Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1819 Part III NEXT-1820 Part I    
 
 
     
1820 - 1829
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820-1829
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part I
Ferdinand VII
Trienio Liberal
Caroline of Brunswick
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
Henri, Count of Chambord
Cato Street Conspiracy
"Missouri Compromise"
Congress of Troppau
Liberal Revolution in Portugal
Ecuadorian War of Independence
Sucre Antonio Jose
Engels Friedrich
Erskine Thomas
Gorres Joseph
Spencer Herbert
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1820 Part II
Keats: "Ode to a Nightingale"
Pushkin: "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Fet Afanasy
Scott: "Ivanhoe"
Shelley: "Prometheus Unbound"
William Blake: The Book of Job
Tenniel John
Discovery of the Venus de Milo
Fromentin Eugene
Vieuxtemps Henri
Henri Vieuxtemps - Elegy for Viola and Piano Op.30
Henri Vieuxtemps
Moffat Robert
Florence Nightingale
Anthony Susan Brownell
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part I
Congress of Laibach
Victor Emmanuel I
Felix Charle
Battle of Novara
Greek War of Independence
Greek Revolution Timeline
Battle of Alamana
Battle of Carabobo
Missouri
Independence of Brazil
Ecole Nationale des Chartes
Concordats with individual states of Germany
Baker Eddy Mary
Grote George
Hegel: "Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts"
Mill James
Champollion Jean-François
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1821 Part II
Baudelaire Charles
Charles Baudelaire
"The Flowers of Evil"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Spy"
Dostoevsky Fyodor
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"The Idiot"
Flaubert Gustave
Gustave Flaubert
"
Madame Bovary
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
William Hazlitt: "Table-Talk"
Quincey Thomas
Thomas de Quincey: "Confessions of an English Opium Eater"
Thomas De Quincey 
"Confessions of an English Opium-Eater"
Shelley: "Adonais"
Nekrasov Nekolay
Brown Ford Madox
Ford Madox Brown
Weber: "Der Freischutz"
Helmholtz Hermann
Seebeck Thomas Johann
Virchow Rudolf
Wheatstone Charles
"The Guardian"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part I
Chios Massacre
Battle of Dervenakia
Grant Ulysses
Iturbide Augustin
Congress of Verona
Colebrooke Henry Thomas
Fourier Joseph
Poncelet Jean-Victor
Goncourt Edmond
Nodier Charles
Vigny Alfred-Victor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1822 Part II
Delacroix: "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx"
Martin John
John Martin
Franck Cesar
Cesar Franck - Prelude, Chorale and Fugue
Cesar Franck
Royal Academy of Music, London
Schubert: Symphony No. 8 ("The Unfinished")
Mendel Gregor
Pasteur Louis
Schliemann Heinrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part I
Federal Republic of Central America
Monroe Doctrine
Leo XII
Renan Ernest
Ernest Renan
"The Life of Jesus"
Fenimore Cooper: "The Pioneers"
Ostrovski Alexander
Petofi Sandor
Yonge Charlotte Mary
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1823 Part II
Ferdinand Waldmuller: "Portrait of Beethoven"
Beethoven: "Missa Solemnis"
Bishop Henry Rowley
Bishop "Home! Sweet Home!"
Schubert: "Rosamunde"
Weber: "Euryanthe"
Babbage Charles
Macintosh Charles
Navigation of the Niger
Oudney Walter
Denham Dixon
Clapperton Bain Hugh
"The Lancet"
Royal Thames Yacht Club
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part I
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826)
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
First Siege of Missolonghi
Constitution of Mexico
Battle of Ayacucho
Bockh August
Botta Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Dumas Alexandre, fils
Landor Walter Savage
Walter Scott: "Redgauntlet"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part II
Delacroix: "The Massacre at Chios"
John Flaxman: "Pastoral Apollo"
Ingres: "Vow of Louis XIII"
Israels Joseph
Joseph Israels
Overbeck: "Christ's entry into Jerusalem"
Gerome Jean-Leon
Jean-Leon Gerome
Boulanger Gustave
Gustave Boulanger
Girodet Anne-Louis
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1824 Part III
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
Bruckner Anton
Anton Bruckner - Locus Iste
Anton Bruckner
Smetana Bedrich
Smetana - Die Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
Aspdin Joseph
Carnot Sadi
Thomson William
The Hume and Hovell expedition
Hume Hamilton
Hovell William Hilton
Athenaeum Club, London
"Le Globe"
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part I
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Third Siege of Missolonghi
Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 1825
Uruguay became independent of Brazil (1825)
Kruger Paul
Maximilian I
Ludwig I of Bavaria
Nicholas I
Decembrist revolt in Russia
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part II
Lasalle Ferdinand
William Hazlitt: "The Spirit of the Age"
Manzoni: "The Betrothed"
Meyer Conrad Ferdinand
Pepys Samuel: "The Diaries of Samuel Pepys"
Pushkin: "Boris Godunov"
Tegner Esaias
Esaias Tegner: "Frithjofs Saga"
Constable: "Leaping Horse"
Collinson James
James Collinson
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1825 Part III
Boieldieu: "La Dame blanche"
Strauss II Johann , the "Waltz King"
Johan Strauss - Blue Danube Waltz
Johann Strauss II, the "Waltz King"
Charcot Jean Martin
Gurney Goldsworthy
Stockton and Darlington Railway
The Desert
Caillie Rene-Auguste
Laing Alexander Gordon
John Franklin Canadian and Arctic expedition
Horse-bus
Trade Union
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part I
The Sortie of Missolonghi
Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani
Treaty of Yandabo
Pedro I
Maria II, Queen of Portugal
Akkerman Convention
Congress of Panama
Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828
Zollverein
Khan Dost Mohammad
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1826 Part II
Liebknecht Wilhelm
Ruan Yuan
Fenimore Cooper: "The Last of the Mohicans"
Benjamin Disraeli: "Vivian Grey"
Scheffel Josef Viktor
Scott: "Woodstock"
Moreau Gustave
Gustave Moreau
Weber: "Oberon"
Nobili Leopoldo
Unverdorben Otto
Raffles Stamford
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part I
Battle of Phaleron
Kapodistrias Ioannis Antonios
Siege of the Acropolis (1826–27)
Treaty of London
Battle of Navarino
Mahmud II
Russo-Persian War - Campaign of 1827
Coster Charles
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1827 Part II
Bocklin Arnold
Arnold Bocklin
Constable: "The Cornfield"
Hunt William Holman
William Holman Hunt
Audubon John James
Audubon: "Birds of North America"
Baer Karl Ernst
Bright Richard
Lister Joseph
Niepce Nicephore
Ohm Georg Simon
Ressel Joseph
Simpson James
Wohler Friedrich
Timbuktu
Baedeker Karl
"London Evening Standard"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part I
Ypsilantis Alexander
Michael
Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
"Tariff of Abominations"
Treaty of Montevideo
Guerrero Vicente
Lange Friedrich Albert
Muller Karl Otfried
Taine Hippolyte Adolphe
Noah Webster "American Dictionary of the English Language"
About Edmond
Alexandre Dumas pere: "Les Trois Mousquetaires"
Ibsen Henrik
Meredith George
George Meredith 
"The Egoist"
Oliphant Margaret
Tolstoy Leo
Leo Tolstoy
"The Kreutzer Sonata"
Verne Jules
Jules Verne
"Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
"The Children of Captain Grant"
"The Mysterious Island"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1828 Part II
Bonington Richard Parkes
Richard Parkes Bonington
Rossetti Dante Gabriel
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Stevens Alfred
Alfred Stevens
Stuart Gilbert
Gilbert Stuart
Auber: "La Muette de Portici"
Marschner: "Der Vampire"
Abel Niels Henrik
Burdon-Sanderson John
Cohn Ferdinand
De Vinne Theodore
Stewart Balfour
Swan Joseph
Dunant Henri
Hauser Kaspar
Working Men's Party
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part I
Schurz Carl
Biddle Nicholas
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
First Hellenic Republic
Treaty of Adrianople
Attwood Thomas
Bustamante Anastasio
O’Connell Daniel
Gran Colombia–Peru War (1828-1829)
Benson Edward White
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act
Gardiner Samuel Rawson
Pius VIII
Balzac: "Les Chouans"
Goethe: "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre"
Jefferson Joseph  
Edgar Allan Poe: "Al Araaf"
Salvini Tommaso
Scott: "Anne of Geierstein"
Timrod Henry
Warner Charles Dudley
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part II
Feuerbach Anselm
Anselm Feuerbach
Millais John Everett
John Everett Millais
Gottschalk Louis
Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Grande Tarantelle
Louis Gottschalk
Rossini: "William Tell"
Rubinstein Anton
Rubinstein - Piano Concerto No. 1
Anton Rubinstein
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1829 Part III
Cantor Moritz Benedikt
Dobereiner Johann Wolfgang
Dreyse Nikolaus
Henry Joseph
Priessnitz Vincenz
Hydropathy, Hydrotherapy
Kekule August
Mitchell Silas Weir
Smithson James
Booth William
Salvation Army
Shillibeer George
Flong
Suttee
 
 
 

Ludwig van Beethoven
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1820-1829  History at a Glance
 
 

 
 
1820
 
 
"THIS MOMENTOUS QUESTION, LIKE A FIRE BELL IN THE NIGHT,
AWAKENED AND FILLED ME WITH TERROR."

Thomas Jefferson, third president of the US, on the implications of the Missouri Compromise in a letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820
 
 
AS THE UNITED STATES began the settlement of western territories, the issue of slavery could not be ignored. Most of the northern states had abolished the practice, but the southern states had become increasingly dependent on slave labor. When the Missouri territory petitioned for statehood in 1817, it caused a political crisis over whether the federal government had the right to restrict slavery in this territory. The solution was the Missouri Compromise, which allowed slavery in Missouri, but not in any new state north of 36°30" latitude.
 
 
Much of Europe, meanwhile, was convulsed by political unrest, with revolts in the Italian states, Portugal, France, and the Low Countries. In Spain, Ferdinand VII had returned to the throne in 1814, rejecting the new constitution and arresting liberal leaders. Following public unrest, Ferdinand was forced to accept the 1812 Constitution, marking the start of the Trienio Liberal—three years of a liberal regime (1820-23). In 1823, Frances Louis XVIII-who
had been restored to the throne—sent in troops to "free" Ferdinand. These soldiers toppled the liberal regime, and returned Ferdinand to power.
 
 

Egyptian Mameluke soldiers were former slaves. By invading Sudan, Egypt hoped to add Sudanese captives to their ranks.
 
Egypt invaded its southern neighbor, Sudan. Pasha Muhammad Ali wanted Sudanese gold and slaves for his army. By 1821, Sudan had fallen and the Egyptian Empire extended down the Nile to what is now Uganda.
 
 

Hans Christian 0rsted demonstrates his findings on electromametism.
 
1820 Electromagnetism Found

Because of some similarities between electricity and magnetism, scientists began experimenting to see if they could find a connection between the two. In 1820, Danish physicist Hans Christian 0rsted stumbled upon one, and throughout the following decade his experiments would be expanded upon to form the electromagnetism theory. Electricity and magnetism both have opposites—electricity has positive and negative and magnetism has a north and south pole. And with both of those, the opposites attract one another, and the similars repel one another. Mathematically, with both of them the strength of the attraction or repulsion decreases with the square of the distance.

0rsted discovered that the electric current in a wire would deflect a magnetized compass needle. When he reversed the direction of the current, the needle pointed in the opposite direction. 0rsted left his research there, but a series of other scientists, interested in his findings, continued on his work. A major breakthrough came when English physicist Michael Faraday experimented with moving a magnet through a coil of copper wire, causing electric current to flow in the wire. At the time, most scientists believed that electricity was some sort of fluid that flowed through the wire. Faraday speculated that it was vibration or force that was transmitted between two bodies because of tensions that are created. He found that if he turned a copper wheel and had its rim pass the holes of a horseshoe magnet, a continuous electrical current would flow. This is the basic principle of the electric generator. The copper wheel would one day be powered by a steam engine, capable of producing a large amount of electricity.
 
 
 
1821
 
 

IN GREECE, A FIGHT FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM THE TURKS began. Resentful at years of living under oppression, people from across Greek society—including the Orthodox Church—began to plot their liberation. Some rebel groups had been organizing through secret patriotic societies such as the Philiki Etaireia (Society of Friends). These organizations involved people living on the islands, but also had significant support from the large Greek diaspora.

 
 
1821 Greeks Declare War

A rebellion by the Greeks within the Ottoman Empire began in 1821. The Ottomans had ruled most of Greece for several centuries, but with the strong momentum of the French Revolution, Greeks sought out their own independence. They took control of the Peloponnesus, but the Turks later invaded and captured key cities. There were leadership problems within the Greek rebellion, and Egyptian forces were brought in to aid the Turks. But other European nations backed the idea of Greece's independence, and Britain, France, and Russia used their naval might to destroy Egypt's fleet. An 1830 London conference between the Greeks and Turks finally declared Greece an independent monarchial state.
 
 
 
At the same time, rebels in the Americas were able to take advantage of Spain's internal crisis and weakness to make the final push for independence.

Mexico
managed to secure its liberation after Mexican royalists, upon hearing the news of events in Spain, decided that self-rule was the only way to avoid a liberal regime as had happened in Spain.

On August 24
, a treaty was signed recognizing Mexican independence, and on May 19 the former royalist Agusti'n de Iturbide (1783-1824) crowned himself emperor Agustin I.
 
Battle for independence in Mexico.
 
 

Farther south, the Congress of Cucuta was formed and formally established Gran Colombia, consisting of present-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Simon Bolivar was named president and Bogota was made the capital.

 
 
In Peru, Jose de San Martin led his troops into Lima and declared Peru independent, though fighting to secure its freedom continued.
 
 


Napoleon I on his death bed

 
 
 
1822
 
 

A depiction of the coronation of Pedro I as emperor of Brazil. Pedro, the son of the king of Portugal, had declared the colony's independence.
 
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PORTUGAL AND BRAZIL had been fundamentally affected when the Portuguese court, fleeing Napoleon, arrived in Brazil in 1808. After John VI (1769-1826) returned to Portugal in 1821, he left his son, Dom Pedro (1798-1834), in charge of the kingdom of Brazil, as Prince Regent. Dom Pedro, frustrated by the attempt of the Portuguese Cortes to reduce Brazil to its pre-1808 colonial status, issued his Grito de Ipiranga (Cry of Ipiranga) declaring Brazil's independence and crowning himself Emperor Pedro I.
 
 
Even the loyalist Santo Domingo, on the island of Hispaniola, was swept up in the revolutionary spirit of the time, declaring independence in 1821, though it failed to realize a plan to join Gran Colombia. Santo Domingo's neighbor, Haiti (previously Saint-Domingue), grew concerned that France or Britain might sneak through the now poorly guarded ports in Santo Domingo and launch an attack to recolonize and re-enslave the island. With this pretext—and the fact that slavery still persisted in Santo Domingo—Haiti's president, Jean-Pierre Boyer (in office 1818-50), arrived in Santo Domingo with his forces. The provisional government turned control over to Boyer, who united both sides of the island under Haitian rule.
 
 
The issue of slavery remained contentious in the US, and there arose the additional question of how to treat freed slaves. The American Colonization Society, founded in 1816, advocated they be returned to Africa. The society secured agreements with local rulers in West Africa, near Cape Mesurado, establishing a settlement that would become known as Liberia.
 

Liberia
Located on the West Coast of Africa, alongside slaving ports,
a colony for freed slaves was established by the
American Colonization Society.
 
 
1822 Linguist Reads Rosetta Stone

In 1822, French linguist Jean-Francois Champollion began publishing papers of his work on the Rosetta Stone—the first deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphs. The broken black granite stone, found 35 miles northeast of Alexandria, Egypt, in 1799, was engraved with Greek writing dating to 196 B.C.E. and two forms of Egyptian script. It was believed the inscription, honoring Egypt's King Ptolemy V, was the same in all three languages. Using the stone and drawing from his previous research, Champollion discovered that some of the Egyptian signs were alphabetic, some syllabic, and some represented a whole idea or object. This groundbreaking work represented the beginning of modern Egyptology.

FOOTNOTE Champollion worked from copies of the actual stone slab, discovered in 1799 by Napoleon's soldiers in Egypt. When the British defeated the French, the stone traveled to London. It is still in the British Museum.
 
 

Rosetta Stone
 
 
 
1822 Macintosh's Waterproof Cloth

Scottish chemist Charles Macintosh developed a waterproof fabric that would result in the world's first mass-produced raincoat. Working at a gasworks, Macintosh experimented with naphtha, a volatile liquid hydrocarbon, and he found that it had chemical properties that made it capable of dissolving rubber. He had worked with textiles earlier in his career and decided that this new liquid rubber might be used with fabric. He sandwiched the liquid rubber between two layers of wool cloth. Macintosh's invention led to the development of rainwear and other industrial applications.

FOOTNOTE As Macintosh perfected his technology, details leaked out, and he had to sue a competitor for patent rights. He won the suit—and went down in history. His name is still used commercially for rubberized cloth.
 
 
 
1822 Nerves Better Understood

French physiologist Francois Magendie published a groundbreaking paper in 1822 on spinal nerves, distinguishing their separate motor and sensory roots. In a time when many scientists thought all matters relating to biology were controlled by vital forces that could not be explained scientifically, Magendie believed in uncovering facts through experimentation. Often his experiments were on animals, which led to an antivivisectionist movement and a demand to protect animals from experiments. As a result of his research, he discovered that strychnine injections reach the spinal cord by the bloodstream, not the lymphatic system, as previously believed. His experiments using strychnine, morphine, codeine, and quinine greatly contributed to pharmacology.
 
 
 
1823
 
 
IN HIS ANNUAL MESSAGE TO THE US Congress on December 2, President James Monroe outlined a new diplomatic policy: the Monroe Doctrine. Concerned about the possibility of European incursion into the new republics of Latin America, Monroe attempted to set boundaries between Europe and the Americas. The doctrine stated that the US would not interfere in the internal affairs or wars of European powers, nor in any colonies in the Americas, but likewise declared the western hemisphere now closed to any further European attempts at colonization. Interference with territories in the Americas would now be viewed as hostile acts against the US.
 
US ISOLATIONISM

James Monroe (1758-1831) was the fifth president of the United States, serving from 1817-25.

His time in office was a period during which the US began to emerge as a serious global power.

This period was known as the "era of good feelings," and was marked by significant economic growth and general public optimism.

With its aversion to interference in other nations' affairs set out in the Monroe Doctrine, the US began to pursue a policy of isolationism.
 
James Monroe
 
 
 
Earlier in the year, another republic had joined the Americas: the United Provinces of Central America, which was composed of Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica. They had achieved independence from Spain in 1821, but were joined to the empire of Mexico. The local leaders decided to break away and establish a federal republic, with the capital in Guatemala City.
 
 

The Alaungpaya Dynasty of Burma (present-day Myanmar), had been making incursions into the northern Indian state of Assam, bringing them into contact with the British, who were occupying the region. In an effort to protect their interests in India, Britain launched the First Anglo-Burmese War the following year (1824-26). This resulted in the British capture of much of the territory of Burma, including Rangoon, which was taken in 1825.

 

The Alaungpaya dynasty's invasion of northern India led to Britain declaring war
and eventually capturing the coastal city of Rangoon, pictured.
 
 
 
1824
 
 

This print depicts the Ottoman siege of Missolonghi, where the Greeks had established a provisional government during their war for independence.
 
 
AS THE FIGHT FOR GREEK INDEPENDENCE INTENSIFIED, it attracted the public's attention across Europe, especially among writers and artists. One such person was the English Romantic poet Lord Byron (1788-1824), famed for his poem Don Juan. Byron had arrived in Greece the previous year to help fight in the struggle. However, while he was abroad, he contracted a serious illness and died on April 19 in Missolonghi.
 
 

Lord Byron

The Romantic poet Lord Byron was inspired by the Greek struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire, and went to Greece to fight.
 
 
 
1824 Byron Dies

Lord Byron, a popular poet and the personification of the English Romantic movement, died in 1824 after leading a colorful life of fame, fortune, travel, love affairs, and aid to the Greeks in their fight for independence against the Ottoman Empire. He inherited his title and fortune as a boy from an uncle and became well known as a writer after publishing his poetic travelogue, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. His best known work is the unfinished satirical poem Don Juan.

While he was writing that poem, he became interested in the Greek independence movement, and he had gone to Greece to support that cause when he grew ill and died, on the battlefield of Missolonghi. Byron's poetry had a wide range, but he consistently wrote about the need for people to have the freedom to choose their own life course.

FOOTNOTE As much as Byron traveled, he always kept a menagerie. Once his friend, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, reported finding "five peacocks, two guinea hens, and an Egyptian crane" on the stairs in his home in Italy.
 
 

Lord Byron on his deathbed, by Joseph-Denis Odevaere
 
 
Lord Byron

THE DEATH OF BYRON, THOMAS MOORE, 1835


Prince Mavrocordato... on the evening of the 19th issued this melancholy proclamation:—

The present day of festivity and rejoicing has become one of sorrow and of mourning. The Lord Noel Byron departed this life at six o'clock in the afternoon, after an illness of ten days; his death being caused by an inflammatory fever. Such was the effect of his Lordship's illness on the public mind, that all classes had forgotten their usual recreations of Easter, even before the afflicting event was apprehended.

The loss of this illustrious individual is undoubtedly to be deplored by all Greece; but it must be more especially a subject of lamentation at Missolonghi, where his generosity has been so conspicuously displayed, and of which he had even become a citizen, with the further determination of participating in all the dangers of the war.

Every body is acquainted with the beneficent acts of his Lordship, and none can cease to hail his name as that of a real benefactor.

Until, therefore, the final determination of the National Government be known, and by virtue of the powers with which it has been pleased to invest me, I hereby decree,—

1 st,To-morrow morning, at daylight, thirty seven minute guns will be fired from the Grand Battery, being the number which corresponds with the age of the ... deceased.

2d, All the public offices, even the tribunals, are to remain closed for three successive days.

3d, All the shops, except those in which provisions or medicines are sold, will also be shut; and it is strictly enjoined that every species of public amusement, and other demonstrations of festivity at Easter, shall be suspended.
4th, A general mourning will be observed for twenty-one days.

5th, Prayers and a funeral service are to be offered up in all the churches.

(Signed) A. MAVROCORDATO.
GEORGE PRAIDIS, Secretary.
Given at Missolonghi, this 19th day of April, 1824.
 
 
In Peru, a decisive victory at the Battle of Ayacucho, December 9, meant the end of Spanish rule, though to the north, in the territory known as Upper Peru, loyalist forces were still holding out against rebel troops, in one of the last bastions of fighting.
 
 
1824 Buckland Describes Dinosaur

In 1824, British geologist and clergyman William Buck-land became the first person to scientifically describe a dinosaur based on unearthed fossils in England (the term "dinosaur" would not be used for almost two decades). The Megalosaurus, or "great lizard," that Buckland found consisted mostly of a lower jawbone with some teeth, vertebrae, a hip, and hind limb. It would have been impossible for him to know what the creature would have looked like, except that it was big. Buckland hypothesized it was an extinct lizard. Fossilized dinosaur bones were undoubtedly found throughout the ages, but it was not until the first half of the 19th century that they were scientifically noted. Englishman Richard Owen coined the term Dinosauria in 1842 after noting that the Megalosaurus and two other fossil finds were not lizards but a suborder of "saurian reptiles." From that point the quest began—and is still under way— to uncover, name, and discover more about these creatures that lived several hundred million years ago.
 
 
 

Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 9
 
 
1824 Beethoven's Symphony No. 9

Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, also called the Choral Symphony, was first performed in 1824 and greeted with tremendous applause, although Beethoven, who was sitting in the audience, did not immediately respond because by this time in his life he was completely deaf. It is said that one of the soloist singers had to point out the audience's response, prompting him to bow. This was the last symphony Beethoven composed. What set it apart from his others was the use of chorus and solo vocalists in the finale. For the words, Beethoven chose part of Friedrich Schiller's poem "Ode to Joy," admiring its themes of freedom and brotherhood. The symphony would influence the great composers of the next era and continues to be appreciated today. It was performed by Leonard Bernstein during the fall of the Berlin Wall (with the words changed to "Ode to Freedom"), and it is the melody of the European Union anthem.

FOOTNOTE Beethoven, who was several measures off and still conducting at the symphony's end, received five ovations, two more than the imperial couple got on their entrance to the concert hall.
 
 
 
1825
 
 

THE TERRITORY OF UPPER PERU received a much-needed boost with the arrival of Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre (1785-1830), whose troops helped to defeat the Spanish. Bolivar wanted this territory to unite with the rest of Peru, but Sucre had already agreed with the rebel leaders that it would become a separate republic. In honor of Bolivar's help, the rebels named the new nation Bolivia, and they invited Sucre to be its first president, which he accepted. With the creation of Bolivia, all the former Spanish colonies—with the exception of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines—had become independent nations.

 
 
In England, there was great excitement over the opening, on September 27, of the Stockton to Darlington railroad line, in the industrial north of the country.
 


Crowd puller
The opening of the Stockton to Darlington rail line marked the first time that a
locomotive was used to pull a passenger train.

 
Technological innovations in the use of steam to power engines had led to the development of railroad locomotives, such as the one designed by English inventor John Blenkinsopin 1812. George Stephenson (1781-1848), a colliery mechanic, improved on that design and caught the attention of a group of investors wishing to link the towns of Stockton and Darlington. Darlington was in the middle of a coal mining region and the Pennine mountains made transportation difficult. The 25-mile (40-km) line opened the way for further rail development.
 
 
1825 Decembrist Revolt in Russia

A group of 3,000 Russian officers and soldiers wanting a liberal constitution refused to swear their allegiance to their new tsar, Nicholas, and in December 1825 staged a revolt in the Senate Square in St. Petersburg. Their rebellion was easily suppressed by Nicholas and 5 people were executed, 31 sent to prison, and hundreds exiled to Siberia. The revolt had lasting effects on how Nicholas would rule and was the beginning of a revolutionary movement that divided the liberals and the government.

The Russian officers who had been at war during the Napoleonic Wars and in other parts of Europe came back with new ideas on human rights, opposed serfdom, and were interested in democracy. There were demands for a representative government by the upper class and officers and talk of overthrowing the government until Russia's Alexander I died in 1825. Alexander's brother Constantine was next in line, and the army swore allegiance to him, but he gave up his right to the throne. Nicholas, the younger brother of Alexander and Constantine, was named tsar, but the army largely still supported Constantine.

The revolt, while short and unsuccessful, was taken seriously by Nicholas. He would go on to form his Third Section, a secret police of spies and informants. The people were expected to abide by the Orthodox Church, and other religions were suppressed. Literature critical of Russia was censored. Russians lived under a harsh rule where they were expected to be loyal to Nicholas. The exiled revolutionaries were considered martyrs by the rebels who would later fight for a more liberal Russia.
 
 

Decembrists at the Senate Square
 
 
 
1826
 
 

The signing ceremony at the Treaty of Turkmanchai, in which Persia returned contested land in the Caucasus region to Russia.
 

TENSIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND Persia restarted over the Caucasus region, with the Persians attempting to take back the territory of Georgia in 1825. However, a crushing defeat at the Battle of Ganja on September 26, 1826 halted the Persian advance. Russian troops then marched into Persia, eventually taking Tehran, leaving the Persians no option but to accept defeat. They negotiated the Treaty of Turkmanchai, which put the Russian border at the Aras River, returning the Caucasus territory to Russia.

 
 
In Hawaii, US missionaries had started to settle on the islands and America had become one of the kingdom's largest trading partners. The US was looking to protect its growing interests there by formalizing trade arrangements in the face of possible European competition, so it convinced the regency government of King Kamehamehalll (1813-54) to sign the Hawaii-United States Treaty of 1826. The treaty stipulated that there would be peaceful and friendly political and trading relations between the two.
 
 
In France, inventor Joseph-Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) took the world's first photograph, known as View from the Window at Le Gras, which was of a barnyard in France. His technique involved making an eight-hour exposure onto a pewter plate using a camera obscura, which was a dark box with a tiny hole—a forerunner of the modern camera.
 
1826 First Photograph

Joseph-Nicephore Niepce, a French inventor, created the first permanent photograph in 1826. Niepce was using a technique that required an 8- to 20-hour exposure time, which meant that photographs could be taken only of inanimate objects. French artist Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invented the first practical form of photography in 1839.

FOOTNOTE The world's first photograph-on display at the University ofTexas at Austin — pictures a view out Niepce's window in Burgundy, France, with neighboring walls and rooftops and distant trees and pastures.
 
 

Daguerreotype of unnamed stonecutter
 
 
Photography

Images from life—daguerreotype to Kodak

When French painter Louis Daguerre patented a technique in 1839 for capturing an exact image from the real world on paper, he gave the world a new technology. But his daguerreotype process had limits—the positive images could not be reproduced, thus they could not be printed in books or magazines. Subsequent pioneers would open up the field initiated by Daguerre and give us not only novel technology but also a new art form.

The year following Daguerre's patent, British inventorWilliam H. Fox Talbot patented a process for producing negative images.These calotypes (ortal-botypes) were made by exposing light-sensitive silver iodide paper in the camera, and then developing it in a solution of silver titrate and gallic acid and fixing it (making it permanent) with sodium thiosulfate. Talbot could then take the resulting ghostly negative and print it multiple times on a silver chloride paper to create positive pictures. His friend astronomer Sir John Herschel dubbed the new technique "photography."

Refinements in the 1840s and 1850s advanced photography well beyond the pioneer stage. Improved lenses made portraits more lifelike by gathering more light and thus reducing exposure time to a few minutes; landscape pictures had sharper focus. Then in 1851 a new developing technique was invented by British sculptor F Scott Archer that dramatically reduced exposure time and sharpened photographic detail. His wet-collodion process involved coating a glass plate with silver salts and a sticky material known as collodion. The wet plate was exposed for only a few seconds, then it was immediately developed.

The wet-collodion process yielded some of the world's most treasured photographs, including those of British journalist Roger Fenton from the Crimean War (1853-56) and of American journalist Mathew Brady from the American Civil War (1861-65). The inconvenience of the process was overcome by the introduction in 1871 of the dry-plate method, in which an emulsion of gelatin substituted for collodion—the gelatin dried on the plate without hurting the silver salts.

The next major advance put cameras in the hands of the masses. The gelatin emulsion allowed prints to be made by projection. So instead of the picture having to be the same size as the negative, the picture could be much larger. Now negatives, and thus cameras, could be much smaller. In 1888 dry-plate manufacturer George Eastman began marketing a small, cheap, lightweight device called the Kodak box camera. Amateurs and hobbyists could now record their memories. Meanwhile, the demands of serious photographers continued to push the new field of photography both technically and artistically.
 
 
 
1827
 
 
AS GREECE'S BATTLE AGAINST the Ottoman Empire continued, neighboring powers began to call for an end to the conflict. Britain, France, and Russia joined together to sign the Treaty of London on July 6, which demanded the establishment of an independent Greek state. The Ottomans refused, confident they had the land and sea power to defeat the Greeks.
 
 

Battle of Navarino, by Ivan Aivazovsky, showing the Russian squadron, in line ahead (left-centre, white flags with blue transversal crosses) bombarding the Ottoman fleet (right, with red flags)
 
 
By autumn, the Ottoman resources were put to the test as a Turkish-Egyptian fleet went up against a naval force comprising British, French, and Russian ships at the Battle of Navarino on October 20. The Russo-European ships sunk three-quarters of the Ottoman fleet, and this humiliating defeat led to the eventual withdrawal of Turkish troops from Greece, which won independence in 1832.
 
 
1827 Water Turbine Built

In 1827, French engineer Benoit Fourneyron invented the water turbine, and its immediate success led it to overtake the old-fashioned water-wheel and within a few years the power industry in the United States and Europe.

Fourneyron's teacher, Claude Burdin, coined the term "turbine" and conceptualized that water would run down a hub and out to the blades causing the wheel to whirl. Previous waterwheels hit the blades on the outside edge of the wheel. The new turbine would spin faster and deliver more power. Fourneyron's first turbine was a 6-horsepower unit, but within five years he would create one with 50 horsepower. In 1895, Fourneyron's turbines were installed at Niagara Falls to turn generators for electrical power. He considered that a turbine could be powered by a steam engine, but he lacked the materials for proper experimentation, and the steam-driven turbine would not be invented for another 50 years.
 
 
 
1828
 
 

THE TREATY OF MONTEVIDEO RECOGNIZED the independence of Uruguay in August 1828. The area, then known as the Banda Oriental, was disputed between Brazil and Argentina. It had been under Spanish control but during the wars of independence in South America, under the leadership of Jose Gervasio Artigas (1764-1850), the territory established its independence from Spain and Argentina in 1815.

 
 


Jose Gervasio Artigas

Artigas was the father of the Uruguayan independence movement, but had been in exile for several years when it was finally liberated.
 
 

However, the following year, Brazil invaded and occupied it. This led to a further war, led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja (1784-1853) and his group known as the "thirty-three immortals." Lavalleja, with Argentinian support, defeated Brazilian troops and founded an independent Uruguay.

 
 
Territorial disputes were also behind another conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, with the Russians capturing Vidin and Varna (in present-day Bulgaria).
 
 
1828 Atomic Weights Published

Jons Jakob Berzelius, a Swedish chemist, determined that inorganic substances are made up of different elements in constant proportions by weight. Using this law of constant proportions, Berzelius in 1828 published a table of the relative atomic weights of all the known elements. He organized the table using letters from the alphabet as the elements, and numbers as the proportions. His ideas underlie the periodic table of elements used today. Berzelius also discovered the elements cerium, selenium, and thorium and isolated silicon and titanium. Berzelius is considered one of the founders of modern chemistry.

FOOTNOTE Berzelius's early interest was in galvanism, or the presence of electricity in living things. For his medical degree, he wrote a thesis on the use of electric shock in the treatment of human diseases.
 
 
 
1829
 
 
DEBATE OVER IRELAND HAD intensified after the Act of Union. Daniel O'Connell, a Catholic lawyer, called for England to repeal its anti-Catholic laws, arguing that it could not claim to be representing the people of Ireland. In addition, he staged mass meetings about the issue of Catholic emancipation. In 1828, O'Connell stood for parliament and won, though he was not allowed to sit in government because of his Catholicism. His victory, however, attracted the attention of the British prime minister, Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, who was Irish though not Catholic. He oversaw the Catholic Relief Act 1829, which allowed Catholics in Ireland and England to take seats in Parliament and hold public office.
 
 
Elsewhere in England, inventor George Stephenson unveiled a new locomotive engine, known as the Rocket, which reached speeds of about 36 miles (58km) per hour. He had entered the Liverpool and Manchester Railway competition for best new engine. The Rocket was the victor.
 

A contemporary drawing of Rocket
 
 
This year also saw progress of the railroad in the US, with the first American-built steam locomotive, Tom Thumb. In 1830, a race was staged against a horse-drawn cart to prove the superiority of steam power. Although the horse won on this occasion due to a techinal fault with the train, the point was made and the owners of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad agreed to switch to steam trains.
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
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