Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1823 Part I NEXT-1824 Part I    
 
 
     
1820 - 1829
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820-1829
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Missouri
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
"
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Leo XII
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Horse-bus
Trade Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Zollverein
Khan Dost Mohammad
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Timbuktu
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Michael
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Pius VIII
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George
Flong
Suttee
 
 
 

 Pierre-Pau lPrud'hon. Andromache and Astyanax
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1823 Part II
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Prud'hon Pierre-Paul., Fr. painter, d. (b. 1758)
 
 

Prud'hon Pierre-Paul. Andromache and Astyanax
 
 
 
     
 
Pierre-Paul Prud'hon
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Sir Raeburn Henry, Scot. portrait painter, d. (b. 1756)
 
 

Raeburn Henry. The Drummond Children
 
 
 
     
 
Henry Raeburn
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
 
 

Waldmuller Ferdinand. Portrait of Beethoven. 1823
 
 
 
     
 
Ferdinand Waldmuller
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
 

The Missa solemnis in D major, Op. 123, was composed by Ludwig van Beethoven (Beethoven Ludwig) from 1819 to 1823. It was first performed on 7 April 1824 in St. Petersburg, Russia, under the auspices of Beethoven's patron Prince Nikolai Galitzin; an incomplete performance was given in Vienna on 7 May 1824, when the Kyrie, Credo, and Agnus Dei were conducted by the composer. It is generally considered one of the composer's supreme achievements and, along with Bach's Mass in B minor, one of the most significant Mass settings of the common practice period.

 
Despite critical recognition as one of Beethoven's great works from the height of his composing career, Missa solemnis has not achieved the same level of popular attention that many of his symphonies and sonatas have enjoyed. Written around the same time as his Ninth Symphony, it is Beethoven's second setting of the Mass, after his Mass in C, Op. 86.

The Mass is scored for 2 flutes; 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (in A, C, and B♭); 2 bassoons; contrabassoon; 4 horns (in D, E♭, B♭ basso, E, and G); 2 trumpets (D, B♭, and C); alto, tenor, and bass trombone; timpani; organ continuo; strings (violins I and II, violas, cellos, and basses); soprano, alto, tenor, and bass soloists; and mixed choir.

 
 
 
 
Beethoven - Missa Solemnis - Philharmonia / Karajan
 
Missa Solemnis op.123

Kyrie 0:00
Gloria 11:12
Credo 28:33
Sanctus 50:54
Agnus Dei 01:07:59

Elisabeth Schwarzkopf
Christa Ludwig
Nicolai Gedda
Nicola Zaccaria
Singverein des Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien
Philharmonia Orchestra
Herbert von Karajan

Studio recording (11-15.IX.1958)

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Ludwig van Beethoven
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1823
 
 
"Clari, or the Maid of Milan," opera, London, by Henry R. Bishop (1786—1855), contains the song "Home Sweet Home"
 
 
Bishop Henry Rowley
 
Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (18 November 1786 – 30 April 1855) was an English composer. He is most famous for the songs "Home! Sweet Home!" and "Lo! Here the Gentle Lark." He was the composer or arranger of some 120 dramatic works, including 80 operas, light operas, cantatas, and ballets. Knighted in 1842, he was the first musician to be so honoured. Bishop worked for all the major theatres of London in his era — including the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden, the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Vauxhall Gardens and the Haymarket Theatre, and was Professor of Music at the universities of Edinburgh and Oxford. His second wife was the noted soprano Anna Bishop, who scandalised British society by leaving him and conducting an open liaison with the harpist Nicolas-Charles Bochsa until the latter's death in Sydney.
 

Sir Henry Rowley Bishop
  Biography
Bishop was born in London, where his father was a watchmaker and haberdasher. At the age of 13, Bishop left full-time education and worked as a music-publisher with his cousin. After training as a jockey at Newmarket, he took some lessons in harmony from Francisco Bianchi in London. In 1804 he wrote the music to a piece called "Angelina", which was performed at Margate. Bishop's "operas" were written in a style and format that satisfied the audiences of his day. They have more in common with the earlier, native English ballad opera genre, or with modern musicals, than the classical opera of continental Europe with full recitatives. His first opera, The Circassian's Bride (1809), had one performance at Drury Lane before the theatre burned down and the score was lost. Between 1816 and 1828, Bishop composed the music for a series of Shakespearean operas staged by Frederic Reynolds. But these, and the numerous works, operas, burlettas, cantatas, incidental music etc. which he wrote are mostly forgotten. Even his limited partnering with various composers including Joseph Edwards Carpenter and Stephen Glover are overlooked. 1816 also saw the composition of a string quartet in C minor.

His most successful operas were The Virgin of the Sun (1812), The Miller and his Men (1813), Guy Mannering (1816), and Clari, or the Maid of Milan (1823). Clari, with a libretto by the American John Howard Payne, included the song Home! Sweet Home!, which became enormously popular.

 
In 1852 Bishop 'relaunched' the song as a parlour ballad. It was popular in the United States throughout the American Civil War and after. Also of note is Bishop's 1819 musical comedy adaptation of William Shakespeare's The Comedy of Errors, which included the popular coloratura soprano aria "Lo! Here the Gentle Lark."

In 1825 Bishop was induced by Robert Elliston to transfer his services from Covent Garden to the rival house in Drury Lane, for which he wrote the opera Aladdin, based on the story from 1001 Nights. It was intended to compete with Weber's Oberon, commissioned by the other house. Aladdin failed, and Bishop's career as an operatic composer came to an end.

He did, however, rework operas by other composers. An 1827 Covent Garden playbill records a performance of the Marriage of Figaro with "The Overture and Music selected chiefly from Mozart’s operas – the new music by Mr Bishop". It included an aria called Follow, follow o’er the mountain, sung by Miss Paton.

Bishop was one of the original directors of the Philharmonic Society when it was founded in 1813. He conducted at Covent Garden and at the London Philharmonic concerts. In 1841 he was appointed Reid Professor of Music in the University of Edinburgh, but resigned the office in 1843. In 1848 he became Professor of Music at the University of Oxford, succeeding William Crotch. His last work was the commissioned music for the ode at the installation of Lord Derby as chancellor of the university in 1853.

According to William Denslow, Bishop was a free-mason. Bishop was knighted in 1842, the first musician to be so honoured.

Bishop's later years were clouded by scandal. He had married his second wife, the singer Ann Rivière, in 1831. She was twenty-three years younger than he and they had three children. In 1839, Anna Bishop (as she was now known) abandoned her husband and three children to run off with her lover and accompanist, the harpist and composer Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. They left England to give concert tours abroad until Bochsa died in Sydney, Australia in 1856. Anna Bishop sang in every continent and was the most widely travelled opera singer of the 19th century.

Sir Henry Bishop died in poverty in London, although he had a substantial income during his lifetime. He is buried in East Finchley Cemetery in north London.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
 

"Home! Sweet Home!" (also known as "Home, Sweet Home") is a song that has remained well known for over 150 years. Adapted from American actor and dramatist John Howard Payne's 1823 opera Clari, or the Maid of Milan, the song's melody was composed by Englishman Sir Henry Bishop with lyrics by Payne.

 
The words are as follows:

Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam,
Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home;
A charm from the skies seems to hallow us there,
Which seek thro' the world, is ne'er met elsewhere.
Home! Home!
Sweet, sweet home!
There's no place like home
There's no place like home!

 
As soon as 1827 this song was quoted by Swedish composer Franz Berwald in his Konzertstück for Bassoon and Orchestra (middle section, marked Andante). Gaetano Donizetti used the theme in his Opera Anna Bolena (1830) Act 2, Scene 3 as part of Anna’s Mad Scene to underscore her longing for her childhood home.

It is also used with Sir Henry Wood's Fantasia on British Sea Songs and in Alexandre Guilmant's Fantasy for organ Op. 43, the Fantaisie sur deux mélodies anglaises, both of which also use "Rule, Britannia!".

In 1857 composer/pianist Sigismond Thalberg wrote a series of variations for piano (op. 72) on the theme of Home! Sweet Home!.

In 1909, it was featured[citation needed] in the silent film The House of Cards, an Edison Studios film. In the particular scene, a frontier bar was hurriedly closed due to a fracas. A card reading "Play Home Sweet Home" was displayed, upon which an on-screen fiddler promptly supplied a pantomime of the song. This may imply a popular association of this song with the closing hour of drinking establishments.

The song was reputedly banned from being played in Union Army camps during the American Civil War for being too redolent of hearth and home and so likely to incite desertion.

 
Cover of the sheet music for a version published in 1914.
 
 

The song is famous in Japan as "Hanyū no Yado" ("埴生の宿"?) ("My Humble Cottage"). It has been used in such movies as The Burmese Harp and Grave of the Fireflies. It is also used at Senri-Chūō Station on the Kita-Osaka Kyūkō Railway.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Norma Procter sings Home, Sweet Home by Sir Henry Bishop
 
Norma Procter, British Contralto sings Home, sweet home bu Sir Henry Rowley Bishop Lyrics: John Howard Payne Paul Hamburger at the piano
 
 
 
 
 
Kiri Te Kanawa - Home, Sweet Home
 
Composed by Arr.Bishop
New Zealand Wellington outdoors Concert in 1990.
New Zealand symphony orchestra.
Conducted by John Hophins.
 
 
 
 
 
DEANNA DURBIN - "Home, Sweet Home"
 
Deanna Durbin singing "Home, Sweet Home" from her 1939 movie, First Love.
 
 
 
 
 
Home Sweet Home - Henry Bishop
 
Gloucester Choral Society
Gloucester Cathedral
 
 
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Erard Sebastien constructs a grand piano with double escapement
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
 

Rosamunde, Fürstin von Zypern (Rosamunde, Princess of Cyprus) is a play by Helmina von Chézy, which is primarily remembered for the incidental music which Schubert Franz composed for it. Music and play premiered in Vienna's Theater an der Wien on 20 December 1823.

 

The play
The text version of von Chézy's original play, in four acts, as premiered with Schubert's music, is lost. However, a later modified version of the play, in five acts, was discovered in the State Library of Württemberg, and was published in 1996. Fragmentary autograph sources relating to the first version of the play have been recovered too.

The story concerns the attempt of Rosamunde, who was brought up incognito as a shepherdess by the mariner's widow Axa, to reclaim her throne. The long-established governor Fulgentius (Fulvio in the revised version), who already has Rosamunde's parents on his conscience, attempts to thwart Rosamunde, initially by intrigue, then by a marriage proposal and finally by an attempt at poisoning. Rosamunde, whose claim is backed by a deed in her father's hand, enjoys the support of Cypriots and the Cretan Prince Alfonso, her intended husband. Finally, all the attempts of Fulgentius fail; he dies by his own poison, and Rosamunde ascends the throne.

 
 
 
 
Franz Schubert - String Quartet, in A minor, D 804 "Rosamunde"
 
Brandis Quartet, Thomas Brandis, violin. Peter Brem, violin. Wilfried Strehle, viola. Wolfgang Boettcher, cello.
Franz Schubert - String Quartet, in A minor, D 804 "Rosamunde"
I. Allegro ma non troppo
II. Andante
III. Menuetto, allegro
IV. Allegro moderato
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Franz Schubert
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1823
 
 
Weber: "Euryanthe"
 

Euryanthe is a German "grand, heroic, romantic" opera by Carl Maria von Weber (Weber Carl Maria), first performed at the Theater am Kärntnertor, Vienna on 25 October 1823.

 
 
 
Though acknowledged as one of Weber's most important operas, the work is rarely staged because of the weak libretto by Helmina von Chézy (who, incidentally, was also the author of the failed play Rosamunde, for which Franz Schubert wrote music). Euryanthe is based on the 13th-century romance "L'Histoire du très-noble et chevalereux prince Gérard, comte de Nevers et la très-virtueuse et très chaste princesse Euriant de Savoye, sa mye."

Only the overture, an outstanding example of the early German Romantic style (heralding Richard Wagner), is regularly played today. Like Schubert's lesser-known Alfonso und Estrella, of the same time and place (Vienna, 1822), Euryanthe parts with the German Singspiel tradition, adopting a musical approach without the interruption of spoken dialogue characteristic of earlier German language operas such as Mozart's Die Zauberflöte, Beethoven's Fidelio, and Weber's own Der Freischütz.

 
 
Carl Maria von Weber - Euryanthe - Overture
 
Conductor: Marek Janowski
Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresd
 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Carl Maria von Weber
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1823
 
 
Charles Babbage's early attempts to construct a calculating machine
 
 
Babbage Charles
 
Charles Babbage, (born December 26, 1791, London, England—died October 18, 1871, London), English mathematician and inventor who is credited with having conceived the first automatic digital computer.
 

Charles Babbage
  In 1812 Babbage helped found the Analytical Society, whose object was to introduce developments from the European continent into English mathematics. In 1816 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London. He was instrumental in founding the Royal Astronomical (1820) and Statistical (1834) societies.

The idea of mechanically calculating mathematical tables first came to Babbage in 1812 or 1813. Later he made a small calculator that could perform certain mathematical computations to eight decimals. Then in 1823 he obtained government support for the design of a projected machine with a 20-decimal capacity. Its construction required the development of mechanical engineering techniques, to which Babbage of necessity devoted himself. In the meantime (1828–39) he served as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.
During the mid-1830s Babbage developed plans for the Analytical Engine, the forerunner of the modern digital computer. In this device he envisioned the capability of performing any arithmetical operation on the basis of instructions from punched cards, a memory unit in which to store numbers, sequential control, and most of the other basic elements of the present-day computer. The Analytical Engine, however, was never completed. Babbage’s design was forgotten until his unpublished notebooks were discovered in 1937. In 1991 British scientists built Difference Engine No. 2—accurate to 31 digits—to Babbage’s specifications.

 
 

Babbage made notable contributions in other areas as well. He assisted in establishing the modern postal system in England and compiled the first reliable actuarial tables. He also invented a type of speedometer and the locomotive cowcatcher.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1823
 
 
Faraday Michael succeeds in liquefying chlorine
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Charles Macintosh invents waterproof fabric
 
 
Macintosh Charles
 
Charles Macintosh FRS (29 December 1766 – 25 July 1843) was a Scottish chemist and inventor of waterproof fabrics. The Mackintosh raincoat (the variant spelling is now standard) is named for him.
 

Charles Macintosh
  Charles Macintosh, (born Dec. 29, 1766, Glasgow—died July 25, 1843, near Glasgow), Scottish chemist, best known for his invention in 1823 of a method for making waterproof garments by using rubber dissolved in coal-tar naphtha for cementing two pieces of cloth together. The mackintosh garment was named for him.

In 1823, while trying to find uses for the waste products of gasworks, Macintosh noted that coal-tar naphtha dissolved india rubber. He then took wool cloth, painted one side of it with the rubber preparation, and placed another thickness of wool cloth on top, thereby producing a waterproof fabric. Soon after he began the manufacture of coats and other garments.

But problems developed. In the process of seaming a garment, tailors punctured the fabric, allowing rain to penetrate; the natural oil in woollen cloth caused the rubber cement to deteriorate; and, in the earlier years, the garments became stiff in winter and sticky in hot weather.

The mackintosh, as it came to be known, was greatly improved when vulcanized rubber, which resisted temperature changes, became available in 1839.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1823
 
 
Navigation of the Niger
 
 

In 1822 an expedition backed by the British Government, and officered by Hugh Clapperton, Dixon Denham, and Walter Oudney, set out from Tripoli. This venture wras concerned as much with the pioneering of commercial openings as with exploration, but it did locate Lake Chad and provide useful information from the states of Sokoto and Borno in modern northern Nigeria. The results were promising enough from the trading point of view for Clapperton to be sent back to Africa in 1825, accompanied by his manservant Richard Lander.

 

 
Clapperton and Lander
 
Explorers are on the whole an unlikeable lot, jealous of their own fame and ruthless in overcoming both material and human obstacles. Richard Lander, however, is one of the most engaging travelers ever to set foot on the African continent. The almost illiterate son of a Cornish innkeeper, he was cheerful and affectionate, and had a mania for travel.
He carried a bugle with him on which he played appropriate homely airs - "Over the hills and far away" - as he and Clapperton set off on their second mission. As Clapperton lay dying at Sokoto, the furthest point of their journey, Lander recited to cheer him a "little poem 'My native Highland home' " (Clapperton was a Scot). When the end came "I flung myself on the bed of death and prayed Heaven would in mercy take my life." Fortunately, Heaven turned a deaf ear, and Lander returned to England with his master's papers and his own pertinent comments.
 
 

Sandstorms, such as this one painted by J. S. Lyon in the Libyan Desert in 1820, were among the hazards faced by Barth and his companions on their journey south from Tripoli to Lake Chad. According to James Bruce, the best way of dealing with a sandstorm was to lie flat on one's face until it had blown itself out.
 
 
The Lander brothers
 
Lander was sent again to Africa in 1830, accompanied by his brother John (to whom His Majesty's Government paid no salary), with rather casual instructions from the Colonial Office to follow the Niger. They landed at Badagri (an evil haunt of slave dealers), dressed strangely in scarlet tunics, full Turkish trousers, and straw hats bigger than umbrellas, causing much amusement to the local people.
The simple Cornish brothers were to succeed where the more sophisticated Mungo Park had failed. In the face of every possible setback they sailed down the Niger from Bussa, south of Timbuktu, not far beyond where Park lost his life. John Lander graphically describes the river banks: "They were embellished with mighty trees and elegant shrubs, which were clad in thick and luxuriant foliage, some of lively green, and others of darker hue." The brothers noted as they went the great confluence of the Bcnue with the Niger, and emerged at the delta, thus establishing the course of the river.
They were shabbily treated by the Government on their return, Richard receiving £100 reward, John nothing; private enterprise did better in that the publisher John Murray paid £1000 for their book. Richard was the first traveler to be honored by the newly founded (later Royal) Geographical Society of London, receiving 50 guineas. He died on a subsequent expedition designed to open up trade in the Niger delta and upstream, and launched as a result of his and his brother's earlier success.
 
 

The Lander brothers at Badagri, in their idiosyncratic costumes: "So unusual a dress might well cause the people to laugh heartily... but the more modest of the females, unwilling to give us any uneasiness, turned aside to conceal the titter from which they were quite unable to refrain."
 
 
The "white man's grave"
 
The Landers' epic journey proved the Niger to be navigable into the interior of Africa at a time when the abolition of the slave trade was encouraging the pursuit of legitimate trade and of Christian missions. Expeditions, both privately and officially sponsored, followed after the journey of Richard and John Lander to the Niger's delta, but the death toll from fever on the river, which came to be known as the "white man's grave," was so heavy that progress came to a halt. Eventually, with improvements in medical knowledge and better observance of hygiene, it became possible to pursue the Niger adventure.
Much was due to Dr William Baikie, who first sailed up the river in 1854, and from 1857 to 1864 was in charge of a government trading settlement at Lokoja at the confluence of the Niger and Benue. Baikie was a true pioneer, proving the efficacy of quinine against malaria and moreover adjusting himself to local conditions and mastering local tongues. He translated the Book of Genesis into Hausa and compiled a grammar of the Fuldi language. He adopted the comfortable local dress of a long cotton shirt and baggy trousers, and lived with a black mistress who bore him several children. It is sad to relate that, although he avoided the deadly local fever by dosmg himself regularly with quinine, he died of dysentery.
 
 

Heinrich Barth made this sketch of Kano, which he visited after having learned of its existence from a Hausa slave. He spent a month there early in 1851 and became extremely knowledgeable about the city and its environs.
 
 
Heinrich Barth: a scholarly explorer
 
Neither the commercial nor the anti-slavery lobbies were to remain satisfied with a foothold on the Niger at Lokoja. What Clapperton had reported of the states of Borno and Sokoto along the south bank of the river suggested a promising field for trade. The philanthropists, on the other hand, felt that penetration of these lands would provide a chance to destroy the slave trade at one of its sources. An expedition was officially sanctioned by the British Government in 1849, to be led by James Richardson of the Anti-Slavery Society accompanied by a geographer and a geologist to study the lie of the land.
The geographer chosen was Heinrich Barth, a well-recommended young German from Berlin, who was to prove himself one of Africa's most successful explorers. Barth was a master of Arabic and had all the painstaking thoroughness associated with German scholarship. The expedition's route was south from Tripoli across the Sahara to Lake Chad.
Richardson and later Overweg (the geologist) died at an early stage, but Barth was not discouraged. He traveled on alone, covering a distance of some 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) over a period of five years, with pitifully little cash from a parsimonious British Government and often in danger as a Christian in a Muslim country.
Barth thoroughly examined Lake Chad anci, striking south, explored the upper waters of the Benue, which he proved to have no connection with the lake. Later on he traveled west to Timbuktu, before returning to England in 1855. His meticulous observations were incorporated in five volumes, but they were not written in the lively style expected by Victorian readers, who showed far more interest in other explorers' accounts. Barth received the Patron's Medal from the Royal Geographical Society and various other honors, but he died feeling that his achievements had not been fully recognized.
 
 
 
Oudney Walter
 

Walter Oudney (1790–1824) was a Scottish physician and African explorer.

 
In 1817 he received his medical doctorate at Edinburgh. A few years afterwards he was appointed by the British government as consul for promotion of trade to the Kingdom of Bornu in sub-Saharan Africa. In early 1822 he departed from Tripoli with explorers Dixon Denham (1786–1828) and Hugh Clapperton (1788–1827), reaching Bornu in February 1823, and thus becoming the first Europeans to accomplish a north-south crossing of the Sahara Desert.

Stricken by illness, Oudney died in January 1824 in the village of Murmur, located near the town of Katagum. On the journey he collected regional plants, and after his death Scottish botanist Robert Brown (1773–1858) named the botanical genus Oudneya from the family Brassicaceae in his honor.

In 1826 the two-volume "Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa in the years 1822, 1823, and 1824" was published, describing the African exploits of Oudney, Denham and Clapperton.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Denham Dixon
 

Dixon Denham (1 January 1786 – 9 June 1828) was an English soldier, explorer of West Central Africa, and ultimately Governor of Sierra Leone.

 
Early life
Dixon Denham was born at Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, London on New Year's Day, 1786, the son of James Denham, a haberdasher, and his wife Eleanor, née Symonds. The youngest of their three sons, Denham was educated at Merchant Taylors' School from 1794 to 1800; on leaving he was articled to a solicitor, but joined the army in 1811.
 
 

Dixon Denham
  Military career
Initially in the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, and later the 54th Foot, Denham served in the campaigns in Portugal, Spain, France, and Belgium, receiving the Waterloo Medal. Denham was considered a brave soldier, who had carried his wounded commander out of the line of fire at the Battle of Toulouse, and had become a close acquaintance of the Duke of Wellington, with whom he regularly corresponded. At the end of hostilities, Lieutenant Denham served at Cambray and with the occupation of Paris. Placed on half pay in 1818, he travelled for a time in France and Italy. In 1819, Denham entered the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, as a student, intending to become a staff officer in the Senior Department of the Royal Military College.

He attracted the favourable attention of the Commandant of the College, Sir Howard Douglas, but became very bored; 'he was the kind of man who must have adventure or he rots', wrote a friend. Alas, he was also domineering, insecure, jealous, and possessed of a mean streak.

The Bornu Mission
Denham had met the explorer Captain George Lyon on the latter's return to London from Africa, and became determined to join the British government's second mission to establish trade links with the west African states.

 
 
Perhaps because of his influential acquaintances, Denham's wish was granted and, now promoted to Major, he was despatched by Lord Bathurst in the autumn of 1821 to join the other members of the mission, Dr Walter Oudney and Lt. Hugh Clapperton, arriving at Tripoli aboard the schooner Express on 19 November.
 
 
Denham brought with him instructions from the Colonial Office indicating that Oudney should remain at Bornu as Vice-Consul, while Denham and Clapperton were to 'explore the Country to the Southward and Eastward of Bornu, principally with a view to tracing the course of the Niger and ascertaining its Embouchure'. For reasons unknown, Denham was detained in Tripoli, and the mission proceeded to Murzuk, in Fezzan, without him on 23 February 1822. Denham eventually left Tripoli on 5 March with an escort of 210 mounted Arab tribesmen, reaching Murzuk only to find his two compatriots in a wretched condition, Clapperton ill of an ague, and Oudney with a severe cold. Moreover, he discovered that the local bey had forbidden their departure from the Fezzan while he was absent on a slave-raiding expedition, a restriction enforced by the removal of the mission's camels. Denham soon returned to Tripoli, to seek further funds, and to persuade the bashaw, Yusuf Karamanli, to provide the essential escort to protect the mission on its journey south to Bornu. He arrived back in Tripoli on 13 June 1822, his departure from the mission unlamented. He had already made himself unpopular, leading Clapperton to write to Sir John Barrow: 'His absence will be no loss to the Mission, and a saving to his country, for Major Denham could not read his sextant, knew not a star in the heavens, and could not take the altitude of the sun'.   Denham was to find the bashaw as obdurate as Murzuk's bey. Outraged, he decided to return to London to report the situation to Lord Bathurst and also seek promotion, so that he could return as commanding officer of the expedition. Boarding a ship bound for Marseilles, he warned the bashaw's lieutenants of his government's displeasure when it learned of the bashaw's 'duplicity'.

Duly alarmed, the bashaw wrote to him, proposing that the 300 - man escort of a wealthy merchant about to depart for Bornu could, for a fee of 10,000 dollars to be shared with him, be persuaded to protect the mission as well. Denham received the letter while in quarantine in Marseilles. Still very angry, he sent an ill-judged letter to Bathurst complaining of Oudney's incompetence.

The missal was not well received in London, and Denham found a letter awaiting him on his return to Tripoli, rebuking him for his lack of diplomacy, although acknowledging the frustrations he had endured. News of Denham's conduct left his compatriots at Murzuk dumbfounded.
Oudney wrote a bitter letter of complaint about Denham to Warrington, the British Consul in Tripoli, comparing Denham to a snake hidden in the grass. In an unfortunate breach of confidence, Warrington showed the letter to Denham, thereby souring relations within the mission party still further.
 
 
By the end of September 1822, Denham was on his way back to Murzuk with the merchant and the promised escort. Recognizing that matters had been aggravated by the absence of any official instruction regarding leadership of the expedition, the Colonial Office wrote that Clapperton should become Oudney's aide, not Denham's. The mission, now comprising four Britons (including Hillman, the carpenter), five servants, and four camel drivers, eventually left Murzuk for Bornu on 19 November 1822. Clapperton and Oudney were in poor health, having succumbed to fevers, and all were overwought as they made their way due south across the Sahara, the route littered with the skeletal remains of slaves that had perished of thirst. The mission reached the northern shore of Lake Chad on 4 February 1823, the Britons becoming the first white men to see the lake; the party continued westward, reaching Kuka in the Bornu Empire, (now Kukawa, Nigeria) on 17 February.
 
 
It was from Kuka that Denham, against the wishes of Oudney and Clapperton, accompanied a slave-raiding expedition into the Mandara Mountains south of Bornu. The raiders were defeated, and Denham barely escaped with his life. By this time, a deep antipathy had developed between Clapperton and Denham, Denham secretly sending home malicious reports about Clapperton having homosexual relations with one of the Arab servants. The accusation, based on a rumour spread by a disgruntled servant dismissed by Clapperton for theft, was almost certainly unfounded, and Denham later withdrew it but without telling Clapperton he had done so, leading the historian Bovill to observe that 'it remains difficult to recall in all the checkered (sic) history of geographic discovery.... a more odious man than Dixon Denham'.

After quarrelling again over leadership of the party, Oudney and Clapperton set out for the Hausa states in December 1823, while Denham remained behind to explore the western, southern and south-eastern shores of Lake Chad and the lower courses of the rivers Waube, Logone and Shari. He was unable to survey the eastern shore owing to the warring tribes there, but nevertheless proved beyond doubt that Lake Chad was not the source of the Niger, as had been widely believed. Denham was briefly aided in his surveys by a 21 year-old ensign, Ernest Toole, sent from Malta to assist him. However Toole, already weakened by the arduous desert crossing from Tripoli, soon died of fever, and was buried by Denham on the shores of the lake. Denham returned to Kuka, where he met Warrington's protege, John Tyrwhitt, sent to act as vice-consul there.

 
Lancer of Sultan of Begharmi, engraving by Finden, from drawing by Dixon Denham, from Travels in Africa, 1822-1824, by Dixon Denham, Hugh Clapperton and Walter Oudney, 19th century
 
 
Denham took Tyrwhitt with him on an excursion to the southern tip of the Lake Chad. When the pair returned to Kuka, Denham found Clapperton there, all but unrecognizable. Oudney had died at Murmur in January 1824, but Clapperton had continued to Kano and Sokoto; forbidden to continue further by Sultan Bello, he had had no option but to return.

On 14 September 1824, their antipathy unabated, the pair, with carpenter Hillman, left Kuka for Tripoli not speaking a word to each other during the 133 - day journey. Tyrwhitt elected to remain at Kuka and do his duty, a decision that cost him his life only several months later after he succumbed to fever, alcoholism, and loneliness.

Denham and Clapperton returned to England and a heroes' reception on 1 June 1825.

 
 
Aftermath
Within three months of their return, Clapperton had left on another expedition to west Africa, this time travelling by sea, leaving Denham to write of their exploits in which he exaggerated his own role and minimized the contributions of Clapperton and Oudney without fear of contradiction. Denham took up residence in London, at 18 George Street, Hanover Square. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in December that year, promoted to lieutenant-colonel, he sailed for Sierra Leone as Superintendent of Liberated Africans, charged with resettling the slaves rescued by the British naval squadron and landed at Freetown. Denham spent some months surveying the neighbourhood of Freetown, and towards the end of the year started on a visit of inspection to Fernando Po, where the British leased bases for their anti-slavery patrols. It was there that he learned from Richard Lander the news of Clapperton's death at Sokoto, which he duly relayed to London. In May 1828 Denham returned to Freetown, where he received the royal warrant appointing him lieutenant-governor of the colony of Sierra Leone, succeeding Sir Neil Campbell who had died in office there.

Personal life
Denham married Harriet Hawkins, a widow, in Lisbon whilst serving in the Peninsular Wars. The marriage was solemnized in London at St Paul's, Covent Garden on 20 February 1815, but no further record of his wife or any issue survives.

 
Denham and Clapperton received by Sheikh al-Kaneimi at Kuka
 
 
Death
After administering Sierra Leone for only five weeks, Denham died of 'African Fever' (probably malaria) at Freetown on 9 June 1828, aged 42. The fourth governor of the colony to perish in as many years in that 'pestilential climate', he died owing several thousand pounds to his brother, John Charles. Denham was buried at the city's Circular Road cemetery on 15 June.
 
 
Denham in literature
Denham's exploits are briefly mentioned in Jules Verne's Five Weeks in a Balloon, Chapter 30: 'My dear fellow, we are now upon the very track of Major Denham. It was at this very city of Mosfeia that he was received by the Sultan of Mandara; he had quitted the Bornou country; he accompanied the sheik in an expedition against the Fellatahs; he assisted in the attack on the city, which, with its arrows alone, bravely resisted the bullets of the Arabs, and put the sheik's troops to flight. All this was but a pretext for murders, raids, and pillage. The major was completely plundered and stripped, and had it not been for his horse, under whose stomach he clung with the skill of an Indian rider, and was borne with a headlong gallop from his barbarous pursuers, he never could have made his way back to Kouka, the capital of Bornou.' 'Who was this Major Denham?' 'A fearless Englishman, who, between 1822 and 1824, commanded an expedition into the Bornou country, in company with Captain Clapperton and Dr. Oudney. They set out from Tripoli in the month of March, reached Mourzouk, the capital of Fez, and, following the route which at a later period Dr. Barth was to pursue on his way back to Europe, they arrived, on the 16th of February, 1823, at Kouka, near Lake Tchad. Denham made several explorations in Bornou, in Mandara, and to the eastern shores of the lake.'

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
Clapperton Bain Hugh
 

Bain Hugh Clapperton (18 May 1788 – 13 April 1827) was a Scottish naval officer and explorer of West and Central Africa.

 
Early career
Clapperton was born in Annan, Dumfriesshire, where his father was a surgeon. He gained some knowledge of practical mathematics and navigation, and at thirteen was apprenticed on board a vessel which traded between Liverpool and North America. After having made several voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, he was impressed for the navy, in which he soon rose to the rank of midshipman. During the Napoleonic Wars he saw a good deal of active service, and at the storming of Port Louis, Mauritius, in November 1810, he was first in the breach and hauled down the French flag.

In 1814 Clapperton went to Canada, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and to the command of a schooner on the Canadian lakes. In 1817, when the flotilla on the lakes was dismantled, he returned home on half-pay. In 1820 Clapperton removed to Edinburgh, where he made the acquaintance of Walter Oudney, who aroused his interest in African travel.

 
 

Bain Hugh Clapperton
  African exploration
Lieutenant G. F. Lyon having returned from an unsuccessful attempt to reach Bornu from Tripoli, the British government determined on a second expedition to that country. Walter Oudney was appointed by Lord Bathurst, then colonial secretary, to proceed to Bornu as consul, accompanied by Hugh Clapperton . From Tripoli, early in 1822, they set out southward to Murzuk, where they were later joined by Dixon Denham, who found both men in a wretched condition. They eventually proceeded south from Murzuk on 29 November 1822.

By this time, a deep antipathy had developed between Clapperton and Denham, Denham secretly sending home malicious reports about Clapperton having homosexual relations with one of the Arab servants. The accusation, based on a rumour spread by a disgruntled servant dismissed by Clapperton for theft, was almost certainly unfounded, and Denham later withdrew it but without telling Clapperton he had done so, leading the historian Bovill to observe that 'it remains difficult to recall in all the checkered (sic) history of geographic discovery.... a more odious man than Dixon Denham'.
 
 
On 17 February 1823, the party eventually reached Kuka (now Kukawa in Nigeria), capital of the Bornu Empire, where they were well received by the sultan Sheikh al-Kaneimi, having earlier become the first white men to see Lake Chad. Whilst at Kuka, Clapperton and Oudney parted company with Denham on 14 December to explore the course of the Niger River. Denham remained behind to explore and survey the western, south and south-eastern shores of Lake Chad, and the lower courses of the rivers Waube, Logone and Shari. However, only a few weeks later, Oudney died at Murmur  on the road to Kano.
 
 

Clapperton's exploration
 
 
Undeterred, Clapperton continued his journey alone through Kano to Sokoto, the capital of the Fulani Empire, where by order of Sultan Muhammed Bello he was obliged to stop, though the Niger was only a five-day journey to the west. Exhausted by his travels, he returned by way of Zaria and Katsina to Kuka, where Denham found him barely recognizable after his privations. Clapperton and Denham departed Kuka for Tripoli in August 1824, reaching Tripoli on 26 January 1825. Their mutual antipathy unabated, they exchanged not a word during the 133-day journey. The pair continued their journey to England, arriving home to a heroes' welcome on 1 June 1825.
An account of their travels was published in 1826 under the title Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa in the years 1822 - 1823 and 1824.
  Immediately after his return to England, Clapperton was raised to the rank of commander, and sent out with another expedition to Africa, the sultan Bello of Sokoto having professed his eagerness to open up trade with the west coast. Clapperton came out on HMS Brazen, which was joining the West Africa Squadron for the suppression of the slave trade.

He landed at Badagry in the Bight of Benin, and started overland for the Niger on 7 December 1825, having with him his servant Richard Lemon Lander, Captain Pearce, and Dr. Morrison, navy surgeon and naturalist. Before the month was out Pearce and Morrison were dead of fever. Clapperton continued his journey, and, passing through the Yoruba country, in January 1826 he crossed the Niger at Bussa, the spot where Mungo Park had died twenty years before.
 
 
Death
In July, Clapperton arrived at Kano and thence the Fulani capital Sokoto, intending to continue to Bornu and renew his acquaintance with the Hausa leader Sheikh al-Kaneimi. However, the Fulani were now at war with al-Kaneimi, and Sultan Bello refused him permission to leave.

After many months' detention, afflicted by malaria, depression, and dysentery, Clapperton died, leaving his servant Richard Lander the only survivor of the expedition. Lander returned to the coast, and at Fernando Po by extraordinary coincidence met Clapperton's old antagonist, Dixon Denham, who duly relayed the news of Clapperton's demise to London.
  Legacy
Clapperton was the first European to make known from personal observation the Hausa states, which he visited soon after the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate by the Fula. In 1829 the Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa, &c., by Clapperton appeared posthumously, with a biographical sketch of the explorer by his uncle, Lieutenant-Colonel S. Clapperton, as a preface. Richard Lander, who had brought back the journal of his master, also published Records of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa ... with the subsequent Adventures of the Author (2 volumes, London, 1830).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1823
 
 
"The Lancet"
 

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is one of the world's oldest and best known general medical journals, and has been described as one of the most prestigious medical journals in the world.

 
The Lancet was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet, as well as after the architectural term "lancet arch", a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let in light".

The Lancet publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports. The Lancet has been owned by Elsevier since 1991. As of 1995, the editor-in-chief is Richard Horton. The journal has editorial offices in London, New York, and Beijing.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Death penalty for over 100 crimes abolished in Britain
 
 
 
1823
 
 
Royal Thames Yacht Club
 

The Royal Thames Yacht Club (RTYC) is the oldest continuously operating yacht club in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are located at 60 Knightsbridge, London, England, overlooking Hyde Park. The Club has a clear purpose:

"To provide the members with outstanding yacht cruising, racing and social opportunities in the UK and internationally, building on the Club's unique heritage, central London facilities and close reciprocal relationships with other leading yacht clubs around the world."

 
History
The Club was established in 1775 when Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, brother of King George III, put up a silver cup for a race on the River Thames and formed the Cumberland Fleet. This remains the alternative name of the Club today. The RTYC name originates from 1830 when William IV of the United Kingdom came to the throne. Members of the Club initially met in coffee houses. From 1857, the Club owned various properties in London, moving to 60 Knightsbridge in 1923, although the current Clubhouse was built more recently.
  Yachting originally took place on the Thames but the Solent became increasingly important in the 1850s as the steam train made access to the South Coast easy.

The Club has had many distinguished Flag Officers and traditionally the Commodore has been a member of the royal family. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma was Commodore for 20 years and today the Club's Commodore is HRH Prince Andrew, the Duke of York.

The Patron of the Club is HRH the Duke of Edinburgh and the Admiral is HRH Prince Charles the Prince of Wales.

 
 

The Royal Thames Yacht Club's steam yacht Ianara painted by Luca.
 
 
Royal Thames Yacht Club Today
The Club is involved in a range of yachting events for both the cruising and racing yachtsman, motor yacht owners and all those interested in the sea. Through the Club's events and other contacts, members have access to yachting activities worldwide. They also have use of all the facilities of the Clubhouse in Knightsbridge and leading reciprocal clubs around the world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 

 
 
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