Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1821 Part II NEXT-1822 Part II    
 
 
     
1820 - 1829
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820-1829
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Missouri
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
"
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Leo XII
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Horse-bus
Trade Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Zollverein
Khan Dost Mohammad
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Timbuktu
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Michael
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Pius VIII
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George
Flong
Suttee
 
 
 

The Funeral of Shelley by Louis Edouard Fournier
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1822 Part I
 
 
 
1822
 
 
Greeks adopt liberal republican constitution and proclaim independence
 
 
Greek Revolution Timeline
 
Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)

1821, February 21: Revolt of Greek War of Independence declared by Alexandros Ypsilantis in Wallachia (Iaşi).
1821, March 25: According to tradition, Metropolitan Germanos of Patras blesses a big Greek flag at the Monastery of Agia Lavra in Peloponnesia and proclaims to people assembled the beginning of a Greek Revolution. Greece declares its independence. Beginning of the Greek War of Independence.
1821, 10 April, Easter Monday: Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople Alyssa central outside portal of the Patriarchate by the Turks. The door has remained shut and out of use ever since
1821, 17 April: Former Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril VI is hanged in the gate of the Adrianople's cathedral
1821, 4 April: Constantine Mourousis, Dimitrios Paparigopoulos and Antonios Tsouras are decapitated by the Ottomans in Constantinople
1821, 5 April: The Phanariotes Petros Tsigris, Dimitrios Skanavis and Manuel Hotzeris are decapitated by the Turks, while Georgios Mavrocordatos is hanged by the Sultan forces in Constantinople
1821, 23–24 April: Battle of Alamana. After the Greek defeat, Athanasios Diakos is impaled on a spit.
1821, 4 May: Metropolitans Gregorios of Derkon, Dorotheos of Adrianople, Ioannikios of Tyrnavos, Joseph of Thessaloniki, and the Phanariote Georgios Callimachi and Nikolaos Mourousis are decapitated on Sultan's orders in Constantinople
1821, May: The Turkish governor Yusuf Bey orders his men to kill every Greek in Thessaloniki that they find. The killings last for days, with the metropolitan and major notables among the victims
1821, 2 June: Destruction of Kydonies in Asia Minor by the Ottoman army. Tens of thousands of Greek inhabitants become refugees
1821, 24 June: The massacre of Heraklion or 'the great ravage' occurs against the Greek community in Crete. Among the victims are the metropolitan of Crete and bishops
1821, 9 July: The chief of the Cypriot Orthodox Church Archbishop Kyprianos, along with 486 prominent Greek Cypriots, amongst them the Metropolitans Chrysanthos of Paphos, Meletios of Kition and Lavrentios of Kyrenia, are executed by beheading or hanging by the Turks in Nicosia
1821, July: Küçük Mehmet carries out several days of massacres of Greek Cypriots in Cyprus since July 9 and continues on for forty days, despite the Vizier's command to end the plundering since 20 July 1821
1821, 11 September: Tripolitsa captured by the Greeks, who proceed to eliminate the Turkish garrison, officials and civilians. A total of about 30,000 people perish.
1821, 15 October: Turkish Cypriot mobs hang most of the Greek Cypriots in Larnaca and other towns, among them an archbishop, five bishops, thirty six ecclesiastics

1822, 9 April: After a month's resistance, the city of Naousa is captured by Abdul Abud, devastating the city and massacring its Greek population. Ending of the Greek revolution in Macedonia.
1822: The Chios massacre occurs. A total of about 100,000 people perish, mostly Greeks.
1822, 26 July, Battle at Dervenakia. A decisive victory of the Greeks which saved the revolution.

1823, 18 January: Nafplio becomes the site of the Revolutionary Government.
1823, March: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, represented by George Canning, recognizes the Greeks as a nation at war, thus recognizing de facto the Greek Independence.

1824, 7–8 June: The civilization of the island of Kasos is completely destroyed by the Turkish-Egyptian forces of Hussein Rushdi Pasha. About 7,000 people perish.
1824, 21 June: More than 15,000 Greeks of Psara are slaughtered by the forces of Husrev Pasha.
1824: The First Siege of Missolonghi occurs.

1825, 22 May: Laskarina Bouboulina is assassinated in Spetses.
1825, 5 June: Odysseas Androutsos is assassinated in Athens.
1825, 22 June: Ibrahim Pasha retakes Tripoli, kills the Greek population and destroys the city and its walls.
1825, 6 November: Beginning of the Third Siege of Missolonghi.

1826, 10–11 April: The Sortie of Missolonghi occurs. Approximately 8,000 Greek soldiers and civilians perish.
1826, 24 June: Battle of Vergas.
1826, 11 November: Prime Minister Andreas Zaimis transfers the site of the government to Aegina.

1827, 22–24 April: Battle of Phaleron. Georgios Karaiskakis is killed in action.
1827, July 6: Signing of the Treaty of London.
1827, 20 October: Battle of Navarino.

1828, 24 January: John Capodistria is elected Governor of Greece.
1828, 31 January: Alexander Ypsilantis dies in Vienna.

1829. First Hellenic Republic (1829–1832)
The First Hellenic Republi is a historiographic term used for a series of councils and "Provisional Governments" during the Greek War of Independence. During the first stages of the rebellion, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by united administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus during early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution. A series of National Assemblies ensued, while Greece was threatened with collapse due to civil war and the victories of Ibrahim Pasha. During 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen selected Count Ioannis Capodistrias as Governor of Greece for seven years. He arrived during 1828 and established the Hellenic State, commanding with quasi-dictatorial powers. He was assassinated by political rivals during 1831 and was succeeded by his brother, Augustinos Kapodistrias until the Great Powers declared Greece a Kingdom and selected the Bavarian Prince Otto to be its king.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1822
 
 
Chios Massacre
 

The Chios Massacre was the killing of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822. Greeks from neighbouring islands had arrived on Chios and encouraged the Chians to join their revolt. In response, Ottoman troops landed on the island and killed thousands. The massacre provoked international outrage, and led to an increasing support for the Greek cause worldwide.

 

Background
For over 2,000 years, Chios merchants and shipowners had been prominent in trade and diplomacy throughout the Black Sea, the Aegean, and the Mediterranean. The Ottoman Empire allowed Chios almost complete control over its own affairs as Chian trade and the very highly-valued mastic plant harvested only on Chios were of great value to it. The cosmopolitan Chians were also very prominent in Constantinople. Following the massacre, however, the island never regained its commercial prominence.

The island's ruling classes were reluctant to join the Greek revolt, fearing the loss of their security and prosperity. Furthermore, they were aware that they were situated far too close to the Turkish heartland in Asia Minor to be safe. At some points, Chios is only 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) from the Anatolian mainland.

 
 
Massacre
In March 1822, as the Greek revolt gathered strength on the mainland, several hundred armed Greeks from the neighbouring island of Samos landed in Chios. They attacked the Turks, who retreated to the citadel. Many islanders also decided to join the revolution. However, the vast majority of the population had by all accounts done nothing to provoke the reprisals, and had not joined other Greeks in their revolt against the Ottoman Empire. Reinforcements in the form of a Turkish fleet under the Kapudan Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha arrived on the island on 22 March. They quickly pillaged and looted the town. On 31 March, orders were given to burn down the town, and over the next four months, an estimated 40,000 Turkish troops, including convicts, arrived.

In addition to setting fires, the troops were ordered to kill all infants under three years old, all males 12 years and older, and all females 40 and older, except those willing to convert to Islam. Approximately three-quarters of the population of 120,000 were killed, enslaved or died of disease. It is estimated that 2,000 people remained on the island after 21,000 managed to flee, 52,000 were enslaved and 52,000 massacred. Tens of thousands of survivors dispersed throughout Europe and became part of the Chian Diaspora. Another source says that approximately 20,000 Chians were killed or starved to death.
 
The Massacre at Chios (1824) by Eugène Delacroix.
 
 

Some young Greeks enslaved during the massacre were adopted by wealthy Ottomans and converted to Islam. Some rose to levels of prominence in the Ottoman Empire, such as Georgios Stravelakis (later renamed Mustapha Khaznadar) and İbrahim Edhem Pasha.

There was outrage when the events were reported in Europe. French painter Eugène Delacroix created a painting depicting the events that occurred; his painting was named Scenes from the Massacres of Chios. In 2009, a copy of the painting was displayed in the local Byzantine museum on Chios, but was withdrawn from the museum on November 2009. While the withdrawal was meant to be a "good faith initiative" for the improvement of Greek-Turkish relations, the Greek press protested its removal. The copy is now back on display in the museum.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1822
 
 
Battle of Dervenakia
 

The Battle of Dervenakia (Greek: Μάχη των Δερβενακίων) was the Greek victory over the Ottoman forces on 26–28 July 1822, an important event in the Greek War of Independence. The destruction of Dramali Pasha's forces saved the heartland of the rebellion, the Morea, and secured it for the Greeks until the arrival of Ibrahim Pasha in 1825.

 
Background
After the final defeat and death of Ali Pasha, the Ottoman forces in northern Greece were reoriented to the south, where the Greeks had rebelled in early 1821. A force of some 30,000 men, including 6,000 cavalry, was entrusted to Mahmud Dramali Pasha (pasha of Larissa), who had replaced the veteran Hursid Pasha. This force was the largest seen in Greece in more than a century, since the last Venetian-Ottoman War, composed of experienced warriors with ample supplies. Dramali was expected to crush the Greek rebellion by advancing to Corinth, relieve the besieged garrison of Nafplion and recapture the capital of the Morea, Tripoli.

Setting out from Zitouni (Lamia) early in July, he proceeded southwards through Boeotia. He made no attempt to retake the Acropolis of Athens which, although well supplied with provisions and ammunition, had capitulated to the Greeks on 21 June owing to lack of water. The Greeks had sent a force to block the passes at Geraneia, but the size of the Ottoman army discouraged them, and Dramali passed through unmolested. The same was repeated at the fort of Acrocorinth, which was abandoned by its commander, Iakovos Theodoridis, after he murdered the imprisoned Kiamil Bey. After arriving at Corinth in mid-July, Dramali wedded Kiamil's widow, and called a council to determine his future actions. There, many of his officers, headed by Yussuf Pasha of Patras, urged him to follow a military plan of using Corinth as a base, building up strong naval forces in the gulf and isolate the Morea, before advancing on Tripoli.
Dramali ignored this sound advice, and, full of confidence, decided to proceed from Corinth to the south, towards the Argolis.

  Siege of Nafplion
Dramali passed through the narrow defile known as the Dervenaki (Tretos) and on 24 July reached Argos, whence the Greek government had fled. He left no guards behind him in the Dervenaki and he posted no forces where other defiles exposed his flanks. He sent cavalry forward to join the Ottoman garrison at Nafplion, which at that time was on the point of capitulation. As it was, Dramali was able to seize the Greek hostages which the garrison was holding there as a pledge for the safety of Muslim hostages held by the Greeks.

Trapped in the Argolis
On arriving in Argos, he found that its citadel, Larissa, was manned, and that the Ottoman fleet, with which he had planned to rendezvous with the Ottoman fleet at Nafplion, was actually at Patras. What he should have done was to have fallen back immediately to Corinth, from where he could have drawn supplies from Patras. Instead, he launched an attack on the citadel. The Greeks, under Demetrios Ypsilantis, held out for twelve days, before lack of water forced them to sneak out past the Ottoman lines in the middle of the night. However, while Dramali was preoccupied with Larissa, the Greeks rallied their forces.

Already the Peloponnesian Senate had stepped into the place vacated by the central government. Military leaders like Theodoros Kolokotronis and Petrobey called for volunteers, who came flocking in, along with the kapetanei and the primates. Five thousand troops assembled at the fortified mills of Lerna; others assembled at points on the marshy banks of the river Erasinos; and daily the Greeks skirmished with the Ottomans as they attempted to find water and fodder for their horses and baggage animals.

 
 
Other Greek bands infiltrated the mountains which overlook the plains of Argos. On the hills extending from Lerna to the Dervenaki, Kolokotronis, who had been appointed archistratigos (commander-in-chief), concentrated no less than 8,000 men. Around Agionori there were 2,000 troops under Ypsilantis, Nikitaras and Papaflessas. Towards Nafplion large forces were assembled under Nikolaos Stamatelopoulos, the brother of Nikitaras, and these were joined by Arvanites from Kranidi, Poros and Kastri.

Kolokotronis pursued a scorched earth policy, aiming at starving the Ottomans out. The Greeks looted the villages, burned the grain and foodstuff they could not move, and damaged the wells and springs. Dramali's army was trapped in the sweltering Argolic plain. However, Kolokotronis was not in a position to coordinate all the Greek forces, for many operated under their own leaders, refusing to follow his orders. If Kolokotronis had in fact commanded the Greek armies, and thus been able draw up a general military plan, Dramali's forces might have been completely annihilated and Nafplion would have been captured with little difficulty.

 
 
Disaster in the ravines
As it was, Dramali was given the opportunity to carry out his belated decision to retreat. On 26 July he dispatched an advance guard consisting of 1,000 Muslim Albanians to occupy the passes. These troops, who were either mistaken by the Greeks for cobelligerents or deliberately allowed to pass, got through entirely unharmed. But a body of Dramali's cavalry which was following up to occupy the Dervenaki was intercepted by Nikitaras at the village of Agios Vasilis and was routed, a victory which gained for Nikitaras the name of 'Turk-eater' (Turkofagos). Very few of the Ottoman delhis (light cavalry) managed to escape; most of them had lost their horses and, as they tried to make their way on foot up the ravines of the mountains, they were almost all intercepted by small Greek bands or shot down by individual marksmen from concealed positions. During the encounter the Greeks took an enormous amount of booty - hundreds of horses and baggage animals and a considerable quantity of treasure, arms and stores.

Two days later (28 July), Dramali attempted to evacuate his main forces by way of the route through Agionori. Here he came up against the Greeks under Papaflessas who was holding the main defile (Klisoura).

  Unable to proceed, he soon found himself assailed by Nikitaras and Ypsilantis who made a forced march from their positions at the village of Agios Vasilis and at Agios Sostis.

Although Dramali himself with the main troop of delhis managed to force his way through and finally reach Korinthos, the Greeks captured all the baggage and the military chest; and they annihilated almost completely the unmounted personnel of Dramali's army. But no sooner had they achieved victory than they dispersed: the Moreots hastened to return to their villages taking with them such animals and other booty on which they had been able to lay their hands.

Had they been less intent on booty, they might have totally annihilated Dramali's army. As it was, many of the delhis lived to fight another day, but Dramali himself died, a broken man, in the following December at Korinthos. His campaign had resulted in a disaster of great magnitude: out of an army of more than 23,000 with which he entered the Morea, barely 6,000 had survived. The extent of the Ottoman defeat became proverbial in Greece, where a great defeat is still referred to as a "νίλα του Δράμαλη", i.e. "Dramali's disaster".
 
 
Aftermath
With the destruction of the main Ottoman force present in Greece at the time, the rebellion survived its first great test, and was firmly now established. In December 1822, Nafplion finally surrendered to the Greeks, who made it their provisional capital. The Greek cause would however quickly unravel, with factional conflict breaking out in 1823. Kolokotronis himself, arguably the Greeks' ablest military leader, was imprisoned by his enemies in Palamidi, at a time when the Sultan, acknowledging his inability to deal with the "Greek problem", turned to Muhammad Ali of Egypt and his Western-trained armies for help.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1822
 
 
Grant Ulysses
 

Ulysses S. Grant, original name Hiram Ulysses Grant (born April 27, 1822, Point Pleasant, Ohio, U.S.—died July 23, 1885, Mount McGregor, New York), U.S. general, commander of the Union armies during the late years (1864–65) of the American Civil War, and 18th president of the United States (1869–77). (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)

 

Ulysses S. Grant
  Early life
Grant was the son of Jesse Root Grant, a tanner, and Hannah Simpson, and he grew up in Georgetown, Ohio. Detesting the work around the family tannery, Ulysses instead performed his share of chores on farmland owned by his father and developed considerable skill in handling horses. In 1839 Jesse secured for Ulysses an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, and pressured him to attend. Although he had no interest in military life, Ulysses accepted the appointment, realizing that the alternative was no further education.

Grant decided to reverse his given names and enroll at the academy as Ulysses Hiram (probably to avoid having the acronym HUG embroidered on his clothing); however, his congressional appointment was erroneously made in the name Ulysses S. Grant, the name he eventually accepted, maintaining that the middle initial stood for nothing. He came to be known as U.S. Grant—Uncle Sam Grant—and his classmates called him Sam. Standing only a little over five feet tall when he entered the academy, he grew more than six inches in the next four years. Most observers thought his slouching gait and sloppiness in dress did not conform with usual soldierly bearing.

Grant ranked 21st in a class of 39 when he graduated from West Point in 1843, but he had distinguished himself in horsemanship and showed such considerable ability in mathematics that he imagined himself as a teacher of the subject at the academy.

 
 
Bored by the military curriculum, he took great interest in the required art courses and spent much leisure time reading classic novels. Upon graduation Grant was assigned as a brevet second lieutenant to the 4th U.S. Infantry, stationed near St. Louis, Missouri, where he fell in love with and married Julia Boggs Dent, the sister of his roommate at West Point.

In the Mexican War (1846–48) Grant showed gallantry in campaigns under General Zachary Taylor. He was then transferred to General Winfield Scott’s army, where he first served as regimental quartermaster and commissary. Although his service in these posts gave him an invaluable knowledge of army supply, it did nothing to satiate his hunger for action. Grant subsequently distinguished himself in battle in September 1847, earning brevet commissions as first lieutenant and captain, though his permanent rank was first lieutenant. Despite his heroism, Grant wrote years later: “I do not think there was ever a more wicked war….I thought so at the time…only I had not moral courage enough to resign.”

On July 5, 1852, when the 4th Infantry sailed from New York for the Pacific coast, Grant left his growing family (two sons had been born) behind. Assigned to Fort Vancouver, Oregon Territory (later Washington state), he attempted to supplement his army pay with ultimately unsuccessful business ventures and was unable to reunite his family. A promotion to captain in August 1853 brought an assignment to Fort Humboldt, California, a dreary post with an unpleasant commanding officer. On April 11, 1854, Grant resigned from the army. Whether this decision was influenced in any way by Grant’s fondness for alcohol, which he reportedly drank often during his lonely years on the Pacific coast, remains open to conjecture.

Settling at White Haven, the Dents’ estate in Missouri, Grant began to farm 80 acres (30 hectares) given to Julia by her father. This farming venture was a failure, as was a real estate partnership in St. Louis in 1859. The next year Grant joined the leather goods business owned by his father and operated by his brothers in Galena, Illinois.

 
 

Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant
  The Civil War
At the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, Grant helped recruit, equip, and drill troops in Galena, then accompanied them to the state capital, Springfield, where Governor Richard Yates made him an aide and assigned him to the state adjutant general’s office. Yates appointed him colonel of an unruly regiment (later named the 21st Illinois Volunteers) in June 1861.

Before he had even engaged the enemy, Grant was appointed brigadier general through the influence of Elihu B. Washburne, a U.S. congressman from Galena. On learning this news and recalling his son’s previous failures, his father said, “Be careful, Ulyss, you are a general now—it’s a good job, don’t lose it!” To the contrary, Grant soon gained command of the District of Southeast Missouri, headquartered at Cairo, Illinois.

In January 1862, dissatisfied with the use of his force for defensive and diversionary purposes, Grant received permission from General Henry Wager Halleck to begin an offensive campaign. On February 16 he won the first major Union victory of the war, when Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River in Tennessee, surrendered with about 15,000 troops.

When the garrison’s commander, General Simon B. Buckner, requested his Union counterpart’s terms for surrender, Grant replied, “No terms except unconditional surrender can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works.” For many, from that point on Grant’s initials would stand for “unconditional surrender.”

 
 
Promoted to major general, Grant repelled an unexpected Confederate attack on April 6–7 at Shiloh Church, near Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, but the public outcry over heavy Union losses in the battle damaged Grant’s reputation, and Halleck took personal command of the army. However, when Halleck was called to Washington as general in chief in July, Grant regained command. Before the end of the year, he began his advance toward Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. Displaying his characteristic aggressiveness, resilience, independence, and determination, Grant brought about the besieged city’s surrender on July 4, 1863. When Port Hudson, Louisiana, the last post on the Mississippi, fell a few days later, the Confederacy was cut in half.
 
 

President Ulysses S. Grant, 1869
  Command over Union armies
Grant was appointed lieutenant general in March 1864 and was entrusted with command of all the U.S. armies. His basic plan for the 1864 campaign was to immobilize the army of General Robert E. Lee near the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, while General William Tecumseh Sherman led the western Union army southward through Georgia. It worked. By mid-June, Lee was pinned down at Petersburg, near Richmond, while Sherman’s army cut and rampaged through Georgia and cavalry forces under General Philip Sheridan destroyed railroads and supplies in Virginia. On April 2, 1865, Lee was forced to abandon his Petersburg defensive line, and the surrender of Lee’s army followed on April 9 at Appomattox Court House. This surrender, in effect, marked the end of the Civil War. The South’s defeat saddened Grant. As he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, he felt “sad and depressed…at the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, and had suffered so much for a cause, though that cause was, I believe, one of the worst for which a people ever fought.” That Grant’s army vastly outnumbered Lee’s at the close of the conflict should not obscure Grant’s achievements: the Union had numerical superiority in Virginia throughout the war, yet Grant was the first general to make these numbers count. Earlier, he had rebounded from initial defeat to triumph at Shiloh. His success as a commander was due in large measure to administrative ability, receptiveness to innovation, versatility, and the ability to learn from mistakes.
 
 
In late 1865 Grant, by then immensely popular, toured the South at President Andrew Johnson’s request, was greeted with surprising friendliness, and submitted a report recommending a lenient Reconstruction policy. In 1866 he was appointed to the newly established rank of general of the armies of the United States. In 1867 Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and thereby tested the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act, which dictated that removals from office be at the assent of Congress, and in August appointed Grant interim secretary of war. When Congress insisted upon Stanton’s reinstatement, Grant resigned (January 1868), thus infuriating Johnson, who believed that Grant had agreed to remain in office to provoke a court decision.

Johnson’s angry charges brought an open break between the two men and strengthened Grant’s ties to the Republican Party, which led to his nomination for president in 1868. The last line of his letter of acceptance, “Let us have peace,” became the Republican campaign slogan. Grant’s Democratic opponent was Horatio Seymour, former governor of New York. The race was a close one, and Grant’s narrow margin of victory in the popular vote (300,000 ballots) may have been attributable to newly enfranchised black voters. The vote of the electoral college was more one-sided, with Grant garnering 214 votes, compared with 80 for Seymour.

 
 

Ulysses S. Grant
  Grant’s presidency
Grant entered the White House on March 4, 1869, politically inexperienced and, at age 46, the youngest man theretofore elected president. His appointments to office were uneven in quality but sometimes refreshing. Notably, Grant named Ely S. Parker, a Seneca Indian who had served with him as a staff officer, commissioner of Indian affairs, and Grant’s wife persuaded him to appoint Hamilton Fish secretary of state. Strong-willed and forthright, Julia Grant also later claimed credit for helping to persuade her husband to veto the Finance Bill, but she did not often involve herself in presidential decisions. She daringly—for that time—supported women’s rights and considered Susan B. Anthony to be a friend. As a result, it is said, Anthony supported Grant when he ran for reelection in 1872, rather than the first woman candidate for the presidency, Victoria Claflin Woodhull of the Equal Rights Party, a splinter group that had bolted from the National Woman Suffrage Association convention.

Julia was not beautiful—she had a cast in her left eye and squinted—but Grant was attracted to her liveliness, and his devotion to her was unbounded. Photography was just becoming part of the political scene when Julia rose to prominence as first lady, and, self-conscious about her looks, she contemplated having surgery to correct her eyes. Grant vetoed the idea, saying he loved her as she was. Consequently, almost all pictures of her were taken in profile.

The Grants had four children. Their daughter, Nellie, became a national darling, and when she was married in the White House in 1874, the public was entranced by the details of the wedding.

 
 
The executive mansion was also the home for both the president’s father and his father-in-law, whose squabbling with each other was general knowledge and aroused considerable public amusement. Because the Gilded Age was at hand, Americans did not seem to mind that the Grants enjoyed ostentatious living. They redecorated the White House lavishly and entertained accordingly, with state dinners sometimes consisting of 29 courses complemented by nine French wines.

On March 18, 1869, Grant signed his first law, pledging to redeem in gold the greenback currency issued during the Civil War, thus placing himself with the financial conservatives of the day. He appointed the first Civil Service Commission, but after initially backing its recommendations, he abandoned his support for the group when faced with congressional intransigence. Grant was more persistent but equally unsuccessful when the Senate narrowly rejected a treaty of annexation with the Dominican Republic (which Grant had been persuaded would be of strategic importance to the building of a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans). His negotiation of the Treaty of Washington provided for the settlement by international tribunal of American claims against Great Britain arising from the wartime activities of the British-built Confederate raider Alabama, whose sale had violated Britain’s declared neutrality.

 
 

Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right)– The Peacemakers
 
 
Grant won reelection easily in 1872, defeating Horace Greeley, the editor of the New York Tribune and the candidate for the coalition formed by Democrats and Liberal Republicans, by nearly 800,000 votes in the popular election and capturing 286 of 366 electoral votes. During the campaign, newspapers discovered that prominent Republican politicians were involved in the Crédit Mobilier of America, a shady corporation designed to siphon profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. More scandal followed in 1875, when Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin Helm Bristow exposed the operation of the “Whiskey Ring,” which had the aid of high-placed officials in defrauding the government of tax revenues. When the evidence touched the president’s private secretary, Orville E. Babcock, Grant regretted his earlier statement, “Let no guilty man escape.” Grant blundered in accepting the hurried resignation of Secretary of War William W. Belknap, who was impeached on charges of accepting bribes; because he was no longer a government official, Belknap escaped conviction. Discouraged and sickened, Grant closed his second term by assuring Congress, “Failures have been errors of judgment, not of intent.”

Scandals have become the best-remembered feature of the Grant administration, obscuring its more positive aspects. Grant supported both amnesty for Confederate leaders and civil rights for former slaves. He worked for ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment and went to Capitol Hill to win passage of the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, although he was largely ineffective in enforcing the civil rights laws and other tenets of Reconstruction. His 1874 veto of a bill to increase the amount of legal tender diminished the currency crisis during the next quarter century, and he received praise two years later for his graceful handling of the controversial election of 1876, when both Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Jones Tilden claimed election to the presidency.

 
 

Ulysses S. Grant, some time after the Civil War
  Later life
After leaving office, Ulysses and Julia Grant set forth on a round-the-world trip in May 1877. Grant’s reputation as the man who had saved the American Union having preceded him, he was greeted everywhere as a conquering hero. In Great Britain he and his wife were feted by Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle; they also met Benjamin Disraeli. In Germany they were greeted by Otto von Bismarck; and in Japan they shook hands with the emperor. Americans were delighted with these reports from overseas. The Grants themselves were left pondering their good fortune.

In 1879 Grant found that a faction of the Republican Party was eager to nominate him for a third term. Although he did nothing to encourage support, he received more than 300 votes in each of the 36 ballots of the 1880 convention, which finally nominated James A. Garfield. In 1881 Grant bought a house in New York City and began to take an interest in the investment firm of Grant and Ward, in which his son Ulysses, Jr., was a partner. Grant put his capital at the disposal of the firm and encouraged others to follow. In 1884 the firm collapsed, swindled by Ferdinand Ward. This impoverished the entire Grant family and tarnished Grant’s reputation.
In 1884 Grant began to write reminiscences of his campaigns for the Century Magazine and found this work so congenial that he began his memoirs. Despite excruciating throat pain, later diagnosed as cancer, he signed a contract with his friend Mark Twain to publish the memoirs and resolved grimly to complete them before he died.

 
 
(For an account of Grant’s experience writing his memoirs, seem Sidebar: Translating Thought into Action: Grant’s Personal Memoirs.) In June 1885 the Grant family moved to a cottage in Mount McGregor, New York, in the Adirondack Mountains, and a month later Grant died there. A funeral cortege seven miles long accompanied his coffin to a temporary vault in New York City’s Riverside Park. In 1897, on the 75th anniversary of his birth, his remains were removed to a magnificent neoclassical granite tomb at Riverside Drive on Morningside Heights in Manhattan. The project, supervised by the Grant Monument Association, was paid for by almost 100,000 contributions. A million people turned out for the dedication proceedings, with President William McKinley among the dignitaries in attendance.

Grant’s Tomb, designed by the architect John Duncan, is one of the largest mausoleums in the world, 150 feet (45 metres) high, with a domed rotunda and allegorical relief figures representing episodes in Grant’s life. Two figures representing victory and peace support a granite block containing Grant’s epitaph, his own words, “Let us have peace.” The centre crypt contains two sarcophagi. Julia Grant, who lived until 1902, was interred beside her husband, as they had planned. It was said that the idea of a single burial place for the both of them stemmed from Grant’s visit to the tomb of Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain.

Grant completed his memoirs shortly before his death. Written with modesty and restraint, exhibiting equanimity, candour, and a surprisingly good sense of humour, they retain high rank among military autobiographies.

John Y. Simon

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1822
 
 
Augustin de Iturbide elected Emperor of Mexico
 
 
Iturbide Augustin
 
Augustín de Iturbide, also called (1822–23) Agustín I (born Sept. 27, 1783, Valladolid, Viceroyalty of New Spain [now Morelia, Mex.]—died July 19, 1824, Padilla, Mex.), Mexican caudillo (military chieftain) who became the leader of the conservative factions in the Mexican independence movement and, as Agustín I, briefly emperor of Mexico.
 

Augustín de Iturbide
  Like many young men of the upper classes in Spanish America, Iturbide entered the royalist army, becoming an officer in the provincial regiment of his native city in 1797. In 1810 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla offered him a post with his revolutionary army, but Iturbide refused and pledged himself to the Spanish cause instead. His defense of Valladolid against the revolutionary forces of José María Morelos dealt a crushing blow to the insurgents, and for this victory Iturbide was given command of the military district of Guanajuato and Michoacán. In 1816, however, grave charges of extortion and violence caused his removal.

By 1820 the radical independence movement was almost entirely extinguished. Both Hidalgo and Morelos had been captured and executed; only guerrilla bands (under the command of General Vicente Guerrero) prevented the complete victory of the royalists. The Mexican independence movement then performed a curious about-face. In reaction to a liberal coup d’état in Spain, the conservatives in Mexico (formerly staunch royalists) advocated immediate independence.

Iturbide assumed command of the army and, at Iguala, allied his reactionary force with Guerrero’s radical insurgents. Iturbide’s Plan de Iguala, published on Feb. 24, 1821, proclaimed three guarantees: (1) immediate independence from Spain, (2) equality for Spaniards and Creoles, and (3) the supremacy of Roman Catholicism and a ban on all other religions. The Army of the Three Guarantees quickly subjugated the country; on Aug. 24, 1821, Juan O’Donojú, the new representative of the Spanish king, signed the Treaty of Córdoba, recognizing the independence of Mexico.

 
 
The revolutionary coalition quickly fell apart as Iturbide removed Guerrero and his insurgent following from influence. On May 19, 1822, Iturbide placed the crown upon his own head and became Agustín I, emperor of Mexico. An arbitrary and extravagant ruler, he proved unable to bring order and stability to his country, and all parties soon turned against him. Opposition solidified behind Antonio López de Santa Anna, whose own plan called for Iturbide’s overthrow and exile. On March 19, 1823, Iturbide abdicated and went first to Italy and then to England. In 1824, however, he returned to Mexico, unaware that the congress had decreed his death. Captured on July 15, he was executed four days later. Although regarded by most scholars as a self-serving military adventurer, he has remained for the Roman Catholic church and for the conservative classes the great hero of Mexican independence.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1822
 
 
Brazil becomes independent of Portugal
 
 
see also: Independence of Brazil
 
 
     
 



World Countries



Brazil
     
 
 
 
1822
 
 
Congress of Verona
 
The Congress of Verona met at Verona on October 20, 1822 as part of the series of international conferences or congresses that opened with the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, which had instituted the Concert of Europe at the close of the Napoleonic Wars.
 
The Quintuple Alliance was represented by the following persons:

Russia: Emperor Alexander I and Count Karl Robert Nesselrode (minister of foreign affairs). Count George Mocenigo (Ambassador of Russia in Torino), was also present;
Austria: Prince Metternich;
Prussia: Prince Hardenberg and Count Christian Gunther von Bernstorff;
France: The duc de Montmorency-Laval (minister of Foreign Affairs) and François-René de Chateaubriand;
United Kingdom: The Duke of Wellington, who was taking the place of Viscount Castlereagh after his tragic suicide on the eve of the congress.

 
 
Issues
While the representatives of the United Kingdom and the European powers had at first, during the Congress of Vienna, acted largely in concert, the extent to which the concord epitomized in the expression the "Concert of Europe" had unraveled in seven years became apparent in the way in which the three main questions before this Congress were handled.

The instructions drawn up by Londonderry, as he then was, for his own guidance, had been handed to Wellington by George Canning without alteration.

They defined the United Kingdom's position towards the three questions which it was supposed would be discussed:
the Turkish Question (currently surfacing in the Greek insurrection), the question of intervention in favor of the Bourbon royal power in Spain and the revolted Spanish colonies, and the Italian Question.

  Italian Question
The matter of the Italian Question dealt with the continued Austrian rule in Northern Italy. Since the United Kingdom could not undertake to support a system in which she had merely acquiesced, Wellington did not even formally present his credentials until the other Powers had disposed of the matter, a British minister (Castlereagh's half-brother and successor in the Londonderry title) attending merely to keep informed and to see that nothing was done inconsistent with the European system and the treaties.

Greek Question
In the Greek Question, the probable raising of which had alone induced the British government to send a minister plenipotentiary to the Congress, Wellington was instructed to suggest the eventual necessity for recognizing the belligerent rights of the Greeks, and, in the event of concerted intervention, to be careful not to commit the United Kingdom, beyond a supporting role.

 
 
As for Russia and Austria, the immediate problems arising out of the Greek Question had already been privately settled between the emperor Alexander and Metternich, to their mutual satisfaction, at the preliminary conferences held at Vienna in September.
 
 
Spanish Question
When the plenipotentiaries met in Verona, the only question raised was the Spanish Question, of the proposed French intervention in Spain, in which Wellington's instructions were to express the uncompromising opposition of the United Kingdom to the whole principle of intervention.

The discussion was opened by three questions formally propounded by Montmorency:

1. Would the Allies withdraw their ministers from Madrid in the event of France being compelled to do so?
2. In case of war, under what form and by what acts would the powers give France their moral support, so as to give to her action the force of the Quintuple Alliance, and inspire a salutary fear in the revolutionaries of all countries?
3. What material aid would the powers give if asked by France to intervene, under restrictions which France would declare and they would recognize?

A series of gilt-copper medals apparently struck in England represent participants of the Congress in less than flattering lights: the "Count de Chateaubriand" (Ludwig Ernst Bramsen, Médallier) bears an inscription that offers the British view of the French position in a nutshell: THE KING OF FRANCE MY MASTER DEMANDS THE FREEDOM OF FERDINAND VII TO GIVE HIS PEOPLE INSTITUTIONS WHICH THEY CANNOT HOLD BUT FROM HIM, while the emperor Francis I of Austria asserts MY TROOPS OCCUPY NAPLES TO CHASTISE THE NEAPOLITANS FOR DARING TO CHANGE THEIR CONSTITUTION.

The reply of Alexander, who expressed his surprise at the desire of France to keep the intervention wholly French, was to offer to march 150,000 Russians through Germany to Piedmont, where they could be held ready to act against any Jacobins, whether in Spain or France.

This solution appealed as little to Metternich and Montmorency as to Wellington; but though united in opposing it, four days of confidential communications revealed a fundamental difference of opinion. Wellington, firmly based on the principle of non-intervention, refused to have anything to do with the suggestion, made by Metternich, that the powers should address a common note to the Spanish government in support of the action of France. Finally, Metternich proposed that the Allies should hold a common language, but in separate notes, though uniform in their principles and objects. This solution was adopted by the continental powers; but Wellington, in accordance with his instructions not to countenance any intervention in Spanish affairs, took no part in the conferences that followed. On October 30 the powers handed in their formal replies to the French memorandum.

Russia, Austria and Prussia would act as France should in respect of withdrawing their ministers, and would give to France every assistance she might require, the details to be specified in a treaty. Wellington, on the other hand, replied on behalf of the United Kingdom that having no knowledge of the cause of dispute, and not being able to form a judgment upon a hypothetical case, he could give no answer to any of the questions.

  Thus was proclaimed the open breach of the United Kingdom with the principles and policy of the Quintuple Alliance, as it had become with the admission of France in 1818, which development is what gives to the congress its main historical interest. The ensuing French intervention ended with the Battle of Trocadero, which reinstated Ferdinand VII of Spain and opened a reactionary period of Spanish and European politics that led to the Year of Revolutions, 1848.

The Treaty of Verona

This treaty, which has a main goal of stopping all representative governments, was put into the Congressional record of the United State Senate in 1916 and is as follows.

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE. 64th CONGRESS, 1st SESSION VOLUME 53, PART 7 Page 6781

25 April 1916
I wish to put in the RECORD the secret treaty of Verona of November 22, 1822, showing what this ancient conflict is between the rule of the few and the rule of the many. I wish to call the attention of the Senate to this treaty because it is the threat of this treaty which was the basis of the Monroe doctrine. It throws a powerful white light upon the conflict between monarchial government and government by the people. The Holy Alliance under the influence of Metternich, the Premier of Austria, in 1822, issued this remarkable secret document : [American Diplomatic Code, 1778 - 1884, vol. 2 ; Elliott, p. 179.]

SECRET TREATY OF VERONA The undersigned, specially authorized to make some additions to the treaty of the Holy Alliance, after having exchanged their respective credentials, have agreed as follows :

ARTICLE 1. The high contracting powers being convinced that the system of representative government is equally as incompatible with the monarchial principles as the maxim of the sovereignty of the people with the high divine right, engage mutually in the most solemn manner, to use all their efforts to put an end to the system of representative governments, in whatever country it may exist in Europe, and to prevent its being introduced in those countries where it is not yet known.

ART. 2. As it can not be doubted that the liberty of the press is the most powerful means used by the pretended supporters of the rights of nations to the detriment of those princes, the high contracting parties promise reciprocally to adopt all proper measures to suppress it, not only in their own states but also in the rest of Europe.

ART. 3. Convinced that the principles of religion contribute most powerfully to keep nations in the state of passive obedience which they owe to their princes, the high contracting parties declare it to be their intention to sustain in their respective States those measures which the clergy may adopt, with the aim of ameliorating their own interests, so intimately connected with the preservation of the authority of the princes ; and the contracting powers join in offering their thanks to the Pope for what he has already done for them, and solicit his constant cooperation in their views of submitting the nations.

 
 
ART. 4. The situation of Spain and Portugal unite unhappily all the circumstances to which this treaty has particular reference. The high contracting parties, in confiding to France the care of putting an end to them, engaged to assist her in the manner which may the least compromit them with their own people and the people of France by means of a subsidy on the part of the two empires of 20,000,000 of francs every year from the date of the signature of this treaty to the end of the war.

ART. 5. In order to establish in the Peninsula the order of things which existed before the revolution of Cadiz, and to insure the entire execution of the articles of the present treaty, the high contracting parties give to each other the reciprocal assurance that as long as their views are not fulfilled, rejecting all other ideas of utility or other measure to be taken, they will address themselves with the shortest possible delay to all the authorities existing in their States and to all their agents in foreign countries, with the view to establish connections tending toward the accomplishment of the objects proposed by this treaty.

ART. 6. This treaty shall be renewed with such changes as new circumstances may give occasion for, either at a new congress or at the court of one of the contracting parties, as soon as the war with Spain shall be terminated.

ART. 7. The present treaty shall be ratified and the ratifications exchanged at Paris within the space of six months. Made at Verona the 22d November, 1822.

For Austria :METTERNICH.

For France :CHATEAUBRIAND.

For Prussia :BERNSTET.

For Russia :NESSELRODE.

 
 

Satirical depiction of the Congress of Verona.
 
 
I ask to have printed in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD this secret treaty, because I think it ought to be called now to the attention of the people of the United States and of the world. This evidence of the conflict between the rule of the few verses popular government should be emphasized on the minds of the people of the United States, that the conflict now waging throughout the world may be more clearly understood, for after all said the great pending war springs from the weakness and frailty of government by the few, where human error is far more probable than the error of the many where aggressive war is only permitted upon the authorizing vote of those whose lives are jeopardized in the trenches of modern war.

Mr. SHAFROTH. Mr. President, I should like to have the senator state whether in that treaty there was not a coalition formed between the powerful countries of Europe to reestablish the sovereignty of Spain in the Republics of South and Central America?

Mr. OWEN. I was just going to comment upon that, and I am going to take but a few moments to do so because I realize the pressure of other matters. This Holy Alliance, having put a Bourbon prince upon the throne of France by force, then used France to suppress the constitution of Spain immediately afterwards, and by this very treaty gave her a subsidy of 20,000,000 francs annually to enable her to wage war upon the people of Spain and to prevent their exercise of any measure of the right of self-government. The Holy Alliance immediately did the same thing in Italy, by sending Austrian troops to Italy, where the people there attempted to exercise a like measure of liberal constitutional self-government ; and it was not until the printing press, which the Holy Alliance so stoutly opposed, taught the people of Europe the value of liberty that finally one country after another seized a greater and greater right of self government, until now it may be fairly said that nearly all the nations of Europe have a very large measure of self government. However, I wish to call the attention of the Senate and the country to this important history in the growth of constitutional popular self-government.

  The Holy Alliance made its powers felt by the wholesale drastic suppression of the press in Europe, by universal censorship, by killing free speech and all ideas of popular rights, and by the complete suppression of popular government. The Holy Alliance having destroyed popular government in Spain and in Italy, had well-laid plans also to destroy popular government in the American colonies which had revolted from Spain and Portugal in Central and South America under the influence of the successful example of the United States.

It was because of this conspiracy against the American Republics by the European monarchies that the great English statesman, Canning, called the attention of our government to it, and our statesmen then, including Thomas Jefferson, took an active part to bring about the declaration by President Monroe in his next annual message to the Congress of the United States that the United States should regard it as an act of hostility to the government of the United States and an unfriendly act if this coalition or if any power of Europe ever undertook to establish upon the American Continent any control of any American Republic or to acquire any territorial rights. This is the so-called Monroe doctrine. The threat under the secret treaty of Verona to suppress popular governments in the American Republics is the basis of the Monroe doctrine. This secret treaty sets forth clearly the conflict between monarchial government and popular government and the government of the few as against the government of the many.

It is a part, in reality, of developing popular sovereignty when we demand for women equal rights to life, to liberty, to the possession of property, to an equal voice in the making of the laws and the administration of the laws. This demand on the part of the women is made by men, and it ought to be made by men as well as by thinking, progressive women, as it will promote human liberty and human happiness. I sympathize with it, and I hope that all parties will in the national conventions give their approval to this larger measure of liberty to the better half of the human race. Official Records of the Union Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1822
 
 
H. T. Colebrooke founds Royal Asiatic Society (study of Eastern languages)
 
 
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
 

Henry Thomas Colebrooke (June 15, 1765 – March 10, 1837) was an English orientalist.

 

Henry Thomas Colebrooke
  Biography
Henry Thomas Colebrooke, third son of Sir George Colebrooke, 2nd Baronet, was born in London. He was educated at home; and when only fifteen (15) he had made considerable attainments in classics and mathematics. From the age of twelve to sixteen he resided in France.

In 1782 Colebrooke was appointed to a writership in India. About a year after his arrival there he was placed in the board of accounts in Calcutta; and three years later he was removed to a situation in the revenue department at Tirhut. In 1789 he was removed to Purneah, where he investigated the resources of that part of the country, and published his Remarks on the Husbandry and Commerce of Bengal, privately printed in 1795, in which he advocated free trade between Great Britain and India.

He was sent to Nagpur in 1799 on a special mission, and on his return was made a judge of the new court of appeal, over which he afterwards presided. In 1805, Lord Wellesley appointed him professor of Hindu law and Sanskrit at the college of Fort William. He became a member of council in 1807 and returned to England seven years later. He was a director of the Royal Asiatic Society, and many of the papers in the society's Transactions were communicated by him. In 1822 he was elected the second president of the Royal Astronomical Society.

 
 

Works
After eleven years' residence in India, Colebrooke began the study of the Sanskrit language; and to him was entrusted the translation of the major Digest of Hindu Laws, a monumental study of Hindu law which had been left unfinished by Sir William Jones. He translated the two treatises, the Mitacshara of Vijnaneshwara and the Dayabhaga of Jimutavahana, under the title Law of Inheritance. During his residence at Calcutta he wrote his Sanskrit Grammar (1805), some papers on the religious ceremonies of the Hindus, and his Essay on the Vedas (1805), for a long time the standard work in English on the subject.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1822
 
 
Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier: "Theorie analytique de la chaleur" ("Analytical Theory of Heat")
 
 
Fourier Joseph
 
Joseph, Baron Fourier, (born March 21, 1768, Auxerre, Fr.—died May 16, 1830, Paris), French mathematician, known also as an Egyptologist and administrator, who exerted strong influence on mathematical physics through his Théorie analytique de la chaleur (1822; The Analytical Theory of Heat).
 

Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier
  He showed how the conduction of heat in solid bodies may be analyzed in terms of infinite mathematical series now called by his name, the Fourier series. Far transcending the particular subject of heat conduction, his work stimulated research in mathematical physics, which has since been often identified with the solution of boundary-value problems, encompassing many natural occurrences such as sunspots, tides, and the weather. His work also had a great influence on the theory of functions of a real variable, one of the main branches of modern mathematics. Fourier, the son of a tailor, first attended the local military school conducted by Benedictine monks. He showed such proficiency in mathematics in his early years that he later became a teacher in mathematics at the same school. The ideals of the French Revolution then swept him into politics, and more than once his life was in danger. When the École Normale was founded in 1794 in Paris, he was among its first students, and, in 1795, he became a teacher there. The same year, after the École Polytechnique was opened, he joined its faculty and became a colleague of Gaspard Monge and other mathematicians. In 1798, with Monge and others, Fourier accompanied Napoleon on his expedition to Egypt. Until 1801 he was engaged in extensive research on Egyptian antiquities, gave advice on engineering and diplomatic undertakings, and served for three years as the secretary of the Institut d’Égypte, which Napoleon established in Cairo in 1798.
 
 
After his return to France, Fourier was charged with the publication of the enormous mass of Egyptian materials. This became the Description de l’Égypte, to which he also wrote a lengthy historical preface on the ancient civilization of Egypt. He was also appointed prefect (administrator for the national government and département) of the Isère département, a position he held from 1802 to 1814, with his headquarters at Grenoble.
 
 
He showed great administrative ability, as in directing the drainage of swamps, while continuing his Egyptological and mathematical work. In 1809 Napoleon made him a baron. Following Napoleon’s fall from power in 1815, Fourier was appointed director of the Statistical Bureau of the Seine, allowing him a period of quiet academic life in Paris. In 1817 he was elected to the Académie des Sciences, of which, in 1822, he became perpetual secretary. Because of his work in Egyptology he was elected in 1826 to the Académie Française and the Académie de Médecine.

Fourier began his work on the Théorie analytique de la chaleur in Grenoble in 1807 and completed it in Paris in 1822. His work enabled him to express the conduction of heat in two-dimensional objects (i.e., very thin sheets of material) in terms of the differential equation



in which u is the temperature at any time t at a point (x, y) of the plane and k is a constant of proportionality called the diffusivity of the material. The problem is to find the temperature, for example, in a conducting plate, if at time t = 0, the temperature is given at the boundary and at the points of the plane.
  For the solution of such problems in one dimension, Fourier introduced series with sines and cosines as terms:


Such Fourier series, already occasionally used by Leonhard Euler and other 18th-century mathematicians, but somewhat distrusted, received through Fourier their important position in modern mathematics.

He also extended this concept into the so-called Fourier integral. Doubts of the validity of the Fourier series, which led later mathematicians to a fundamental renewal of the concept of real function, were resolved by P.G.L. Dirichlet, Bernhard Riemann, Henri Lebesgue, and others.

Fourier worked on the theory almost his entire life. He was also interested in the determination of roots of algebraic equations (the so-called theorem of Fourier).

Dirk Jan Struik

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1822
 
 
J. V. Poncelet: "Traite des proprietes projectives des figures," on projective geometry
 
 
Poncelet Jean-Victor
 
Jean-Victor Poncelet, (born July 1, 1788, Metz, France—died December 22, 1867, Paris), French mathematician and engineer who was one of the founders of modern projective geometry.
 

ean-Victor Poncelet
  As a lieutenant of engineers in 1812, he took part in Napoleon’s Russian campaign, in which he was abandoned as dead at Krasnoy and imprisoned at Saratov; he returned to France in 1814. During his imprisonment Poncelet studied projective geometry and wrote Applications d’analyse et de géométrie, 2 vol. (1862–64; “Applications of Analysis and Geometry”). This work was originally planned as an introduction to his celebrated Traité des propriétés projectives des figures (1822; “Treatise on the Projective Properties of Figures”), for which Poncelet is regarded as one of the greatest projective geometers. His development of the pole and polar lines associated with conic sections led to the principle of duality (exchanging “dual” elements, such as points and lines, along with their corresponding statements, in a true theorem produces a true “dual statement”) and a dispute over priority with the German mathematician Julius Plücker for its discovery. His principle of continuity, a concept designed to add generality to synthetic geometry (limited to geometric arguments), led to the introduction of imaginary points and the development of algebraic geometry.
From 1815 to 1825 Poncelet was occupied with military engineering at Metz, and from 1825 to 1835 he was a professor of mechanics at the École d’Application there.
 
 
He applied mathematics to the improvement of turbines and waterwheels. Although the first inward-flow turbine was not built until 1838, he proposed such a turbine in 1826. In Paris from 1838 to 1848 he was a professor at the Faculty of Sciences, and from 1848 to 1850 he was commandant of the École Polytechnique, with the rank of general.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1822
 
 
Goncourt Edmond
 

Edmond de Goncourt (May 26, 1822 – July 16, 1896), born Edmond Louis Antoine Huot de Goncourt, was a French writer, literary critic, art critic, book publisher and the founder of the Académie Goncourt.

 

Edmond de Goncourt before 1877
by Nadar
  Biography
Goncourt was born in Nancy. He bequeathed his entire estate for the foundation and maintenance of the Académie Goncourt. In honour of his brother and collaborator, Jules de Goncourt, (December 17, 1830 – June 20, 1870), each December since 1903, the Académie awards the Prix Goncourt. It is the most prestigious prize in French language literature, given to "the best imaginary prose work of the year".

Marcel Proust, Simone de Beauvoir, Michel Tournier, Marguerite Duras and Romain Gary (who exceptionally won it twice) are among the best-known authors who have won the century-old prize.

Edmond de Goncourt died in Champrosay in 1896, and was interred in the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris.

Quotes

"A painting in a museum hears more ridiculous opinions than anything else in the world."

"If there is a God, atheism must seem to Him as less of an insult than religion."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Edmond and Jules Goncourt
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1822
 
 
Grillparzer Franz: "The Golden Fleece," dramatic trilogy
 
 
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1822
 
 
Hoffmann Ernst Theodor Amadeus d. (b. 1776)
 
 

E.T.A. Hoffmann
 
 
 
     
 
E.T.A. Hoffmann

Weird Tales
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1822
 
 
Irving Washington: "Bracebridge Hall"
 
 
 
 
 
     
  Washington Irving

"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
"Rip Van Winkle"


Illustrations by Arthur Rackham
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1822
 
 
Charles Nodier: "Trilby," novel
 
 
Nodier Charles
 

Charles Nodier, (born April 29, 1780, Besançon, France—died January 27, 1844, Paris), writer more important for the influence he had on the French Romantic movement than for his own writings.

 

Charles Nodier
  Nodier had an eventful early life, in the course of which he fell foul of the authorities for a skit on Napoleon. In 1824 he settled in Paris after his appointment as director of the Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal (Arsenal Library) and soon became one of the leaders of the literary life of the capital.

In his drawing room at the Arsenal, Nodier drew together the young men who were to be the leading lights of the Romantic movement: Victor Hugo, Alfred de Musset, and Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve.

An ardent admirer of Goethe and Shakespeare, he did much to encourage the French Romantics to look abroad for inspiration. Nodier wrote a great deal, but the only works of his that are still read are his fantastic, masterfully written short stories, rather in the style of the German Romantic E.T.A. Hoffmann.

By his revelation of the creative power of the dream and by his equation of a state of innocence with certain conditions normally called mad, Nodier was rebelling against the tyranny of “common sense” and opening up a new literary territory for later generations. His election to the Académie Française in 1833 virtually constituted official recognition that Romanticism had become a significant and respectable literary movement.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
see also: Charles Nodier
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1822
 
 
Shelley Percy Bysshe  d. (b. 1792)
 
 

The Funeral of Shelley by Louis Edouard Fournier (1889); pictured in the centre are, from left, Trelawny, Hunt and Byron. In fact, Hunt did not observe the cremation, and Byron left early.
 
 
 
     
 
Percy Bysshe Shelley 

"
Prometheus Unbound"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

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1822
 
 
Stendhal: "De l'amour"
 
 

Stendhal: De l'Amour, Mongie, Paris, 1822
(Bibliothèque municipale de Grenoble)
 
 
see also: Stendhal
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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1822
 
 
Alfred de Vigny: "Poemes"
 
 
Vigny Alfred-Victor
 

Alfred-Victor, count de Vigny, (born March 27, 1797, Loches, Fr.—died Sept. 17, 1863, Paris), poet, dramatist, and novelist who was the most philosophical of the French Romantic writers.

 

Alfred-Victor, count de Vigny, 1832
  Youth and Romantic works.
Vigny was born into an aristocratic family that had been reduced to modest circumstances by the French Revolution. His father, a 60-year-old retired soldier at the time of his son’s birth, was a veteran of the Seven Years’ War; and his maternal grandfather, the Marquis de Baraudin, had served as commodore in the royal navy. Vigny grew up in Paris and took preparatory studies for the École Polytechnique at the Lycée Bonaparte, where he conceived an “inordinate love for the glory of bearing arms,” a passion common to the young men of his generation. Attached to the monarchy by family tradition, he became a second lieutenant in the king’s guard when the Bourbons returned to power in 1814 and when he was only 17 years old.

Though he was promoted to first lieutenant in 1822 and to captain the following year, the military profession, limited to garrison duty rather than pursued on the battlefield, bored the young officer, who preferred the adventures of a literary career.

After several leaves of absence, he abandoned military life in 1827. In the meantime, he had published his first poem, “Le Bal,” in 1820.

 
 
Two years later his first collection of verse was published as Poèmes, along with contributions to Victor Hugo’s politically conservative literary periodical La Muse Française.

Salons and reviews in Paris hailed the birth of a poet who combined grace with a strength and depth that was totally Romantic. Vigny’s expanded version of Poèmes under the title Poèmes antiques et modernes (1826) was also a success.

Vigny, however, was not content to excel merely in poetry, and he revealed his narrative talent in Cinq-Mars (1826), a historical novel centred around the conspiracy of Louis XIII’s favourite, the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, against the Cardinal de Richelieu. Cinq-Mars was the first important historical novel in French, and it derived much of its popularity at the time from the enormous vogue of the novels of Sir Walter Scott. Vigny also showed a typically Romantic interest in William Shakespeare, freely adapting Othello (Le More de Venise, first performed 1829) as well as The Merchant of Venice (Shylock, 1829). During these years Vigny was regarded as a literary leader of the Romantic movement in France. The Romantic poet Alphonse de Lamartine recognized his talents, and Hugo and Charles Sainte-Beuve treated him as a friend. Vigny and the writer Delphine Gay, the “muse of the country” as she was called—for her beauty as well as her literary talents—formed a striking couple before his marriage in February 1825 to Lydia Bunbury, daughter of a wealthy Englishman.

 
 

Alfred de Vigny, 1815
  Maturity and disillusionment.
By 1830 Vigny’s temperament had become more sombre. The July Revolution engendered in him a political pessimism inspired by the repeated faults of the French monarchy, an issue that had become evident already in Cinq-Mars. As a point of honour he, like Chateaubriand, sought to remain faithful to the monarchy, but he did not conceal the fact that the cause of the Bourbon king Charles X was worth no more than that of Louis-Philippe, who had been placed on the throne by the moneyed bourgeoisie. He searched unsuccessfully for a political creed and studied every shade of opinion without giving his allegiance to any. From this time on he closely followed current affairs, grasping them with a clarity that was at times prophetic, though his overt political activity remained erratic.

He acknowledged his disillusionment as early as 1831 in “Paris,” a poem of a new genre that he termed élévations. He felt all the more tormented, for he could no longer count on the religious faith of his childhood. His feelings on this score are evident in another poem (1832) in which he contemplated suicide: “And God? Such were the times, they no longer thought about Him.” The only thing left for him to doubt was love itself, a trauma he painfully experienced in the course of his liaison (1831–38) with the actress Marie Dorval, for whom he was to create the role of Kitty Bell in the play Chatterton in 1835.

 
 
He accused Dorval of deceiving him and of having maintained an overaffectionate friendship with the writer George Sand. His relationship with Dorval left Vigny profoundly embittered.
 
 
In Stello (1832) Vigny put together a series of consultations, or dialogues, between two symbolic figures: Doctor Noir (the Black Doctor), who represents Vigny’s own intellect; and Stello, who represents the poet’s desire for an active part in the public arena. In seeking to preserve Stello from the dangers of his imprudent enthusiasm, Doctor Noir tells him three anecdotes. In these three short stories Vigny examines the poet in his dealings with political authority: the levity of Louis XV condemns Nicolas Gilbert to die in privation; the fanaticism of the republican tyrant Robespierre leads André Chénier to the scaffold; the egoism of William Beckford, lord mayor of London, provokes the suicide of the poet Thomas Chatterton; all political regimes inflict on the poet the harshness of “perpetual ostracism.”

What then is this evil malaise? Vigny questions himself on the nature of it. He submits Stello to a sort of psychoanalytic examination, as confided to Doctor Noir. After having listened to Stello, the doctor prescribes a remedy of “separating poetic life from political life” and advises the poet against direct involvement in politics in order to preserve the dignity of his art and escape the horrible cruelties that characterize every kind of fanaticism.

Vigny adapted the part of Stello dealing with the suicide of Chatterton into a prose drama in three acts, Chatterton (1835). In presenting the last moments of Chatterton’s life, he exalts the nobility and suffering of a misunderstood genius in a pitiless and materialistic society.

The triumph of Vigny’s career as a playwright, Chatterton remains one of the best Romantic dramas. It is far superior to La Maréchale d’Ancre (first performed 1831) and expresses Vigny’s melancholy genius more seasonably than does his spiritual comedy Quitte pour la peur (first performed 1833).

  Vigny’s novel Servitude et grandeur militaires (1835; “Servitude and Military Greatness”; Eng. trans. The Military Necessity) is also a consultation. The book’s three stories, linked by personal comment, deal with the dignity and suffering of the soldier, who is obliged by his profession to kill yet who is condemned by it to passive obedience as well. The first and third stories in this volume are Vigny’s masterpieces in prose, and the third story’s portrait of Captain Renaud, an old Napoleonic soldier, is a profound portrait of human greatness. Vigny began another ambitious consultation dealing with the religious prophet, but only one story, Daphné (published 1912), about the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate, survives.

Vigny’s consultations enlarged upon his philosophy, formulated theories about the fate of man, and defined the principles that he thought should govern human conduct. To give these ideas the finish they required, he turned again, between 1838 and his death, to poetry, slowly composing the 11 poems that were later collected under the title Les Destinées (1864). The early poems are very pessimistic, but the later ones are increasingly confident affirmations of the imperishable nature of human spiritual powers.

In middle age Vigny gradually withdrew into a curious silence and retired, according to the famous expression of Sainte-Beuve, to an “ivory tower.” He rarely went out, preferring the calm of his country manor to the excitement of Paris. In 1841 he stood as a candidate to the Académie Française, but he was elected only in 1845, after five checks, and was received there with a perfidious speech by Count Molé. His wife, Lydia, whose longtime invalidism had caused him constant anxiety, died in 1862, and Vigny himself died of cancer of the stomach after much suffering the following year. He left several unedited works whose posthumous publication enhanced his reputation: Les Destinées, Le Journal d’un poète (1867), Daphné, and Mémoires inédits (1958).

 
 
Assessment.
Vigny’s literary art is uneven. He does not possess great technical facility, and when not profoundly inspired, he is prosaic; there are long passages in Les Destinées that are laborious and dull. His austere imagination soberly developed a few symbols of the human condition and condensed them to achieve what he called a “hard, brilliant diamond.”

It is Les Destinées above all that has earned Vigny his reputation as a philosopher-poet. His work is a poignant plea against all that is inhumane in the forces that rule the world: expedience (Cinq-Mars), governments and the mob (Stello and Daphné), and the treacherous love of women (“La Colère de Samson”). Vigny is particularly critical of the equivocality of Providence, which is silent in the face of suffering (“Le Mont des Oliviers”) and as coldly insensitive as nature (“La Maison du Berger”). Vigny’s belief in God is just strong enough for Vigny to reproach him. As a tormented skeptic, he proposes that strictly human values—honour, pity, and the love of beauty—should be adopted. His last poem celebrates the apotheosis of a Holy Spirit (“L’Esprit pur”) that is essentially human and takes over the place of God.

It would be unjust, however, to regard Vigny solely as a philosopher. His literary creations spring less from a system of thought than from a spontaneously tragic conception of existence. Thwarted love, unrecognized goodwill, humiliated greatness, the tormented conscience of the soldier who detests war but fights on energetically—these are more than just general ideas: they express a wounded sensitivity and a soul torn by moral scruples. Under the anonymous cloak of symbols, Vigny extends to the whole of humanity his own conflicts and agonies, and his work is an effort to resolve them. Therein lies the poignancy of his work.

Paul Viallaneix
Pierre-Georges Castex

  Editions.
Oeuvres complètes, ed. by F. Baldensperger (with Le Journal d’un poète), 2 vol. (1948); Oeuvres complétes, ed. by P. Viallaneix (1965), with all of the articles published by Vigny; Correspondance (1822–1863), ed. by L. Seché (1913); Correspondance (1816–1835), ed. by F. Baldensperger (1933); Mémoires inédits, ed. by J. Sangnier, 2nd ed. (1958); Poèmes antiques et modernes, ed. by E. Estève (1931); Les Destinées, ed. by V.L. Saulnier (1947); Stello and Daphné, ed. by F. Germain (1970); Servitude et grandeur militaires, ed. by F. Germain (1965).

Poetry.
Poèmes (1822), including “La Fille de Jephté”; “Éloa, ou la soeur des anges” (1824); Poèmes antiques et modernes (1826), including “Éloa,” “Le Déluge,” “La Neige,” “Moïse,” and “Le Cor”; “Madame de Soubise” and “La Frégate ‘La Sérieuse’ ” (included in the 1829 revised edition of Poèmes); “Paris” (1831) and “Les Amants de Montmorency” (1832), both included in the 1837 revised edition of Poèmes antiques et modernes; “La Mort du loup” (1843); “La Maison du Berger” (1844); “Le Mont des Oliviers” (1844); and “La Colère de Samson” (1864), all included in Les Destinées (1864).

Plays.
La Maréchale d’Ancre (1831); Quitte pour la peur (1833); Chatterton (1835).

Novels.
Cinq-Mars (1826; Cinq-Mars; or, A Conspiracy Under Louis XIII, 1847); Stello (1832); Daphné (1912, published posthumously).

Other works.
Servitude et grandeur militaires (1835; The Military Necessity, 1953), short stories; Le Journal d’un poète (1867).

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
see also: Alfred-Victor, comte de Vigny
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
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