Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1820 Part II NEXT-1821 Part II    
1820 - 1829
History at a Glance
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Trade Union
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Khan Dost Mohammad
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George

Coronation of King George IV.
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach

The Congress of Laibach was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives, held in 1821 as part of the so-called Concert of Europe, which was the decided attempt of the Great Powers to settle international problems after the Napoleonic Wars through discussion and collective weight rather than on the battlefield.

Congress of Laibach, (Jan. 26–May 12, 1821), meeting of the Holy Alliance powers (all European rulers except those of Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and the papacy) at Laibach (now Ljubljana, Slovenia) that set the conditions for Austrian intervention in and occupation of the Two Sicilies in action against the Neapolitan revolution (July 1820). As such, it was a triumph for antiliberal Austrian policy, and also, because of British and French dissension, it was a demonstration of the decline of the congress system.

Attended by the monarchs of Russia, Austria, and Prussia and their chief ministers, the kings of the Two Sicilies and Sardinia-Piedmont, the dukes of Modena and Tuscany, and British and French observers, the congress proclaimed its hostility to revolutionary regimes, agreed to abolish the Neapolitan constitution, and authorized the Austrian army to restore the absolutist monarchy. The British and French protested the decision, thereby encouraging unsuccessful resistance among the Neapolitans. A similar revolt in Piedmont was put down by the Austrians at Novara on April 8, 1821.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Brit. Parliament grants Queen Caroline (Caroline of Brunswick) an annuity of £50,000
Monroe James begins second term as President of the U.S.
Revolution in Piedmont; Victor Emmanuel abdicates, names his brother Charles Felix successor; the intervening Aust. army victorious at Novara
Victor Emmanuel I

Victor Emmanuel I (24 July 1759 – 10 January 1824) was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia (1802–1821).


Victor Emmanuel I
Victor Emmanuel was the second son of King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain, daughter of King Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese.

Victor Emmanuel was known from birth as the Duke of Aosta. From 1792 to 1796, Aosta's father had taken an active part in the struggle of the old powers against the French Revolutionary forces, but were defeated and forced to make peace. The old king died shortly thereafter; and, in December 1798, his eldest son and successor, Charles Emmanuel IV, was faced with a French occupation and, eventually, annexation, of his mainland territories.

Charles Emmanuel and his family were forced to withdraw to Sardinia, which was the only part of his domains not conquered by the French. Charles Emmanuel himself took little interest in the rule of Sardinia, living with his wife on the mainland in Naples and Rome until his wife's death in 1802, which led the childless Charles Emmanuel to abdicate the throne in favor of his younger brother. Aosta took the throne on 4 June 1802 as Victor Emmanuel I. He ruled Sardinia from Cagliari for the next twelve years, during which time he constituted the Carabinieri, a Gendarmerie corps, still existing as one of the main branches of the military of Italy.

Victor Emmanuel could return to Turin only in 1814, his realm reconstituted by the Congress of Vienna with the addition of the territories of the former Republic of Genoa. The latter became the seat of the Sardinian Navy. Victor Emmanuel abolished all the freedoms granted by the Napoleonic Codices and restored a fiercely oppressive rule: He refused any concession of a constitution, entrusted the instruction to the Church and reintroduced the persecutions against Jews and Waldensians.

After the death of his brother in 1819, he also became the heir-general of the Jacobite succession to the British thrones, although he, like his brother, did not make any public claims to this effect. When Victor Emmanuel died, Lord Liverpool, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, wrote to his ministerial colleague George Canning that there should be public mourning in Britain, as a significant number of Britons had regarded Victor Emmanuel as their rightful king.[citation needed]

After the outbreak of the liberal revolution in his lands in 1821, he abdicated in favour of his brother, Charles Felix. Victor Emanuel died in the Castle of Moncalieri. He is buried in the Basilica of Superga.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Felix Charle

Charles Felix (Carlo Felice Giuseppe Maria; 6 April 1765 – 27 April 1831) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1821 to 1831.

Early life
Carlo Felice di Savoia was born in Turin as the eleventh child and fifth son born to Victor Amadeus III of Savoy and Maria Antonietta of Spain. His paternal grandparents were Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy and his German wife Polyxena Christina of Hesse-Rotenburg. His maternal grandparents were French born King Philip V of Spain and his Italian wife Elizabeth Farnese.

He was a younger brother of two other rulers of Savoy Charles Emmanuel IV and Victor Emmanuel I. He spent his childhood with his sister Maria Carolina and Count of Moriana where they lived at the Castle of Moncalieri. Carlo Felice was reported as having a closed character, prone to loneliness, with an almost ascetic (which for some time, had flashed the ecclesiastical career) and a sacral conception of the monarchy and the right to reign. With the Napoleonic occupation of Piedmont in 1796, he lost the crown of Savoy, the Duchy of Savoy and area of Genevois. Carlo Felice, who was titled Duke of Genevois, obtained the title of Marquis of Susa in compensation for his nominal loss.


Charles Felix
He was a younger brother of Charles Emmanuel IV and Victor Emmanuel I. He was not expected to ever succeed to the throne.

However Charles Emmanuel never had any children and abdicated the throne on 4 June 1802. Victor Emmanuel had four living daughters when he abdicated the throne in 1821. As the succession was regulated by the Salic Law, Charles Felix succeeded his brother on the throne.

Since Charles was in Modena at the time of his succession, he appointed as Regent his cousin, and heir, Charles Albert (of the Carignano branch of the Savoy family). Charles Albert was in touch with the liberal revolutionaries at that time, and immediately granted their request for a constitution. All this occurred between the 6 and 14 March 1821.

Even before he reached Turin, Charles Felix repudiated the Regent's promise and, to help restore order, called in the Austrians, who stayed in Piedmont till 1823.

In that same year Charles Albert went to Spain to extinguish by force of arms the last sparks of revolt, making himself an object of hatred as the betrayer of Italian liberalism, but regaining the confidence of the King, who might have chosen another successor.

Charles Felix was a true reactionary, convinced that the world would soon be swept clean of all those - in his view - wicked and sacrilegious innovations introduced by the French Revolution and diffused throughout Europe by Napoleon Bonaparte "the rascal" as he called him.

He was married by proxy to Princess Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily (17 January 1779 – 11 March 1849) on 7 March 1807. She was a daughter of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Maria Carolina of Austria, (1752-1814), sister of the famous Marie Antoinette (1755-1793), later Queen of France .

Death and Succession
Charles Felix died without issue, in Turin at the Palazzo Chablais which had been given to him by his sister Princess Maria Ana of Savoy, after a reign of ten years. He was succeeded by the senior male member of his dynastic house, the regent Charles Albert (1798-1849).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Battle of Novara

Novara is the capital city of the province of Novara in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy, to the west of Milan. With about 105,000 inhabitants, it is the second most populous city in Piedmont after Turin. It is an important crossroads for commercial traffic along the routes from Milan to Turin and from Genoa to Switzerland. Novara lies between the rivers Agogna and Terdoppio in northeastern Piedmont, 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Milan and 95 kilometres (59 mi) from Turin.

Novara was founded in ancient times by the Romans. Its name is formed from Nov, meaning "new", and Aria, the name the Cisalpine Gauls used for the surrounding region.

Ancient Novaria, which dates to the time of the Ligures, was a municipium and was situated on the road from Vercellae (Vercelli) to (Mediolanum) Milan. Its position on perpendicular roads (still intact today) dates to the time of the Romans. After the city was destroyed in 386 by Magnus Maximus for having supported his rival Valentinian II, it was rebuilt by Theodosius I. Subsequently, it was sacked by Radagaisus (in 405) and Attila (in 452).

Under the Lombards, Novara became a duchy; under Charles the Fat, a countship. Novara came to enjoy the rights of a free imperial city. In 1110, it was conquered by Henry V and destroyed, but in 1167 it joined the Lombard League.
At the end of the 12th century, it accepted the protection of Milan and became practically a dominion of the Visconti and later of the Sforza. In the Battle of Novara in 1513, Swiss mercenaries defending Novara for the Sforzas of Milan routed the French troops besieging the city.

  This defeat ended the French invasion of Italy in the War of the League of Cambrai.
In 1706, Novara, which had long ago been promised by Filippo Maria Visconti to Amadeus VIII of Savoy, was occupied by Savoyard troops. With the Peace of Utrecht, the city, together with Milan, became part of the Habsburg Empire. After its occupation in 1734, Novara passed, in the following year, to the House of Savoy.

After Napoleon's campaign in Italy, Novara became the capital of the Department of the Agogna, but was then reassigned to the House of Savoy in 1814. In 1821, it was the site of a battle in which regular Sardinian troops defeated the Piedmontese constitutional liberals.

In the even larger Battle of Novara in 1849, the Sardinian army was defeated by the Austrian army of Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky von Radetz. This defeat led to the abdication of Charles Albert of Sardinia and to the partial occupation of the city by the Austrians. The defeat of the Sardinians can be seen as the beginning of the Italian unification movement.

A decree in 1859 created the province of Novara, which then included the present-day provinces of Vercelli, Biella, and Verbano-Cusio-Ossola.


The Ossuary of Bicocca, in memory of the Battle of Novara
The city of Novara had a population of 25,144 in 1861. Industrialisation during the 20th century brought an increase in the city's population to 102,088 in 1981. The city's population has changed little in subsequent years.

Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, former president of Italy and Italian senator for life, was born in Novara in 1918.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Greek War of Independence

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Greek: Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1832, with later assistance from Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and several other European powers against the Ottoman Empire, who were assisted by their vassals, the Eyalet of Egypt, and partly by the Beylik of Tunis.

Following the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Empire in 1453, most of Greece came under Ottoman rule. During this time, there were some revolt attempts by Greeks to gain independence from Ottoman control. In 1814, a secret organization called the Filiki Eteria was founded with the aim of liberating Greece. The Filiki Eteria planned to launch revolts in the Peloponnese, the Danubian Principalities, and in Constantinople and its surrounding areas. The first of these revolts began on 6 March 1821 in the Danubian Principalities, but was soon put down by the Ottomans. The events in the north urged the Greeks in the Peloponnese into action and on 17 March 1821, the Maniots declared war on the Ottomans. This declaration was the start of a "Spring" or revolutionary actions from other controlled states against the Ottoman Empire. By the end of the month, the Peloponnese was in open revolt against the Turks and by October 1821, the Greeks under Theodoros Kolokotronis had captured Tripolitsa. The Peloponnesian revolt was quickly followed by revolts in Crete, Macedonia, and Central Greece, which would soon be suppressed. Meanwhile, the makeshift Greek navy was achieving success against the Ottoman navy in the Aegean Sea and prevented Ottoman reinforcements from arriving by sea.
Tensions soon developed among different Greek factions, leading to two consecutive civil wars. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Sultan negotiated with Mehmet Ali of Egypt, who agreed to send his son Ibrahim Pasha to Greece with an army to suppress the revolt in return for territorial gain. Ibrahim landed in the Peloponnese in February 1825 and had immediate success: by the end of 1825, most of the Peloponnese was under Egyptian control, and the city of Missolonghi—put under siege by the Turks since April 1825—fell in April 1826.
Theodoros Vryzakis (oil painting, 1852, Benaki Museum, Athens) illustrates Bishop Germanos of old Patras blessing the Greek banner at Agia Lavra on the outset of the national revolt against the Turks on 25 March 1821.
Although Ibrahim was defeated in Mani, he had succeeded in suppressing most of the revolt in the Peloponnese and Athens had been retaken.

Following years of negotiation, three Great Powers, Russia, Britain and France, decided to intervene in the conflict and each nation sent a navy to Greece. Following news that combined Ottoman–Egyptian fleets were going to attack the Greek island of Hydra, the allied fleet intercepted the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet at Navarino. Following a week long standoff, a battle began which resulted in the destruction of the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet. With the help of a French expeditionary force, the Greeks drove the Turks out of the Peloponnese and proceeded to the captured part of Central Greece by 1828. As a result of years of negotiation, Greece was finally recognized as an independent nation in May 1832.

The Revolution is celebrated by the modern Greek state as a national day on 25 March.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Greek Revolution Timeline
Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)

1821, February 21: Revolt of Greek War of Independence declared by Alexandros Ypsilantis in Wallachia (Iaşi).
1821, March 25: According to tradition, Metropolitan Germanos of Patras blesses a big Greek flag at the Monastery of Agia Lavra in Peloponnesia and proclaims to people assembled the beginning of a Greek Revolution. Greece declares its independence. Beginning of the Greek War of Independence.
1821, 10 April, Easter Monday: Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople Alyssa central outside portal of the Patriarchate by the Turks. The door has remained shut and out of use ever since
1821, 17 April: Former Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril VI is hanged in the gate of the Adrianople's cathedral
1821, 4 April: Constantine Mourousis, Dimitrios Paparigopoulos and Antonios Tsouras are decapitated by the Ottomans in Constantinople
1821, 5 April: The Phanariotes Petros Tsigris, Dimitrios Skanavis and Manuel Hotzeris are decapitated by the Turks, while Georgios Mavrocordatos is hanged by the Sultan forces in Constantinople
1821, 23–24 April: Battle of Alamana. After the Greek defeat, Athanasios Diakos is impaled on a spit.
1821, 4 May: Metropolitans Gregorios of Derkon, Dorotheos of Adrianople, Ioannikios of Tyrnavos, Joseph of Thessaloniki, and the Phanariote Georgios Callimachi and Nikolaos Mourousis are decapitated on Sultan's orders in Constantinople
1821, May: The Turkish governor Yusuf Bey orders his men to kill every Greek in Thessaloniki that they find. The killings last for days, with the metropolitan and major notables among the victims
1821, 2 June: Destruction of Kydonies in Asia Minor by the Ottoman army. Tens of thousands of Greek inhabitants become refugees
1821, 24 June: The massacre of Heraklion or 'the great ravage' occurs against the Greek community in Crete. Among the victims are the metropolitan of Crete and bishops
1821, 9 July: The chief of the Cypriot Orthodox Church Archbishop Kyprianos, along with 486 prominent Greek Cypriots, amongst them the Metropolitans Chrysanthos of Paphos, Meletios of Kition and Lavrentios of Kyrenia, are executed by beheading or hanging by the Turks in Nicosia
1821, July: Küçük Mehmet carries out several days of massacres of Greek Cypriots in Cyprus since July 9 and continues on for forty days, despite the Vizier's command to end the plundering since 20 July 1821
1821, 11 September: Tripolitsa captured by the Greeks, who proceed to eliminate the Turkish garrison, officials and civilians. A total of about 30,000 people perish.
1821, 15 October: Turkish Cypriot mobs hang most of the Greek Cypriots in Larnaca and other towns, among them an archbishop, five bishops, thirty six ecclesiastics.

1822, 9 April: After a month's resistance, the city of Naousa is captured by Abdul Abud, devastating the city and massacring its Greek population. Ending of the Greek revolution in Macedonia.
1822: The Chios massacre occurs. A total of about 100,000 people perish, mostly Greeks.
1822, 26 July, Battle at Dervenakia. A decisive victory of the Greeks which saved the revolution.

1823, 18 January: Nafplio becomes the site of the Revolutionary Government.
1823, March: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, represented by George Canning, recognizes the Greeks as a nation at war, thus recognizing de facto the Greek Independence.

1824, 7–8 June: The civilization of the island of Kasos is completely destroyed by the Turkish-Egyptian forces of Hussein Rushdi Pasha. About 7,000 people perish.
1824, 21 June: More than 15,000 Greeks of Psara are slaughtered by the forces of Husrev Pasha.
1824: The First Siege of Missolonghi occurs.

1825, 22 May: Laskarina Bouboulina is assassinated in Spetses.
1825, 5 June: Odysseas Androutsos is assassinated in Athens.
1825, 22 June: Ibrahim Pasha retakes Tripoli, kills the Greek population and destroys the city and its walls.
1825, 6 November: Beginning of the Third Siege of Missolonghi.

1826, 10–11 April: The Sortie of Missolonghi occurs. Approximately 8,000 Greek soldiers and civilians perish.
1826, 24 June: Battle of Vergas.
1826, 11 November: Prime Minister Andreas Zaimis transfers the site of the government to Aegina.

1827, 22–24 April: Battle of Phaleron. Georgios Karaiskakis is killed in action.
1827, July 6: Signing of the Treaty of London.
1827, 20 October: Battle of Navarino.

1828, 24 January: John Capodistria is elected Governor of Greece.
1828, 31 January: Alexander Ypsilantis dies in Vienna.

1829. First Hellenic Republic (1829–1832)
The First Hellenic Republi is a historiographic term used for a series of councils and "Provisional Governments" during the Greek War of Independence. During the first stages of the rebellion, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by united administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus during early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution. A series of National Assemblies ensued, while Greece was threatened with collapse due to civil war and the victories of Ibrahim Pasha. During 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen selected Count Ioannis Capodistrias as Governor of Greece for seven years. He arrived during 1828 and established the Hellenic State, commanding with quasi-dictatorial powers. He was assassinated by political rivals during 1831 and was succeeded by his brother, Augustinos Kapodistrias until the Great Powers declared Greece a Kingdom and selected the Bavarian Prince Otto to be its king.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Battle of Alamana

The Battle of Alamana was fought between the Greeks and the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence on April 22, 1821.

Omer Vrioni, the commander of the Ottoman army, advanced with 8,000 men from Thessaly to crush the revolt that had broken out in Peloponnesos. Athanasios Diakos (he was an ex-deacon (Diakos: Gr. for deacon) who then became a trainee monk but gave it up for the War of Independence), Panourgias Panourgias and Yiannis Dyovouniotis with their bands of armatoloi (a total of perhaps 1,500 men) took up defensive positions at the river Alamana (Spercheios - the alternative name for the river is a misnomer as the local memory confused Brennus' men (287 BC) with Allamani), near Thermopylae.

Vrioni's attack forced Panourgias and Dyovouniotis to retreat, leaving Diakos alone. Diakos's men fought for several hours before they were overwhelmed.

Death of Diakos
Eventually, Diakos himself was captured and taken to Vrioni after he was shot in the foot and had his sword broken. When Vrioni offered to make Diakos an officer in his army, Diakos immediately refused and replied:

"I was born a Greek and I will die a Greek".

Vrioni then ordered that Diakos be impaled on a spit and roasted over a fire (the part about "being roasted" is questioned as local oral tradition has it that he was killed (freed from his torment) by a Greek rebel the next day).

The Ottomans tried to make Diakos carry the long spit, but he threw it down with contempt. As he was led off to die, onlookers heard him sing:

"Look at the time Charon chose to take me, now that branches are flowering, now that the earth sends forth grass".

Diakos's song was in reference to the Greeks' uprising against the Ottoman Empire.

Even though the battle was ultimately a military defeat for the Greeks, Diakos's death provided the Greek national cause with a stirring myth of heroic martyrdom.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Athanasios Diakos (1788 – 24 April 1821) was a Greek military commander during the Greek War of Independence, considered a venerable national hero in Greece.
Napoleon I d. (b. 1769)

Napoleon I on his death bed, by Horace Vernet, 1826
Napoleon I

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Bolivar Simon defeats Span, army at Carabobo, and ensures independence of Venezuela
Battle of Carabobo

The Battle of Carabobo, 24 June 1821, was fought between independence fighters, led by Venezuelan General Simón Bolívar, and the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre. Bolívar's decisive victory at Carabobo led to the independence of Venezuela.


La Batalla de Carabobo by Martín Tovar y Tovar.
Battle of Carabobo, (June 24, 1821), during the Latin American wars of independence, a victory won by South American patriots over Spanish royalists on the plains to the west of Caracas; it virtually freed Venezuela from Spanish control. Following the instructions of the recently installed liberal government in Spain, Gen. Pablo Morillo had signed an armistice with Simón Bolívar, commander of the revolutionary forces in northern South America, in November 1820. Subsequently, the patriots broke the terms of the agreement by moving against the royalist garrison on Lake Maracaibo. At Carabobo, Bolívar led his somewhat numerically superior army of about 6,500 troops, including volunteers from the British Isles, to victory over the Spaniards, commanded by General La Torre. Gen. José Antonio Páez and his llaneros (“plainsmen”) and the British and Irish volunteers routed the Spanish right wing while the patriot cavalry crushed their centre.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Coronation of George IV

Coronation of King George IV.
Death of Queen Caroline (Caroline of Brunswick)
Missouri becomes a state of the U.S.

Missouri, constituent state of the United States of America. To the north lies Iowa; across the Mississippi River to the east, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; to the south, Arkansas; and to the west, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. With the exception of Tennessee, Missouri has more neighbouring states than any other U.S. state. Bisecting the state is the Missouri River, flowing from Kansas City in the west, through the state’s capital, Jefferson City, in the centre, to just above St. Louis in the east, where it joins the Mississippi. Missouri was the name of a group of indigenous people who lived in the area at the time of European settlement; the French named the river after the native community, and the river, in turn, gave its name to the state.

Located near the centre of the conterminous United States, Missouri is the meeting place of the eastern timberlands and western prairies and of the southern cotton fields and the northern cornfields. It has represented the political and social sentiments of a border state since its admission as the 24th member of the union on August 10, 1821. The question of its admission as a slave state or as a free state produced in the U.S. Congress the Missouri Compromise (1820), which regulated the spread of slavery in the western territories.
Missouri was the westernmost state of the union until the admission of Texas in 1845, and for decades it served as the eastern terminus of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails. For the western territories, St. Louis, one of Missouri’s largest cities, long was the closest contact with the culture and more settled society of the eastern states. For the eastern United States, Missouri had a reputation as the chief gateway to points west.

Missouri embodies a unique but dynamic balance between the urban and the rural and between the liberal and the conservative. The state ranks high in the United States in terms of urbanization and industrial activity, but it also maintains a vigorous and diversified agriculture.
Numerous conservative characteristics of the rural life that predominated prior to the 1930s have been retained into the 21st century; indeed, Missouri’s nickname, the Show-Me State, suggests a tradition of skepticism regarding change. Area 69,703 square miles (180,530 square km). Population (2010) 5,988,927; (2013 est.) 6,044,171.

Before the European conquest the land that was to become Missouri was the home of a diverse group of indigenous peoples. Indeed, humans have inhabited the area since about 9000 bce, as evident in the many sites of the ancient Clovis and Folsom culture complexes. The most prominent ancient society was the Mississippian culture, known for its effigy and burial mounds at Cahokia, the largest prehistoric city in what is now the United States.

The native peoples of Missouri generally are grouped into two broad categories known as the Northeast Indian and the Plains Indian cultures. The Northeast Indian peoples lived in hamlets and villages dispersed throughout the wooded eastern portion of the state. They made a living through a combination of corn (maize) agriculture, the gathering of wild plant foods, hunting, and fishing. The state took the name of the most prominent local tribe of this group, the Missouri. The Plains Indian lived in the western part of the state. Peoples such as the Osage and Quapaw resided in the region’s river valleys and lived very similarly to their eastern counterparts.

European settlement and demographic changes
The recorded history of the Missouri region dates from the settlement of some French lead miners and hunters at Sainte Genevieve, on the western bank of the Mississippi River, about 1735. Although it has moved some distance from its original site, Sainte Genevieve remains the oldest continuously inhabited white settlement in present-day Missouri. Some 30 years later, Pierre Laclède Liguest, a French fur trader from New Orleans, founded St. Louis. At the time of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, most of the roughly 10,000 residents of the region were French settlers from the Illinois country. However, a small portion of the region’s white population had come from Kentucky and Tennessee, which, with Virginia, became the major immediate sources of settlers through the first half of the 19th century.

Meanwhile, new groups of native peoples streamed into Missouri, especially in the first half of the 18th century. These groups included small communities of Southeast Indians, who, in an attempt to avoid conflict with European colonizers in their homeland (the southeastern portion of North America), began to relocate to what is now eastern Missouri. In western Missouri, equestrian nomads such as the Sioux became a presence, as many of the Plains peoples gained access to horses.

Statehood, controversy, and war
The “pull of the West” solidified Missouri’s position as a land of passage after it achieved statehood in 1821. Migrants bound for Texas outfitted in Missouri, and later thousands of people heading west poured through St. Joseph, Independence, Westport Landing, and the City of Kansas (Kansas City).

As the state attracted new residents, however, it was being drained of its native peoples. In the 1830s much of Missouri’s native population was forced by the government to relocate westward, many following the torturous Trail of Tears to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

Also during the few decades following acquisition of statehood, the abolition movement drew increasing support.
In accordance with the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Missouri had been admitted to the union as a state in which slavery was legal, and, indeed, slavery was already well established at the time, not only on the plantations operated by immigrants from the South but also in the French lead-mining ventures.

  In this atmosphere, new arrivals from the North and from Europe not only challenged the traditional Southern institution but also challenged the principle of states’ rights (sovereignty of the states within the union). The emotional nature of the controversy gave rise in some instances to mob violence against abolitionists, including the Mormons who gathered in Missouri in the 1830s. Laws were enacted to prohibit the teaching of reading and writing to black residents and to prevent free black people from entering the state. The case of the Missouri slave Dred Scott, who sued for his freedom on the grounds that his master had for a time moved him into the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin, resulted in a Supreme Court decision (1857) that made slavery legal in all the territories.

The 1850s were years of increasing dissension, worsened by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 that set slave- and free-state advocates at one another’s throats in what amounted to a small civil war—commonly called Bleeding Kansas—for control of those adjoining territories. Missouri already was moving toward a free-state economy, however, and the state stayed within the union during the American Civil War (1861–65).

Missourians fought on both sides, but those in the Union army of the North outnumbered those in the Confederate army of the South by nearly 4 to 1. Conflict occurred within the state, much of it taking the form of guerrilla warfare along the Kansas border and throughout the Ozark Mountains; the first major battle west of the Mississippi River was fought southwest of Springfield on the banks of Wilson’s Creek on Aug. 10, 1861. After the war, Confederate sympathizers were dealt with harshly; overall, though, Reconstruction (1865–77) was not as severe in Missouri as it was in most states of the South.

Plaza of the old courthouse (beneath the Gateway Arch), St. Louis, Mo., U.S.
Missouri in the 20th and 21st centuries
The continued growth of Missouri in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was celebrated in the famous St. Louis Exposition in 1904. The state remained heavily rural and agricultural, however, until the Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II (1939–45) brought about vast movements of people into the cities. After World War II three important developments shaped the economy of Missouri: the shift from agriculture, mining, and lumbering to manufacturing, particularly of durable goods, and services; large investments in public and social services, highways, and rural electrification; and population growth, particularly near the large reservoirs and in the peripheries of St. Louis, Kansas City, and Springfield.

By the early 21st century, rural areas of Missouri had attracted many new production plants that employed a small number of workers, while the bulk of the

  manufacturing employment remained concentrated in the St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan areas. Meanwhile, small towns had changed radically, their economic development depending to a large degree on geography and transportation.
Towns near large cities had been absorbed into metropolitan areas with the ever-expanding infrastructure of the commuting zone, while many smaller villages approached economic stagnation as the rural population declined and the remaining residents shifted their commercial support to the larger towns. In the vicinity of the large Ozark lakes, however, many new towns emerged and once-struggling towns reawakened, primarily to serve a growing population of retirees.

Edwin J. Westermann
Milton D. Rafferty

Encyclopædia Britannica

World Countries

United States of America
Independence of Brazil
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire. It is celebrated on September 7, the anniversary of the September 7, 1822 date regent Prince Dom Pedro declared Brazil's independence from Portugal. Formal recognition came with a treaty signed by Brazil and Portugal in Autumn 1825.

"Independence or Death!" Declaration of Brazil's independence by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822. His Guard of Honor greets him in support while some discard blue and white armbands that represented loyalty to Portugal

Origin of Brazil

The land now called Brazil was claimed by Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese encountered Indigenous nations divided into several tribes, most of whom shared the same Tupi-Guaraní language family, and shared and disputed the territory.

Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was effectively started in 1534, when Dom João III divided the territory into fifteen hereditary captaincies. This arrangement proved problematic, however, and in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes while others slowly disappeared in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.

By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export due to the increasing international demand for sugar. To profit from the situation, by 1700, over 963,000 African slaves had been brought across the Atlantic to work in Brazil. More Africans were brought to Brazil up until that date than to all the other places in the Americas combined.

Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, taking São Luís in 1615. They sent military expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered English and Dutch strongholds, founding villages and forts from 1669. In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Banda Oriental region (present-day Uruguay).

At the end of the 17th century, sugar exports started to decline but beginning in the 1690s, the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) in current Mato Grosso, Goiás and the state of Minas Gerais, saved the colony from imminent collapse. From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines.

The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Banda Oriental in 1777. However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian borders.


From colony to United Kingdom
During the invasion of Portugal (1807), the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil, establishing Rio de Janeiro as the de facto capital of Portugal. This had the side effect of creating within Brazil many of the institutions required to exist as an independent state; most importantly, it freed Brazil to trade with other nations at will.
After Napoleon's army was finally defeated in 1815, in order to maintain the capital in Brazil and allay Brazilian fears of being returned to colonial status, King John VI of Portugal raised the de jure status of Brazil to an equal, integral part of a United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, rather than a mere colony, a status which it enjoyed for the next seven years.

Path to Independence

Portuguese Cortes

In 1820 the Constitutionalist Revolution erupted in Portugal. The movement initiated by the liberal constitutionalists resulted in the meeting of the Cortes (or Constituent Assembly), that would have to create the kingdom’s first constitution.

The Cortes at the same time demanded the return of King Dom João VI, who had been living in Brazil since 1808, who elevated Brazil to Kingdom as part of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in 1815 and who nominated his son and heir prince Dom Pedro as regent, to govern Kingdom of Brazil in his place on 7 March 1821. The king left for Europe on April 26, while Dom Pedro remained in Brazil governing it with the aid of the ministers of the Kingdom (Interior) and Foreign Affairs, of War, of Navy and of Finance.

The Portuguese military officers headquartered in Brazil were completely sympathetic to the constitutionalist movement in Portugal. The main leader of the Portuguese officers, General Jorge Avilez, forced the prince to dismiss and banish from the country the ministers of Kingdom and Finance. Both were loyal allies of Pedro, who had become a pawn in the hands of the military. The humiliation suffered by the prince, who swore he would never yield to the pressure of the military again, would have a decisive influence on his abdication ten years later.

Meanwhile, on September 30, 1821, the Cortes approved a decree that subordinated the governments of the Brazilian provinces directly to Portugal. Prince Pedro became for all purposes only the governor of the Rio de Janeiro Province. Other decrees that came after ordered his return to Europe and also extinguished the judicial courts created by João VI in 1808.

Dissatisfaction over the Cortes measures among most residents in Brazil (both Brazilian-born and Portuguese-born) rose to a point that it soon became publicly known. Two groups that opposed the Cortes' actions to gradually undermine the Brazilian sovereignty appeared: Liberals led by Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo (which had the support of the Freemasons) and the Bonifacians led by José Bonifácio de Andrada. Both factions had nothing in common in their goals for Brazil, with the sole exception of their desire to keep the country united with Portugal as a sovereign monarchy.

Prince Pedro is surrounded by a cheering crowd in São Paulo after giving the news of the Brazilian independence in 7 September 1822.

Avilez rebellion
The Portuguese deputies of the Cortes showed no respect towards the prince and openly mocked him. and so the loyalty that Pedro had shown towards the Cortes gradually shifted to the Brazilian cause. His wife, princess Leopoldina of Habsburg, favoured the Brazilian side and encouraged him to remain in the country while the Liberals and Bonifacians made open representations. Pedro's reply came in 9 January 1822, who, according to newspapers, spoke: “As it is for the good of all and for the nation’s general happiness, I am ready: Tell the people that I will stay”.

After Pedro's decision to defy the Cortes, around 2,000 men led by Jorge Avilez rioted before concentrating on mount Castelo, which was soon surrounded by 10,000 armed Brazilians, led by the Royal Police Guard. Dom Pedro then "dismissed" the Portuguese commanding general and ordered him to remove his soldiers across the bay to Niterói, where they would await transport to Portugal.

Jose Bonifácio was nominated minister of Kingdom and Foreign Affairs in 18 January 1822. Bonifácio soon established a fatherlike relationship with Pedro, who began to consider the experienced statesman his greatest ally. Gonçalves Ledo and the liberals tried to minimize the close relationship between Bonifácio and Pedro offering to the prince the title of Perpetual Defender of Brazil. For the liberals, the meeting of a Constituent Assembly for Brazil was necessary, while the Bonifacians preferred that Pedro grant the constitution himself to avoid the possibility of similar anarchy to the one that occurred during the first years of the French Revolution.

The prince acquiesced to the liberals’ desires and signed a decree in 3 June 1822 calling for the election of the deputies that would gather in the Constituent and Legislative General Assembly in Brazil.


From United Kingdom to Independent Empire
Pedro departed to São Paulo Province to assure the province’s loyalty to the Brazilian cause. He reached its capital on 25 August and remained there until 5 September. When returning to Rio de Janeiro on 7 September he received mail from José Bonifácio and his wife Leopoldina. The prince learned that the Cortes had annulled all acts from the Bonifácio cabinet and removed the remaining power he still had. Pedro turned to his companions that included his Guard of Honor and spoke: “Friends, the Portuguese Cortes want to enslave and pursue us. From today on our relations are broken. No ties unite us anymore” and continued after he pulled out his blue-white armband that symbolized Portugal: “Armbands off, soldiers. Hail to the independence, to freedom and to the separation of Brazil”. He unsheathed his sword affirming that "For my blood, my honor, my God, I swear to give Brazil freedom" and cried out: “Independence or death!”. This event is remembered as "Cry of Ipiranga".

When arriving in the city of São Paulo on the night of September 7, 1822, Pedro and his fellow companions had spread the notice of the Brazilian independence from Portugal. The Prince was received with great popular celebration and was called “King of Brazil” but also “Emperor of Brazil”. Pedro returned to Rio de Janeiro on September 14 and in the following days the liberals had spread pamphlets (written by Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo) that suggested the idea that the Prince should be acclaimed Constitutional Emperor. On September 17 the President of the Municipal Chamber of Rio de Janeiro, José Clemente Pereira, sent to the other Chambers of the country the news that the Acclamation would occur in the anniversary of Pedro on October 12. On the following day the new flag and arms of the independent Kingdom of Brazil were created (The Imperial flag and arms created later on October 12 were identical to those with the exception of the crown that from Royal became Imperial).


The official separation would only occur on September 22, 1822 in a letter written by Pedro to João VI. In it, Pedro still calls himself Prince Regent and his father is considered the King of the independent Brazil. On October 12, 1822, in the Field of Santana (later known as Field of the Acclamation) Prince Pedro was acclaimed Dom Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil. It was at the same time the beginning of Pedro's reign and also of the Empire of Brazil. However, the Emperor made it clear that although he accepted the emperorship, if João VI returned to Brazil he would step down from the throne in favor of his father.

The reason for the imperial title was that the title of king would symbolically mean a continuation of the Portuguese dynastic tradition and perhaps of the feared absolutism, while the title of emperor derived from popular acclamation as in Ancient Rome. On December 1, 1822 (anniversary of the acclamation of João IV, first King of the House of Braganza) Pedro I was crowned and consecrated.


Coronation of Emperor Pedro I on December 1, 1822.

Independence War
The war between the Brazilians and Portuguese lasted from February 1822, with the burst of first skirmishes between militias, to November 1823, when the last Portuguese garrisons surrendered. In land and naval combats it involved both regular forces and civilian militia on both sides.
In the newly created Army and Navy the Brazilians had forced enlistment including foreign immigrants. They also made use of slaves in militias as well as freeing slaves to enlist them in army and navy. The land and naval combats covered the territories of Bahia, Cisplatina, Rio de Janeiro and the vice-kingdom of Grão-Pará. Maranhão and Pernambuco (which then embraced also what today are the States of Ceará, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte) were also places where fighting occurred.


Fights between militias took the streets of the main cities of the mentioned territories in 1822 and in land, despite the arrival of additional forces from Portugal along the year of 1822 but the last quarter; the Portuguese forces although had neutralized the home-born militians in some cities like Salvador, Montevideo and São Luís, failed to defeat the militias in most of cities as well the guerrilla forces in the country side and when came 1823, while the Brazilian army had enlarged replacing its losses of men and supplies; the remaining Portuguese forces, already then on the defensive, were shortened of men and means, found themselves compelled to restrict their sphere of action to resist in some province capitals, that were also strategic sea ports, as for example Belém beyond the already mentioned Montevideo, Salvador and São Luís do Maranhão.


At sea, the Brazilian action was led by Thomas Cochrane. There was a shaky beginning due to sabotage done by the significant number of Portuguese in the crews. By 1823 the navy was reformed and the Portuguese members were replaced by Brazilians (released slaves and white men under forced enlistment) and foreign mercenaries (British and Americans). The Brazilian navy succeeded in clearing the coast of the Portuguese presence and isolating the last Portuguese land troops. By the end of that year they had pursued the remaining naval colonial forces across the Atlantic as far as the shore of Portugal.

There are still today no reliable statistics related to the numbers of, for example, the total of the war casualties. However based upon historical registration and contemporary reports of some battles of this war as well as upon the admitted numbers in similar fights that happened in these times around the globe, and considering how long the Brazilian independence war lasted (22 months), estimates of all killed in action on both sides are placed from around 5,700 to 6,200.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World Countries

Ecole Nationale des Chartes

The École nationale des chartes is a French grande école which specializes in historical sciences. It was founded in 1821 and was located first at the National Archives, then at the Palais de la Sorbonne (5th arrondissement). In October 2014, it moved to 65 rue de Richelieu (University of Paris II), opposite the National Library of France. The school is administered by the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research. It holds the status of grand établissement. Its students, who are recruited by competitive examination and hold the status of trainee civil servant2, receive the qualification of archivist-paleographer after completing a thesis. They generally go on to follow a career as heritage curators in the archive and visual fields, as library curators or as lecturers and researchers in the human and social sciences. In 2005, the school also introduced Master’s degrees, for which students were recruited based on an application file, and, in 2011, doctorates.

The École des chartes was created by order of Louis XVIII on 22 February 1821, although its roots are in the Revolution and the Napoleonic period. The Revolution, during which property was confiscated, congregations were suppressed and competencies were transferred from the Church to the State, produced radical cultural changes. In 1793 the feudist Antoine Maugard approached the public instruction committee of the Convention with a proposal for a project of historical and diplomatic education. The project was never carried out, and Maugard was largely forgotten. The institution was finally created by the philologist and anthropologist Joseph Marie de Gérando, baron of the Empire and general secretary to Champagny, the Minister of the Interior. In 1807 he submitted a proposal to Napoleon for the creation of a school to train young scholars of history. Napoleon examined the proposal and declared that he wished to develop a much larger specialist history school. However, Gérando was posted to Italy on an administrative mission, and the project was interrupted. At the end of 1820, Gérando convinced Count Siméon, a philosopher and professor of law who had been state councilor under the Empire and who was at that time Minister of the Interior, of the usefulness of an institution modeled on the grandes écoles, dedicated to the study of “a branch of French literature”, the charters. The 1820s were a favorable period for the creation of the École des chartes. This was firstly because the atmosphere of nostalgia for the Middle Ages created a desire to train specialists who would, by carrying out a direct study of archives and manuscripts confiscated during the Revolution, be able to renew French historiography.
The Hôtel de Clisson and entrance to the École des chartes from 1846 to 1866.
Secondly, the need was also felt to maintain this branch of study, which stemmed from Maurist tradition, since the field was endangered by a lack of knowledgeable collaborators in the “science of charters and manuscripts”. And thirdly, during the reign of Louis XVIII, a period which saw the return of the Ultras and during which the constitutional monarchy was called into question, the political context influenced the creation of an institution whose name inevitably made explicit reference to the defense of the Charter.

Under the order of 1821, twelve students were nominated by the Minister of the Interior, based on propositions by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, and they were paid during the two years of their studies. They principally studied paleography and philology, with a purely practical aim: to be able to read and understand the documents that they would be responsible for curating. The professors and students of the school were placed under the authority of the curator of medieval manuscripts of the Royal Library, rue de Richelieu, and of the general guard of the Archives of the Kingdom.

This first experience was not very successful, mainly because no job openings were reserved for the students. The first course was implemented in two stages by the ministerial decree of 11 May (for the Royal Library course) and by the decree of 21 December 1821 (for the Archives of the Kingdom course), and was the only one run. The Académie did put forward a new list of candidates, and the course length was set at two years by the Order of 16 July 1823, but lessons had to be suspended on 19 December 1823 due to a lack of students. However, following a long period of inactivity, the Ministry of the Interior decided to re-open the school. Rives, the director of staff of the ministry, together with Dacier, drew up a report on the reorganization of the School and a draft order, proposed to Charles X by La Bourdonnaye, which resulted in the order of 11 November 1829. The school was now open to anyone who had acquired the Baccalaureate, but six to eight students were selected by competitive examination at the end of the first year. They received a salary and followed two further years of training. On completion of their studies, they received the qualification of archivist-paleographer and were reserved half of the available jobs in libraries and archives. The first valedictorian was Alexandre Teulet.

The "Guizot period" benefited the École des chartes, which soon became an important institution in the field of historical – particularly medieval – studies. On 24 March 1839 the Société de l’École des chartes was founded by Louis Douët d’Arcq, among others, and it published the Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, one of the oldest French scientific reviews, to disseminate the work carried out in the school. The Order of 31 December 1846 implemented a fundamental reorganization of the school and its study program, which then remained unchanged for more than a century. The students, who were holders of the Baccalaureate, were recruited by examination (which shortly afterwards became a competitive examination), and followed a three-year course of studies. Interdisciplinarity, an essential characteristic of the school, was then written into the reform, which required students to study six subjects, some of which were not taught anywhere else. The second innovation, a thesis, was introduced, with the first public defense being held in 1849. A surveillance council was set up, consisting of the guard of the Archives, the director of the Royal Library, the director of the School and five members of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres. The school was finally provided with a new statute. It moved to the Kingdom Archives in the hôtel de Soubise, in the oval hall and adjacent rooms of the hôtel de Clisson.
  By now, the École des chartes had become a point of reference in Europe. Its historical research methodology had been greatly modernized, as had its teaching methods, thanks to the copies of ancient documents to which it had access. The students were taught paleography, sigillography, numismatics, philology, filing for archives and libraries, historical geography, currencies, systems of weights and measures, the history of political institutions in France, archeology, civil law, canonic law and feudal law. The teaching had both a scientific and a professional aim.

Thus, by gradually integrating into the network of royal then national and departmental archive services, the graduates of the school contributed to the densification of the network and to the improvement of archivist principles. A pathway for the graduates was thus established in the archives, first implemented by the Order of 31 December 1846, then reinforced by a legislative framework providing them with a means to enforce this law. The decree of 4 February 1850 reserved the posts of departmental archivist to those holding the qualification of archivist-paleographer, while all the job posts at the National Archives (except the position of senior civil servant) were reserved for them by the decree of 14 May 1887. The same could not be said of libraries. The order of 1839 was never applied, and although the order of 1839 reserved places at the Royal Library for École des chartes graduates, fewer than 7% of them worked in a library in 1867. It was not until the end of the Second Empire, partly thanks to the work of Léopold Delisle, the general administrator of the national library, that the qualifications of the school’s graduates were recognized by libraries. Little by little, decrees and orders facilitated their access to jobs in libraries.

The school moved in 1866 into more suitable premises in the hôtel de Breteuil, rue des Francs-Bourgeois, without this move having much effect on the teaching. Seven professorships were instituted by the decree of 30 January 1869: paelography; Latin languages; bibliography; filing for libraries and archives; diplomacy; political, administrative and judiciary institutions in France; civil and canonic law of the Middle Ages and archeology of the Middle Ages. Apart from minor modifications, these remained unchanged until 1955. The school moved once again in 1897, to 19 rue de la Sorbonne, into the premises originally intended for the Paris Faculté de théologie catholique. This move brought the school geographically closer to the other research and teaching institutions based at the Sorbonne, such as the Faculté de lettres and the École pratique des hautes études.

The school had a classroom, with windows along both sides and special deep desks for paleography practice, as well as a library, in which books were available for immediate access. Athough the premises have been refurbished, the school is still located here today. During the 1920s, a number of moves to other premises were proposed, with suggestions including the hôtel de Rohan in 1924, the garden of the Institution for Deaf-Mutes (suggested by Michel Roux-Spitz), a plot on rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs, a house on rue de Vaugirard, the former Polytechnic School, and the refectory of the Bernardins. The school will move in 2015 to the Richelieu area, into new premises at 65 rue de Richelieu and 12 rue des Petits-Champs. The school was also a founding member of the Campus Condorcet, and for this reason, some of its research activities were conducted at the Aubervilliers campus.

The students of 1857
The image of the École des chartes, in political and social terms, was firmly anchored, even though it has sometimes been classified as a right-wing institution. The image of the "right-wing chartiste" originated in the figure of the "amateur", the son of a well-off family, passing through the school to kill time elegantly, or to "wait", in the words of Robert Martin du Gard, who graduated from the school in 1905. In fact, throughout the 19th century there was a discontinuity between the high-prestige training offered by the École des chartes and the lower-prestige, modestly remunerated jobs open to graduates. However, this reputation was at least partly unfounded, as demonstrated by several cases. At the time of the Dreyfus Affair, for example, the milieu of the École des chartes mirrored the divisions in French society: “Nowhere were civic quarrels more completely invested in the job of historian”. The few chartistes who were called upon as experts during the Zola process – Arthur Giry, Auguste Molinier, Paul Meyer, Paul Viollet and Gaston Paris – and who were involved in the founding of the League of Human Rights were attacked by other archivist-paleographers, including Robert de Lasteyrie, Gabriel Hanotaux and Émile Couard, as well as by their students at the École des chartes. The variety of engagements at the time of the Dreyfus Affair did not necessarily reflect the political sensitivities of those involved, and their motives were political as well as professional, jeopardizing the very training and methods of the school. Although it was conservative to some extent, the school admitted a female student, Geneviève Acloque, in 1906, long before the other grandes écoles had started admitting women. The École des chartes may have been perceived as a bastion of the French Action during the interwar period, although several relatively prominent alumni, such as Georges Bataille or Roger Martin du Gard, seem to have been more left-leaning. During the Second World War, there were therefore more École des chartes students and teachers on the side of the Resistance than on the side of Vichy. Bertrand Joly concludes that the school was largely neutral, in that each “wing” seems to have been equally represented, a neutrality that was also justified by the fact that the school was not big enough for its members to have a significant effect on national politics.

The École des charte’s entrance examination and internal examinations were reformed at the beginning of the 1930s. At this time, the school began offering the qualification of diplôme technique de bibliothécaire (DTB) 34, which was required to obtain a job as a librarian in first-category municipal libraries or university libraries. The school opened its classes on the history of books and bibliography to external students preparing for the qualification. This practice continued until 1950, when the diplôme supérieur de bibliothécaire (DSB) replaced the DTB as the qualification for librarians.

  The mid-20th century was a difficult period for the school as it struggled to modernize. Its student numbers dropped sharply (there were only 11 archivist-paleographers in the class of 1959). Its training was considered to be outdated and lacking in the latest approaches to history, notably the historiographic revival of the Annales School. It was not until the 1990s, when the entrance examination and teaching were reformed and a new policy was introduced, that the school really saw a revival. It entered a period of development under the direction of Yves-Marie Bercé (1992-2001) and Anita Guerreau-Jalabert (2001-2006). The current development of the school is based on solid training in new technologies and their application to the conservation of cultural heritage, and closer, more structured links with French universities and similar institutions in other European countries. The teaching has also been restructured to be better suited to the current demands of scientific research and evolution in conservation jobs. This approach will be introduced gradually as of the academic year 2014-15.

Since the current director, Jean-Michel Leniaud, took up his post in 2011, the school has once more reformed its entrance examination to focus student recruitment on the specifics of the training, while also expanding the training to a broader field of human and social sciences, adapting it to the European context and recruitment conditions within conservation organizations.

The range of subjects taught, which was expanded in the 1990s to include history of art, now also includes archeology, history of contemporary law, and history of property law. The course has been extended from three years to three years and nine months, aligning training in fundamental scientific techniques with empowerment in conservation jobs. In no other social and human sciences institution is the study of history, philology and law integrated to this extent into the conservation of archives, books monuments and works of art, be they inventories, historic monuments or museums.

As well as improving the recruitment process and upgrading the training of future archivist-paleographers, the school has introduced specialized Master’s programs focusing on digital technologies adapted to the humanities. It has recently introduced a continuing training service that takes into account the validation des acquis de l’expérience (VAE) (a certification accrediting work experience). The school’s collaboration with the Établissement Public de Coopération Scientific (Campus Condorcet Paris-Aubervilliers), the ComUE heSam University and the Sorbonne Universities demonstrates the new directions that it has taken in recent years. To this end, it has modernized its administration, implemented ambitious communications programs and established a new campus opposite the National Library on rue de Richelieu. It is thus preparing to fulfill as effectively as possible the public service role assigned to it by the government.

The École nationale des chartes is regulated by the statute of 27 January 1984, modified by statute no. 2013-660 of 22 July 2013 which relates to higher education and research. Article 3 of decree no. 87-832 of 8 October 1897 modified by decree no. 2005-1751 of 30 December 2005 defines the missions of the school as follows: "The mission of the École nationale des chartes is to provide training for the scientific staff of archives and libraries. It trains those who contribute to scientific knowledge and the protection of national heritage. It engages in the training and research of students in the human and social sciences, particularly in disciplines relating to critical study, exploitation, conservation and communication of historic sources.”

The governing bodies are composed of the director of the School, the administrative council and the scientific council. The director is selected from among the directors of studies of the École pratique des hautes études, the École nationale des chartes and the École française d’Extrême-Orient, or from among professors of the universities and members of affiliated institutions. The director is appointed by decree of the President of the Republic for a term of five years, renewable once under the conditions of article. The director is assisted by a director of studies and a general director of services.

Students of the École des Chartes on a study trip to Saint-Leu d'Esserent (1903).
The administrative council, consisting of 21 members, includes four unelected members, ten members appointed by the minister responsible for higher education, two of whom are members of the Institute, and seven elected members, three of whom are teachers, two of whom are IATOS (non-teaching staff) and two of whom are students. The scientific council37, headed by the director of the School, includes all the teachers who are directors of studies, as well as other unelected members. It also includes fifteen appointed members, five of whom are members of the Institute, as well as an elected teacher and a student representative. The Paris URFIST (an inter-academic research and training body) and the Committee of Historical and Scientific Work are affiliated with the l'École des chartes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Concordat between Vatican and Prussia
Concordats with individual states of Germany

Concordats with individual German states were concluded even prior to the unification of Germany in the 1870s.

- Bavaria 1817
- Prussia 1821
- Würtemberg, Baden, Hesse, Nassau, free city of Frankfurt, Mainz, Saxony, Oldenburg,
  Waldeck, Bremen and Lübeck 1821 (multilateral), and again 1827
- Oldenburg 1830
- Hannover 1834

In addition to the Reichskonkordat at the federal level, there are at present concordats between the Holy See and 13 German states (Länder). This is because the individual states of the German federation have competencies in legislation as to education, culture and, (partially), finance.
In 1929 Prussia and the Holy See signed the Prussian Concordat (German: Preußenkonkordat) still valid for formerly Prussian territory within some of its successor states. Baden signed its concordat in 1932. The Reich's Concordat, affirmed as valid by West German jurisdiction in 1957, applied some contents of Baden's concordat to Hesse, Württemberg and the Diocese of Meissen, then comprising all of Saxony and parts of Thuringia.

German states with concordats are Baden-Württemberg (1932), Bavaria (1817–1924), Brandenburg (2003), Bremen (2003), Hamburg (2005), Lower Saxony (1965-1973-1989-1993), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (1997), North Rhine-Westphalia (1929-1956-1984), Rhineland-Palatinate (1929-1969-1973), Saarland (1929-1975-1985), Saxony (1996), Saxony-Anhalt (1998), Schleswig-Holstein (2009) and Thuringia (1997).

  Three states, Berlin (1970), Hesse (1963–1974), and Rhineland-Palatinate (1975), have agreements with Catholic bishoprics.

There have been three separate waves of concordats. The last one was set off by the dissolution of East Germany, when its 5 pre-war German states were reconstituted, joined the Federal Republic of Germany and entered agreements with the Holy See. Since then 3 of the northernmost German states, with a small Catholic minority, have also concluded concordats.

In recent years some of the educational provisions of the Bavarian concordat have aroused controversy. Protests were sparked by the Catholic Church veto in 2008 of an academically well-regarded nominee for president of Germany's only Catholic University. This was made possible by Article 5 of the Bavarian concordat. Another part of the same concordat, Article 3 on "concordat chairs" was unsuccessfully challenged in court in 2009. This sets up Church-controlled professorships at state universities in theology, philosophy, pedagogy and the social sciences.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baker Eddy Mary

Mary Baker Eddy, née Mary Baker (born July 16, 1821, Bow, near Concord, N.H., U.S.—died Dec. 3, 1910, Chestnut Hill, Mass.), Christian religious reformer and founder of the religious denomination known as Christian Science.


Mary Baker Eddy
  Her spiritual quest
Mary Baker Eddy’s family background and life until her “discovery” of Christian Science in 1866 greatly influenced her interest in religious reform. She was born to devout Congregationalists at a time when Puritan piety was a real, though residual, force in the religious life of New England. She struggled with serious illness from childhood, grieved over the death of a favourite brother when she was 20, became a widow at 22 after only a half year of marriage to George Glover, and in 1849 lost both her mother and her fiancé within three weeks of each other.

Her marriage in 1853 to Daniel Patterson eventually broke down, ending in divorce 20 years later after he deserted her. In 1856 she was plunged into virtual invalidism after Patterson and her father conspired to separate her from her only child, a 12-year-old son from her first marriage. She would not see her son again for nearly 25 years, and they met only a few times thereafter.

Her understanding of her personal and physical misfortunes was greatly shaped by her Congregationalist upbringing. Her proclivity for religion was evident early on, and study of the Bible was the bedrock of her religious life. She was especially influenced by ministers in the “New Light” tradition of Jonathan Edwards, which emphasized the heart’s outflowing response to God’s majesty and love.

Yet, as a teenager, she rebelled with others of her generation against the stark predestinarian Calvinism of what she called her father’s “relentless theology.”

But whereas most Protestants who rejected Calvinism gravitated toward belief in a benign God, Eddy needed something more. Although she too believed in a benign God, she continued to ask how the reality of a God of love could possibly be reconciled with the existence of a world filled with so much misery and pain. She thus found herself confronting perhaps the most basic problem undermining Christian faith in her time.
The process of “discovery”
Eddy’s spiritual quest took an unusual direction during the 1850s with the new medical system of homeopathy. Losing faith in medical systems based on materialistic premises, she hit on what some today would call the placebo effect. Her conviction that the cause of disease was rooted in the human mind and that it was in no sense God’s will was confirmed by her contact from 1862 to 1865 with Phineas P. Quimby of Maine, a pioneer in what would today be called suggestive therapeutics. The degree of Quimby’s influence on her has been controversial, but, as his own son affirmed, her intensely religious preoccupations remained distinct from the essentially secular cast of Quimby’s thought. Though personally loyal to Quimby, she soon recognized that his healing method was based in mesmerism, or mental suggestion, rather than in the biblical Christianity to which she was so firmly bound.
Injured in a severe fall shortly after Quimby’s death in early 1866, she turned, as she later recalled, to a Gospel account of healing and experienced a moment of spiritual illumination and discovery that brought not only immediate recovery but a new direction to her life. “That short experience,” she later wrote, “included a glimpse of the great fact that I have since tried to make plain to others, namely, Life in and of Spirit; this Life being the sole reality of existence. I learned that mortal thought evolves a subjective state which it names matter, thereby shutting out the true sense of Spirit.”

While the precise extent of her injuries is unclear, the transforming effect of the experience is beyond dispute. From 1866 on, she gained increasing conviction that she had made a spiritual discovery of overwhelming authority and power.

  The next nine years of scriptural study, healing work, and teaching climaxed in 1875 with the publication of her major work, Science and Health, which she regarded as spiritually inspired.
And it was in this major work that Eddy eventually included the basic tenets of the church:

1. As adherents of Truth, we take the inspired Word of the Bible as our sufficient guide to eternal Life.

2. We acknowledge and adore one supreme and infinite God. We acknowledge His Son, one Christ; the Holy Ghost or divine Comforter; and man in God’s image and likeness.

3. We acknowledge God’s forgiveness of sin in the destruction of sin and the spiritual understanding that casts out evil as unreal. But the belief in sin is punished so long as the belief lasts.

4. We acknowledge Jesus’ atonement as the evidence of divine, efficacious Love, unfolding man’s unity with God through Christ Jesus, the Way-shower; and we acknowledge that man is saved through Christ, through Truth, Life, and Love as demonstrated by the Galilean Prophet in healing the sick and overcoming sin and death.

5. We acknowledge that the crucifixion of Jesus and his resurrection served to uplift faith to understand eternal Life, even the allness of Soul, Spirit, and the nothingness of matter.

6. And we solemnly promise to watch, and pray for that Mind to be in us which was also in Christ Jesus; to do unto others as we would have them do unto us; and to be merciful, just, and pure.
Although the first edition of Science and Health contained the essential structure of her teachings, Eddy continued to refine her statement of Christian Science in the years to come.

For the rest of her life she continued to revise this “textbook” of Christian Science as the definitive statement of her teaching. In 1883 she added the words “with Key to the Scriptures” to the book’s title to emphasize her contention that Science and Health did not stand alone but opened the way to the continuing power and truth of biblical revelation, especially the life and work of Jesus Christ.

The Mother Church of Christian Science, Boston.
Work as founder
To “reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing” was the stated purpose of the Church of Christ, Scientist, which she founded with 15 students in Lynn, Mass., in 1879. A promising move to Boston in 1882 began with a jolting setback: the death of her third husband, Asa Gilbert Eddy, on whose support she had relied since their marriage in 1877. Nonetheless, during her years in Boston from 1882 to 1889, Christian Science began to make an impact on American religious life. Boston was an intellectual centre where new ideas, especially in religion, traveled fast.

Mary Baker Eddy, engraving, 1908.
  Eddy contributed to the ferment in the religious life of New England, especially since she maintained that her teaching, while thoroughly Christian, offered a distinct alternative to both liberal and orthodox forms of Christianity. The demands on her were enormous during this period. Eddy taught hundreds of students in the Massachusetts Metaphysical College, for which she obtained a charter in 1881. She continued to revise Science and Health and wrote a number of shorter works, including numerous articles for a monthly magazine she founded in 1883. And she also preached intermittently at Christian Science church services, which were attracting a growing number of disaffected mainstream Protestants.

Her successes in the 1880s, especially her conversions of mainstream Protestants, exposed her to growing criticism from concerned Boston ministers. The fledgling Christian Science movement was further threatened by internal schism and the rivalry of various “mind-cure” groups that appropriated her terminology but sought healing not through divine help but through the powers of the human mind, which she saw as engendering disease in the first place. In response to these challenges, Eddy’s writings repeatedly underscore the biblical basis of her teachings and the Christian demands of practicing it. She also explicitly differentiated Christian Science from theosophy and spiritualism, both antecedents of 20th-century “New Age” movements.

Eddy moved to Concord, N.H., in 1889, and eventually settled into a house, called Pleasant View, with a small staff. During the next decade she gained both authority within the movement and public recognition outside it. In 1892 she reorganized the church she had founded in 1879, and over the next decade she established its present structure as The Mother Church—The First Church of Christ, Scientist—and its worldwide branches. In 1895 she published the Manual of The Mother Church, a slim book of bylaws that she continued to revise until her death and that she intended would govern the church in perpetuity.

Her growing public stature as a religious leader, together with the practical challenge her teachings posed to conventional religion and medicine, made her the subject of mounting controversy, as seen in a set of articles in 1902 and 1903 (published in book form in 1907 under the title Christian Science) by Mark Twain, who severely criticized Eddy while speaking at points warmly of her teaching. There was also a highly misleading series that ran in McClure’s Magazine for two years and an unsuccessful lawsuit against her (the so-called “Next Friends Suit” of 1907) that Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World newspaper orchestrated to question her mental competence.


Mary Baker Eddy, engraving, 1908.
  Last years and achievement
Despite these personal attacks and occasional ill health (induced at least in part, she felt, by the hostility that fueled such attacks), Eddy accomplished much during the last decade of her long life. She put Science and Health through its last major revisions, completed the formal structuring of her church by entrusting greater responsibilities to its Board of Directors, and in 1908 founded The Christian Science Monitor, an international newspaper of recognized excellence.

Eddy’s death in 1910 did not end the controversy over her character or her contribution to Christian thought and practice. Today’s interest in women’s studies, however, is prompting a fresh look at her life and influence, and feminists have often emphasized that her work had the effect of empowering women.

Indeed, as she acknowledged, hers was a life of protest against conventional assumptions both in religion and in medicine. While she was not a feminist per se, she acted outside of conventional gender roles by founding and leading a significant American denomination, and she did support some feminist causes, such as woman suffrage and the right of women to hold property.

In fact, she was praised by such figures as Clara Barton and Susan B. Anthony, who expressed some interest in her teaching as well.

Yet her aim was not to overturn traditional gender roles but to reinvigorate Christianity—to restore the role of spiritual healing in a living Christian faith. It is this tradition of spiritual healing that is perhaps the most controversial part of Eddy’s legacy. Science is only beginning to grapple with some of the long-term questions raised by the church’s practice of spiritual healing. These questions concern not only the medical evidence for spiritual healings, many of which have involved undiagnosed and psychosomatic disorders, but also the significance for religion of medically diagnosed conditions. While Eddy’s character and the teachings of her church remain controversial, no single individual has focused more attention on this area of Christian experience.

Stephen Gottschalk

Encyclopædia Britannica

George Grote: "Statement of the Question of Parliamentary Reform"
Grote George

George Grote, (born Nov. 17, 1794, Clay Hill, near Beckenham, Kent, Eng.—died June 18, 1871, London), English historian, noted for his works on ancient Greece.


George Grote
  At the age of 16 Grote joined his father’s bank in London and worked in it until 1843, using his spare time to perfect his command of Greek and to learn German, economics, and philosophy. From 1832 to 1841 he was a member of Parliament for the City of London.

Having already published works on contemporary politics and philosophy, Grote devoted himself entirely to the History of Greece, which was published in 12 volumes between 1846 and 1856; it ended with the events of 301 bc.

It was quickly recognized (in the original or in translation) as the best Greek history in any language, and its authority remained unchallenged for almost half a century. Grote, it may be noted, never visited Greece.

In 1849 Grote reassumed an earlier active interest in University College, London. He became its treasurer in 1860 and its president in 1868.

From 1862 until his death he was also vice-chancellor of the University of London. He refused a peerage that Prime Minister William Gladstone offered him in 1869. Grote was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's (Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich ) Elements of the Philosophy of Right (German: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) was published in 1820, though the book's original title page dates it to 1821. This work is Hegel's most mature statement of his legal, moral, social and political philosophy and is an expansion upon concepts only briefly dealt with in the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, published in 1817 (and again in 1827 and 1830). Law provides for Hegel the cornerstone of the modern state. As such, he criticized Karl Ludwig von Haller's The Restoration of the Science of the State, in which the latter claimed that law was superficial, because natural law and the "right of the most powerful" was sufficient (§258). The absence of law characterized for Hegel despotism, whether monarchist or ochlocracist (§278).
The Philosophy of Right (as it is usually called) begins with a discussion of the concept of the free will and argues that the free will can only realize itself in the complicated social context of property rights and relations, contracts, moral commitments, family life, the economy, the legal system, and the polity. A person is not truly free, in other words, unless he is a participant in all of these different aspects of the life of the state.

The bulk of the book is devoted to discussing Hegel's three spheres of versions of 'right,' each one larger than the preceding ones and encompassing them. The first sphere is abstract right (Recht), in which Hegel discusses the idea of 'non-interference' as a way of respecting others. He deems this insufficient and moves onto the second sphere, morality (Moralität).

Under this, Hegel proposes that humans reflect their own subjectivity of others in order to respect them. The third sphere, ethical life (Sittlichkeit), is Hegel's integration of individual subjective feelings and universal notions of right. Under ethical life, Hegel then launches into a lengthy discussion about family, civil society, and the state.

Hegel also argues that the state itself is subsumed under the higher totality of world history, in which individual states arise, conflict with each other, and eventually fall. The course of history is apparently toward the ever-increasing actualization of freedom; each successive historical epoch corrects certain failures of the earlier ones. At the end of his Lectures on the Philosophy of History, Hegel leaves open the possibility that history has yet to accomplish certain tasks related to the inner organization of the state.

There were a number of issues that arose during the translation of the text.

Title page of the 1821 original work.
Most notably the phrase that is contained in the addition to §258, which was initially translated as "The state is the march of God through the world" as well as being translated thus: "The existence of the state is the presence of God upon the earth". From these early translations came the criticism that Hegel justifies authoritarian or even totalitarian forms of government; Benedetto Croce, whose thought had a strong influence on Mussolini, bases his Hegelian revival on this point. However, Walter Kaufmann argues that the correct translation reads as follows: "It is the way of God in the world, that there should be a state". This suggests that the state, rather than being godly, is part of the divine strategy, not a mere product of human endeavor. Kaufmann claims that Hegel's original meaning of the sentence is not a carte blanche for state dominance and brutality but merely a reference to the state's importance as part of the process of history.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Hegel Friedrich

"The Philosophy of History"
  IDEAS that Changed the World

Myths and Legends
History of Religion
History of Philosophy
James Mill: "Elements of Political Economy"
Mill James

James Mill, (born April 6, 1773, Northwater Bridge, Forfarshire, Scot.—died June 23, 1836, London, Eng.), Scottish philosopher, historian, and economist. He was prominent as a representative of philosophical radicalism, a school of thought also known as Utilitarianism, which emphasized the need for a scientific basis for philosophy as well as a humanist approach to politics and economics. His eldest son was the celebrated Utilitarian thinker John Stuart Mill.

After distinguishing himself as a Greek scholar at the University of Edinburgh, James Mill was licensed a Presbyterian preacher in 1798. He soon turned to teaching, however, and embarked on historical and philosophical studies. In 1802 he went to London to devote himself to a career in journalism. In 1804 he wrote a pamphlet on the corn trade, arguing against a bounty on the exportation of grain, and in 1806 he began his History of British India, 3 vol. (1817).

Mill became acquainted with Jeremy Bentham, who founded Utilitarianism, in 1808. As Bentham’s chief companion and ally for many years, he adopted Bentham’s principles in their entirety and did more to propagate them and to oppose the beginnings of Romanticism than anyone else. He was a regular contributor (1806–18) to the Anti-Jacobin Review, the British Review, the Eclectic Review, and the Edinburgh Review (1808–13).
In 1811 he helped edit the periodical Philanthropist with the English writer William Allen, contributing his opinions on education, freedom of the press, and prison discipline.

  He also participated in the discussions that led to the founding of London University in 1825.
In 1814 Mill undertook to write various articles on politics, law, and education for the six-volume Supplement to the 4th, 5th, and 6th editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica. As reprints they enjoyed a wide circulation in his time. One of the articles, “government,” had considerable influence on public opinion in the 1820s. In it, Mill concluded that a representative democracy based on wide suffrage is a necessary element of good government. “Government,” which was possibly the most succinct statement of the political theory of the philosophical radicals, helped prepare the ground for passage of the first Reform Bill by Parliament in 1832.

In 1819, two years after Mill’s History of British India appeared, he was appointed an official in India House, despite his drastic criticisms in the History of British rule in India. He rose gradually through the ranks until he was appointed head of the examiner’s office in 1830. The History, his major literary achievement, was the first full historical treatment of the British conquest of India.

Mill harshly criticized the British administration of India, and during his 17 years with the India House he helped completely reform the system of government in the colony. However, the History’s severe Utilitarian analysis of Indian civilization also popularized among European readers an image of the subcontinent as perpetually backward and undeveloped. Mill never actually visited India.
Mill was also influential in English politics. His writings and his personal connections with radical politicians helped determine the change of view from theories of the rights of man and the absolute equality of men, as promulgated by the French Revolution, to the claiming of securities for good government through wide extension of the franchise. His Elements of Political Economy (1821), an especially precise and lucid work, summarizes the views of the philosophical radicals, based primarily on the work of the economist David Ricardo. In this work Mill maintained: (1) that the chief problem of political reformers is to limit the increase of population, on the assumption that capital does not naturally increase at the same rate as population; (2) that the value of a thing depends entirely on the quantity of labour put into it; and (3) that what is now known as the “unearned increment” of land is a proper object for taxation. The enunciation of the second of these propositions is important in view of the use made of it by Karl Marx. Mill developed Bentham’s doctrines by his explanation of the association of ideas. This theory, presented in Mill’s Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind, 2 vol. (1829), centres on the interrelatedness of mental concepts.

Encyclopædia Britannica

James Mill: "Elements of Political Economy"
Saint-Simon Henri: "Du Systeme industriel"

Saint-Simon: "Du Systeme industriel"
see also: Henri de Saint-Simon
Champollion deciphers Egyptian hieroglyphics using Rosetta Stone
Champollion Jean-François

Jean-François Champollion, (born December 23, 1790, Figeac, France—died March 4, 1832, Paris), French historian and linguist who founded scientific Egyptology and played a major role in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs.


Jean-François Champollion
  At age 16 Champollion had already mastered six ancient Oriental languages, in addition to Latin and Greek, and delivered a paper before the academy of Grenoble, France, in which he asserted, incorrectly, that Coptic was the ancient language of Egypt. At 19, following studies in Paris, he became professor of history at the lycée of Grenoble (1809–16).

Deciphering hieroglyphs became his constant preoccupation. Following the modest success of the English physicist Thomas Young in attempting to decipher the Rosetta Stone, which was engraved with a Greek text along with hieroglyphic and demotic versions, Champollion at last began to piece together the puzzle of the hieroglyphs.

In 1821–22 he started publishing papers on the hieroglyphic and hieratic elements of the Rosetta Stone, and he went on to establish an entire list of hieroglyphic signs and their Greek equivalents. He was first to recognize that some of the signs were alphabetic, some syllabic, and some determinative—i.e., standing for a whole idea or object previously expressed. Though many doors still awaited opening, the key to understanding ancient Egypt had at last been found. His brilliant discoveries met with opposition, however, often bitter and personal, from some other scholars.

Champollion became curator of the Egyptian collection at the Louvre (1826), conducted an archaeological expedition to Egypt (1828), and received the chair of Egyptian antiquities, created specially for him, at the Collège de France
(1831). In addition to an Egyptian grammar (1836–41) and dictionary (1841–43), his published works include Précis du système hiéroglyphique des anciens Égyptiens (1824; “Primer of the Hieroglyphic System of the Ancient Egyptians”) and Panthéon égyptien; ou, collection des personnages mythologiques de l’ancienne Égypte (incomplete, 1823–25; “Egyptian Pantheon; or, Collection of the Mythological Figures of Ancient Egypt”).

Encyclopædia Britannica


The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum.
Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone, ancient Egyptian stone bearing inscriptions in several languages and scripts; their decipherment led to the understanding of hieroglyphic writing. An irregularly shaped stone of black granite 3 feet 9 inches (114 cm) long and 2 feet 4.5 inches (72 cm) wide, and broken in antiquity, it was found near the town of Rosetta (Rashīd), about 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Alexandria. It was discovered by a Frenchman named Bouchard or Boussard in August 1799. After the French surrender of Egypt in 1801, it passed into British hands and is now in the British Museum in London.

The inscriptions, apparently composed by the priests of Memphis, summarize benefactions conferred by Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205–180 bce) and were written in the ninth year of his reign in commemoration of his accession to the throne. Inscribed in two languages, Egyptian and Greek, and three writing systems, hieroglyphics, demotic script (a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphics), and the Greek alphabet, it provided a key to the translation of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing.

The decipherment was largely the work of Thomas Young of England and Jean-François Champollion of France. The hieroglyphic text on the Rosetta Stone contains six identical cartouches (oval figures enclosing hieroglyphs). Young deciphered the cartouche as the name of Ptolemy and proved a long-held assumption that the cartouches found in other inscriptions were the names of royalty. By examining the direction in which the bird and animal characters faced, Young also discovered the way in which hieroglyphic signs were to be read.

In 1821–22 Champollion, starting where Young left off, began to publish papers on the decipherment of hieratic and hieroglyphic writing based on study of the Rosetta Stone and eventually established an entire list of signs with their Greek equivalents. He was the first Egyptologist to realize that some of the signs were alphabetic, some syllabic, and some determinative, standing for the whole idea or object previously expressed. He also established that the hieroglyphic text of the Rosetta Stone was a translation from the Greek, not, as had been thought, the reverse. The work of these two men established the basis for the translation of all future Egyptian hieroglyphic texts.

Encyclopædia Britannica
The Rosetta Stone, basalt slab from Fort Saint-Julien, Rosetta (Rashīd), Egypt, 196 bce; in the British Museum, London.

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