sokoto
Caliphate by the Fula. In 1829 the Journal of a
Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa, &c.,
by Clapperton appeared posthumously, with a
biographical sketch of the explorer by his uncle,
Lieutenant-Colonel S. Clapperton, as a preface.
Richard Lander, who had brought back the journal of
his master, also published Records of Captain
Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa ... with the
subsequent Adventures of the Author (2 volumes,
is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is
one of the world's oldest and best known general medical
journals, and has been described as one of the most
prestigious medical journals in the world.
The Lancet was founded in 1823
by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the
surgical instrument called a lancet, as well as after the
architectural term "lancet arch", a window with a sharp
pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let
The Lancet publishes
original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and
"reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as
well as news features and case reports. The Lancet has been
owned by Elsevier since 1991. As of 1995, the
editor-in-chief is Richard Horton. The journal has editorial
offices in London, New York, and Beijing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Death penalty for over 100
crimes abolished in
The Royal Thames
Yacht Club (RTYC) is the oldest continuously
operating yacht club in the United Kingdom. Its
headquarters are located at 60 Knightsbridge, London,
England, overlooking Hyde Park. The Club has a clear
"To provide the
members with outstanding yacht cruising, racing and
social opportunities in the UK and internationally,
building on the Club's unique heritage, central London
facilities and close reciprocal relationships with other
leading yacht clubs around the world."
The Club was
in 1775 when
III, put up
a silver cup
for a race
on the River
name of the
IV of the
moving to 60
took place on the Thames but the Solent became
increasingly important in the 1850s as the steam
train made access to the South Coast easy.
The Club has had
many distinguished Flag Officers and traditionally
the Commodore has been a member of the royal family.
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma was
Commodore for 20 years and today the Club's
Commodore is HRH Prince Andrew, the Duke of York.
The Patron of the Club is HRH the Duke of Edinburgh
and the Admiral is HRH Prince Charles the Prince of
The Royal Thames Yacht Club's steam yacht Ianara painted by
Royal Thames Yacht Club
The Club is involved in a range of yachting events for both
the cruising and racing yachtsman, motor yacht owners and
all those interested in the sea. Through the Club's events
and other contacts, members have access to yachting
activities worldwide. They also have use of all the
facilities of the Clubhouse in Knightsbridge and leading
reciprocal clubs around the world.