Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1818 Part II NEXT-1819 Part II    
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
History at a Glance
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Perceval Spencer
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"The Demon
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Nations in Arms
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London

Peterloo Massacre, (Aug. 16, 1819)
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore

Modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a British colony. This was distinct from its earlier probable use as a port in ancient times during the dominance of Srivijaya, and later, Melaka in the region.

Raffles' landing and arrival
Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Malay archipelago was gradually taken over by the European colonial powers, beginning with the arrival of the Portuguese at Malacca in 1509. The early dominance of the Portuguese was challenged, during the 17th century, by the Dutch, who came to control most of the region's ports. The Dutch established a monopoly over trade within the archipelago, particularly in spices, then the region's most important product. Other colonial powers, including the British, were limited to a relatively minor presence.

In 1818, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of the British colony at Bencoolen. Raffles believed that the British should find a way to replace the Dutch as the dominant power in the area. The trade route between China and British India passed through, and with the growing opium trade with China, that route had become vitally important. Furthermore, the Dutch were stifling British trade within the region; the British were prohibited from operating in Dutch-controlled ports, with the exception of Batavia, where unfavourable prices were imposed.

Raffles reasoned that the way to challenge the Dutch was to establish a new port in the region. Existing British ports were not suited to becoming major trading centres. Penang was too far away from the Straits of Malacca, the main ship passageway for the India-China trade, whereas Bencoolen faced the Indian Ocean, overseeing the entrance to the Sunda Straits, a much less important area.

  Many other possible sites were either controlled by the Dutch, or had other problems.

In 1818, Raffles managed to convince Lord Hastings, the then governor-general of India and his superior in the British East India Company, to fund an expedition to establish a new British base in the region. Raffles then searched for several weeks. He found several islands that seemed promising, but were either already occupied by the Dutch, or lacked a suitable harbor.

Eventually Raffles found the island of Singapore. It lay at the southern tip of the Malay peninsula, near the Straits of Malacca, and possessed an excellent natural harbor, fresh water supplies, and timber for repairing ships. Most importantly, it was unoccupied by the Dutch.

Raffles' expedition arrived in Singapore on 29 January 1819 (although they landed on Saint John's Island the previous day). He found a small Malay settlement at the mouth of the Singapore River, headed by a Temenggong (governor) for the Sultan of Johor. The island was nominally ruled by Johor, but the political situation was extremely murky. The current Sultan of Johor, Tengku Abdul Rahman, was controlled by the Dutch and the Bugis, and would never agree to a British base in Singapore.

However, Abdul Rahman was Sultan only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein, also known as Tengku Long, had been away in Pahang getting married when their father died. Hussein was then living in exile in the Riau Islands.

The treaty
With the Temenggong's help, Raffles smuggled Tengku Hussein to Singapore. He offered to recognize Hussein as the rightful Sultan of Johor, and provide him with a yearly payment; in return, Hussein would grant the British East India Company the right to establish a trading post on Singapore. This agreement was ratified with a formal treaty signed on 6 February 1819, and modern Singapore was born.
Early growth (1819–1826)
Raffles returned to Bencoolen soon after the signing of the treaty, leaving Major William Farquhar in charge of the new settlement, which initially consisted of some artillery and a single regiment of Indian soldiers. Establishing a trading port from scratch was in itself a daunting prospect, but Farquhar's administration was, in addition, practically unfunded, as Raffles did not wish his superiors to view Singapore as a liability. In addition, it was forbidden from earning revenue by imposing port duties, Raffles having decided from the outset that Singapore would be a free port.

In spite of these difficulties, the new colony rapidly proved to be a spectacular success. As news of the free port spread across the archipelago, Bugis, Peranakan Chinese, and Arab traders flocked to the island, seeking to circumvent the Dutch trading restrictions. During the first year of operation, $400,000 (Spanish dollars) worth of trade passed through Singapore. By 1821, the island's population had increased to around five thousand, and the trade volume was $8 million. By 1825, the population had passed the ten thousand mark, with a trade volume of $22 million. (By comparison, the trade volume for the long-established port of Penang was $8.5 million during the same year.)

Raffles returned to Singapore in 1822. Although Farquhar had successfully led the settlement through its difficult early years, Raffles was critical of many of the decisions he had made.

  For instance, in order to generate much-needed revenue for the government, Farquhar had resorted to selling licenses for gambling and the sale of opium, which Raffles saw as social evils. Raffles arranged for Farquhar's dismissal, and set about drafting a set of new policies for the settlement.

He arranged for a second treaty with the Sultan and Temenggong, signed on 7 June 1823, which extended British possession to the entire island, except for the residences of the Sultan and Temenggong. The latter also gave up their rights to numerous functions on the island, including the collection of port taxes, in return for lifelong monthly payments of $1500 and $800 respectively. This agreement brought the island squarely under British law, with the proviso that it would take into account Malay customs, traditions and religion, "where they shall not be contrary to reason, justice or humanity."

Raffles, also shocked at the disarray of the colony, then arranged to organise Singapore into functional and ethnic subdivisions under the drafted Raffles Plan of Singapore. Today, the remnants of this organisation can be found in the ethnic neighbourhoods.

After installing John Crawfurd, an efficient and frugal administrator, as the new governor, Raffles departed for Britain in October 1823. He would never return to Singapore. Most of his personal possessions were lost after his ship, the Fame, caught fire and sank, and he died only a few years later, in 1826, at the age of 44.

Straits Settlements
The status of Singapore as a British possession was cemented by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, which carved up the Malay archipelago between the two colonial powers. The area north of the Straits of Malacca, including Penang, Malacca, and Singapore, was designated as the British sphere of influence, while the area south of the Straits was assigned to the Dutch.

This division had far-reaching consequences for the region: modern-day Malaysia and Singapore correspond to the British area established in the treaty, and modern-day Indonesia to the Dutch. In 1826, Singapore was grouped together with Penang and Malacca into a single administrative unit, the Straits Settlements, under the British East India Company.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


World Countries

Florida purchased by U.S. from Spain

In 1819, by terms of the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain ceded Florida to the United States in exchange for $5 million and the American renunciation of any claims on Texas that they might have from the Louisiana Purchase. The free blacks and Indian slaves, Black Seminoles, living near St. Augustine, fled to Havana, Cuba to avoid coming under US control. Some Seminole also abandoned their settlements and moved further south. Hundreds of Black Seminoles and fugitive slaves escaped in the early nineteenth century from Cape Florida to The Bahamas, where they settled on Andros Island.

Florida, constituent state of the United States of America. Admitted as the 27th state in 1845, it is the most populous of the Southeastern states and the second most populous Southern state after Texas. The capital is Tallahassee, located in the northwestern panhandle.

Geographic location has been the key factor in Florida’s long and colourful development, and it helps explain the striking contemporary character of the state. The greater part of Florida lies on a peninsula that protrudes southeastward from the North American continent, separating the waters of the Atlantic Ocean from those of the Gulf of Mexico and pointing toward Cuba and the Caribbean Sea beyond. Florida shares a land border with only two other states, both along its northern boundary: Georgia (east) and Alabama (west). The nearest foreign territory is the island of Bimini in the Bahamas, some 50 miles (80 km) to the east of the state’s southern tip. Florida is the southernmost of the 48 conterminous United States, its northernmost point lying about 100 miles (160 km) farther south than California’s southern border. The Florida Keys, a crescent of islands that forms the state’s southernmost portion, extend to within about 75 miles (120 km) of the Tropic of Cancer. Florida’s marine shoreline totals more than 8,400 miles (13,500 km), including some 5,100 miles (8,200 km) along the gulf; among U.S. states, only Alaska has a longer coastline.

The state lies close to both the geographic and population centres of the Western Hemisphere, in a position that not only commands one entrance to the Gulf of Mexico but also overlooks a strategic crossroads between North and South America and historic routes to the European and Mediterranean worlds. The Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León landed there in 1513, named the territory La Florida (meaning “The Flower” in Spanish), and claimed it for Spain. Florida played a prominent role in the historic struggles of European powers to control the Americas and the Caribbean. St. Augustine, founded in 1565 on Florida’s northeastern coast, is the oldest European settlement within what were to become the boundaries of the continental United States.

The climate and scenery of the “Sunshine State” have long attracted enormous numbers of visitors. Tourism has surpassed agriculture and manufacturing as the main component of Florida’s economy, and the prospect of employment in the state’s rapidly growing service sector has simultaneously drawn many immigrants, mostly from Latin America. Consequently, Florida has regularly ranked among the states with the fastest-growing immigrant population. Area 58,976 square miles (152,747 square km). Population (2010) 18,801,310; (2013 est.) 19,552,860.


Exploration and settlement

Ancient Native American peoples entered Florida from the north as early as 12,000 years ago. Although the first evidence of farming dates from about 500 bce, some southern groups remained hunters, fishers, and gatherers until their extinction. Indigenous peoples continued to arrive from the north in small numbers after 500 bce, establishing contacts with Cuba, the Bahamas, and, possibly, the Yucatán region of Mexico. At the time of European contact in the 16th century, a population of several hundred thousand Native Americans lived in Florida.

The early history of Europeans in Florida reflects the conflicts of the Spanish, French, and English crowns for empire and wealth. Juan Ponce de León ventured to the peninsula in 1513 and 1521. Because he landed on the peninsula during the Easter season (Spanish: Pascua Florida [“Season of Flowers”]) and because of the vegetation he found there, Ponce de León named the area Florida. Under the impression that Florida was one of the islands in the Bahamas archipelago, he initially made no attempt to found a settlement and did not appear to have ventured much north of present-day West Palm Beach.

After an intermission of eight years, Ponce de León returned to establish a colony in the vicinity of what is now Fort Myers. He was mortally wounded near there in 1521 by the indigenous Calusa and died later the same year in Havana, Cuba.

In 1528 Pánfilo de Narváez landed on the shores of Tampa Bay with more than 400 men, intent on learning how this land was connected to Mexico. Within a year, and while still no closer to Mexico than northern Florida, the force was reduced to 15 survivors. Of this group, four Spaniards—including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and Estebán, a Moorish slave who was the first black man known to have entered Florida—reached Culiacán, Mexico, in 1536. Hernando de Soto came in 1539, landing somewhere between Fort Myers and Tampa, and led another disastrous expedition, this time through western Florida. Nearly 20 years elapsed before Tristán de Luna y Arellano attempted to set up a Spanish colony at Pensacola Bay. The settlement was abandoned in 1561, following its destruction by a hurricane.

In 1564 a group of French Protestants (Huguenots) who originally had been led by Jean Ribault established Fort Caroline on the banks of the River of May (St. Johns River), near modern Jacksonville. The Spaniards saw this group as a threat to their sea-lane from Havana to Spain. An expedition commanded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés massacred most of the French colonists in 1565 after founding St. Augustine (San Augustín) nearby.


Florida's large Hispanic Catholic population contributes to making Roman Catholicism the largest religious denomination in the state. (Miami Cathedral of Saint Mary)
Shifting alliances and allegiances
For the 250 years following the establishment of St. Augustine, Florida was little more than a wilderness in terms of any permanent European settlement. Its importance as a possession over which European powers fought, however, was considerable. There were frequent raids by English seafarers, including Sir Francis Drake in 1586, and clashes with French colonizers along the northern coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and with English settlers in the Carolina and Georgia colonies. Shifting alliances among the three powers reflected the vicissitudes of European politics, and St. Augustine and the English ports of Savannah and Charleston to the north of Florida were besieged at various times throughout the first half of the 18th century.

England received Florida in return for Havana in 1763 and replaced its military government with civilian officials. Expenditures for economic development brought prosperity as well as loyalty from most Floridians during the American Revolution, when the area was used as a base for attacks on colonial coastal cities. Three decades of political and social instability followed Florida’s return to Spain after the war, with U.S. expansionist interests in constant conflict with the Spanish presence.

By the mid-1700s virtually all of the Native American groups of Florida had been destroyed by disease and wars brought largely by English and indigenous Muskogee raiders from Georgia. The Muskogee, accompanied by a few runaway black slaves and renegade white settlers, ultimately migrated into the Florida area from Georgia and Alabama, where they were collectively called Cimarrones. The name Seminole evolved from cimarrón (Spanish: “wild, unruly, runaway”).

From their base at Pensacola, the British employed (or otherwise persuaded) Native Americans to harass U.S. settlements during the War of 1812. It was the First Seminole War (1817–18), however, that marked the beginning of armed conflict between Native Americans in Florida and the U.S. government. There were roughly 5,000 Seminole in Florida when Gen. Andrew Jackson captured Pensacola in 1818.

The Spanish subsequently ceded Florida to the United States in a treaty that was ratified in 1821, and in 1832 the Seminole were made to accept a treaty that called for their removal to Oklahoma. When Seminole leader Osceola and a group of his followers refused to give up their land, a series of violent conflicts erupted that came to be known by the white community as the Second Seminole War (1835–42).

Native American resistance was finally suppressed, however, and within about a decade most of the Seminole had been transferred to Oklahoma.

By 1845, when Florida was admitted to the union, only a few hundred Seminole remained in the state. The Third Seminole War (1855–58) was their final conflict with the federal government.

Slave owners in Florida led the state to secede from the United States in 1861 and join the Confederacy. During the American Civil War (1861–65), military action in the state was mostly limited to the capture of coastal cities by Union troops. Florida was occupied by the U.S. Army during Reconstruction (1865–77), to enforce equal rights for African Americans. Black Floridians collaborated with white citizens in the Republican Party, and Republicans dominated the governorship from 1868 to 1877. In 1877, however, Democrats, who were led by former Confederates, regained control of the state government. Over the next several decades they enacted legislation that disenfranchised blacks and established a system of legalized discrimination called segregation.

Until the 1880s, Florida’s economy had been dominated by small-farm and plantation agriculture; the supplying of naval stores and the production of beef and hides, pork, salt, tobacco, and cotton were the main activities. In 1881 phosphate—the state’s most important mineral—was discovered in the Peace River valley, and extensive mining began immediately. In the late 1800s the lumber industry, based in northern and western Florida, grew rapidly. At the same time, in Tampa, cigar manufacturers, originally from Cuba, began producing for the U.S. market.

Simultaneously, railroads began to promote economic development. In western Florida a railroad reached Pensacola in 1883, and in the following year Henry B. Plant finished his north-south line on the western side of the Florida peninsula as far as Tampa. Meanwhile, Plant’s counterpart on the east coast, Henry M. Flagler, was building a rail and hotel empire that would soon extend past Miami to Key West. Agricultural development, settlement, industry, and tourism all followed the rails.

Growth and change
The growth of Florida in the early 20th century was frantic, if not chaotic. In the 1920s Florida experienced a land rush with rapidly rising demand and prices and a speculative fever that resulted in a bust for many, bringing rewards for the more fortunate only after some years. World War II spurred a massive investment in the U.S. military and the defense industry as a whole. Defense installations remained important after the war, and the state gained the John F. Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. In many ways, Florida remained through the first half of the 20th century a typical Southern state. For the most part, conservative Democrats controlled state and local politics and severely limited the opportunities for African Americans. The Latin American influence remained confined to the Greater Tampa and Greater Miami areas.

After World War II, Florida experienced sustained, rapid population growth, propelled first by Americans who were relocating to the state for the warm climate and then in the late 1950s and ’60s by the arrival of thousands of Cuban exiles. Since the 1950s the state’s population growth rate has consistently been among the fastest in the country. Florida’s economic growth has been heavily focused in services, retail, transportation, and construction. The entertainment industry has expanded with year-round tourism, especially in the Miami and Orlando area, and various manufacturing sectors and high-technology industries have been growing rapidly. During the last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st, Florida has been a leader in new job growth.

Florida State University
Florida’s political life has become more complex with the massive demographic changes. Although there are still many Floridians with a “Southern” orientation, the influx of immigrants has brought the perspectives of both liberal Easterners, many of whom are Jewish, and conservative Latin Americans, many of whom are of Cuban heritage. By welcoming a flood of new residents from northern states and from Canada and accommodating hundreds of thousands of immigrants from the Caribbean area, Florida became the country’s fourth most populous state in the late 1980s and retained that ranking into the 21st century. The state also developed an increasingly international focus. Miami has become the economic “capital” of the Caribbean, and Spanish has surpassed English as the primary language in some areas. Floridians take most of these developments in stride, though the problems of rapid growth have resulted in pressure on the natural environment and have taxed the state’s social resources. Ironically, the nation’s oldest region of European settlement has once again become a frontier.

Robert H. Fuson
Robert J. Norrell

Encyclopædia Britannica


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Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.


Queen Victoria
  Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".
After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.

Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era.

It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Queen Victoria

Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre

Peterloo Massacre, (Aug. 16, 1819), in English history, the brutal dispersal by cavalry of a radical meeting held on St. Peter’s Fields in Manchester. The “massacre” (likened to Waterloo) attests to the profound fears of the privileged classes of the imminence of violent Jacobin revolution in England in the years after the Napoleonic Wars. To radicals and reformers Peterloo came to symbolize Tory callousness and tyranny.


A painting of the Peterloo Massacre published by Richard Carlile
The August meeting was the culmination of a series of political rallies held in 1819, a year of industrial depression and high food prices. Presided over by the radical leader Henry Hunt, the meeting was intended as a great demonstration of discontent, and its political object was parliamentary reform. About 60,000 persons attended, including a high proportion of women and children. None was armed, and their behaviour was wholly peaceable. The magistrates, who had been nervous before the event, were alarmed by the size and mood of the crowd and ordered the Manchester yeomenry to arrest the speakers immediately after the meeting had begun. The untrained yeomenry did not confine themselves to seizing the leaders but, wielding sabres, made a general attack on the crowd. The chairman of the bench of magistrates thereupon ordered the 15th Hussars and the Cheshire Volunteers to join the attack; in 10 minutes the place was cleared except for bodies. The numbers of killed and wounded were disputed; probably about 500 people were injured and 11 killed. Hunt and the other radical leaders were arrested, tried, and convicted—Hunt being sent to prison for two years.

Encyclopædia Britannica


A caricature by George Cruikshank depicting the charge upon the rally; text reads: "Down with 'em! Chop em down my brave boys: give them no quarter they want to take our Beef & Pudding from us! ---- & remember the more you kill the less poor rates you'll have to pay so go at it Lads show your courage & your Loyalty!"
Albert, Prince Consort

Albert, prince consort of Great Britain and Ireland, original name Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, German Franz Albrecht August Karl Emanuel, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (born August 26, 1819, Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha—died December 14, 1861, Windsor, Berkshire, England), the prince consort of Queen Victoria of Great Britain and father of King Edward VII.


Portrait by John Partridge, 1840
  Although Albert himself was undeservedly unpopular, the domestic happiness of the royal couple was well known and helped to assure the continuation of the monarchy, which was by no means certain on the Queen’s accession. On his death from typhoid fever, the British public, which had regarded him almost as an enemy alien, finally recognized his exceptional qualities. Throughout almost 40 years of widowhood, the Queen decided important questions on the basis of what she thought Albert would have done.

A member of the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty, he was the second son of Ernest, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He was educated in Brussels and at the University of Bonn. The marriage between Victoria and Albert, who were first cousins, was promoted by their uncle Leopold I, king of Belgium. On October 15, 1839, the young queen proposed to Albert, and they were married on February 10, 1840.
Albert soon became, in effect, Victoria’s private secretary and chief confidential adviser. Following his example, the Queen, who had been inclined to indolence, became almost as hardworking as he. At his urging she abandoned her Whig partisanship in favour of a more seemly political neutrality. Disputes with Prussia in 1856 and the United States in 1861 ended peacefully, at least in part because Albert suggested rewording Foreign Office dispatches so that they could not be construed as ultimatums.

Albert’s vigilance was unwelcome to various government ministers, especially Lord Palmerston. The British aristocracy did not care for the severe moral tone of the royal household, for Albert’s professorial manner (although he rode and shot as well as they), or for his artistic versatility. In collaboration with the London contractor Thomas Cubitt, Albert designed Osborne House (1845–51), the royal residence on the Isle of Wight. He was also an accomplished musician. He successfully managed the Great Exhibition of 1851 at the Crystal Palace, London, and was planning the South Kensington Exhibition of 1862 when he became fatally ill.

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Alabama becomes a state of the U.S.

Alabama, constituent state of the United States of America, admitted in 1819 as the 22nd state. Alabama forms a roughly rectangular shape on the map, elongated in a north-south direction. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, and Mississippi to the west. The Florida panhandle blocks Alabama’s access to the Gulf of Mexico except in Alabama’s southwestern corner, where Mobile Bay is located. Montgomery is the state capital.

The state offers much topographical diversity. The rich agricultural valley of the Tennessee River occupies the extreme northern part of the state. In northeastern Alabama the broken terrain of the southwestern fringe of the Appalachian Mountains begins and continues in a southwesterly progression across the northern half of the state. Below that the band of prairie lowland known as the Black Belt has rich soils that once cradled a rural cotton-producing way of life central to the state’s development. Farther south stretch piney woods and then coastal plains until one reaches the moss-draped live oaks of Mobile and the white beaches of the gulf.

The landscape of Alabama has been the scene of many of the major crises in the settlement of the continent and in the development of the country. It was a battleground for European powers vying for the lands of the New World, for the fights between the European settlers and the indigenous communities, for the struggles between North and South during the American Civil War, for the civil rights movement, and for other forces of economic and social change that have extensively altered many aspects of the Deep South in the years since the mid-20th century. Although Alabama continues to reside in the lower segment nationally in many significant social and economic rankings, there has been improvement in some areas, particularly in ethnic relations, including the integration of schools and the election of African Americans to political offices. Nevertheless, Alabamians and outsiders alike tend to agree that the state retains a distinctive way of life, rooted in the traditions of the Old South. Area 51,701 square miles (133,905 square km). Population (2010) 4,779,736; (2013 est.) 4,833,722.

Earliest peoples

The present-day state of Alabama was originally inhabited by various indigenous peoples. Visible traces of their occupancy, which spanned nearly 10,000 years, may be seen at Dust Cave, a Paleo-Indian site; at Russell Cave, a site dating to the Archaic period; and at Moundsville, a Mississippian site nestled in a series of large mounds that snake across the land. Many place-names in the state are of Native American origin, including the name Alabama itself, which derives from a word that perhaps means “thicket clearers.” The principal indigenous groups at the time of the initial European exploration of the region were the Chickasaw, in the northwest; the Cherokee, in the northeastern uplands; the Upper Creek, or Muskogee, in the centre and southeast; and the Choctaw, in the southwest.

European rivalry, settlement, and growth
The first known European explorers were Spaniards, who arrived at Mobile Bay in 1519. The main thrust of exploration came in 1540, when Hernando de Soto and his army of about 500 men entered the interior from the valley of the Tennessee River to search for gold. His expedition, which crisscrossed the area extensively, included the first European sighting of the Mississippi River and added greatly to European knowledge of southern indigenous cultures; it also opened the whole region to European settlement. A battle with the warriors of Choctaw chief Tuscaloosa, however, resulted in the slaughter of several thousand Native Americans in the area, one of the bloodiest single encounters between Europeans and indigenous peoples in North America. De Soto ultimately found no gold, and the Spaniards who followed him failed to establish settlements in Alabama.

The ensuing 250 years were characterized by struggles among the French, British, and Spanish for control of the region, often in shifting alliances with the native peoples of the area. In 1702 the French founded the first permanent European settlement in Alabama, at Fort Louis, north of present-day Mobile. The British had also made a number of trips to the region from the Carolinas, but the French settlements—part of a string of forts arcing southward from Canada and designed to contain the British—were more numerous. Port Dauphin, on Dauphin Island, received the first Africans when a slave ship landed there in 1719.

The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave to Britain what was then the only settled part of Alabama, the Mobile area. In another Treaty of Paris (1783), which officially ended the American Revolution, Spain gained Mobile, and the new United States received the rest of the territory now constituting the state. Then, in 1813, the United States, claiming Mobile as a part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, drove the Spanish out of the area and established authority throughout the state. In the meantime, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw had ceded some land by 1806. In 1814 Gen. Andrew Jackson inflicted a decisive defeat on the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The subsequent influx of white settlers and the institution of the cotton economy caused a rapid removal of the Native Americans to the west. The Creek cession of 1832 virtually ended the claims of indigenous peoples to territorial rights in Alabama. Although a small number of Creeks remain in the southern part of the state, most descendants of Alabama’s original inhabitants live in Oklahoma.


Ruins of the former capitol building in Tuscaloosa. Designed by William Nichols,
it was built from 1827–29 and was destroyed by fire in 1923.
The antebellum period
Alabama was established as a separate territory in 1817 and became a state in 1819. By 1820 Alabama’s population was more than 125,000, including about 500 free blacks. By 1830 there were 300,000 residents, nearly one-fifth of them slaves, and cotton was the principal cash crop. Until the Civil War, domestic politics centred on land policy, the banking system, the question of slavery, and the removal of indigenous peoples. The state suffered severely for almost a decade in the economic depression that followed the panic of 1837 financial crisis. During the late 1840s and ’50s many efforts were made to create a more industrialized economy. Railroads, cotton manufacturing, and some mining were begun, though such efforts often suffered from a shortage of capital. The vast majority of investment remained in cotton and slaves. By 1860 the population was approaching one million; roughly half of the people were black, and all but 5 percent of the state’s population was rural.

First Baptist Church of Mobile, established in 1835
The Civil War and its aftermath
In 1861 Alabama seceded from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America, which established its first capital in Montgomery. The state legislature conscripted soldiers and appropriated several million dollars for military operations and for the support of the families of soldiers. Some 35,000 of the 122,000 Alabamians who served in the war died. Following the collapse of the Confederacy and the refusal of the state legislature to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (that granted citizenship to former slaves), Alabama was placed under military rule in 1867. The next year the state ratified a new constitution that protected the civil rights of black citizens, and Alabama was readmitted to the Union.

From 1868 to 1874 the state was in political turmoil. To many white Alabamians the Reconstruction period was tragic, but to most black Alabamians it was a period of opportunity and hope. The Huntsville Advocate asserted, “This is a white man’s government and a white man’s state,” and the Ku Klux Klan used terror to enforce that view. Among white Alabamians, a struggle ensued between those who defied the notion of black people having political rights and power and those willing to cooperate with the black community and its Northern allies. Black Alabamians demanded access to education and were given it, but most of the white majority insisted that schools be racially separate. Although the black contingent participated in the constitutional conventions and in the state legislatures, its political power was not as strong as that of its counterparts in South Carolina, Mississippi, and Louisiana. In 1874 the white Democrats of Alabama, most of whom had been supporters of the Confederacy, regained control of the state political machinery. Black Alabamians were rendered almost powerless until the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Throughout the period, however, some black citizens worked diligently to stimulate political activity, to enlighten and influence the white community, and to encourage the state and federal governments to guarantee political and social rights to those of African ancestry.

In 1875 a state constitutional convention was held, and a new conservative constitution was ratified. Subsequent conservative political efforts centred on restricting black participation in government, reducing expenditures and state services, and fostering the expansion of railroads and industry. By 1901, when another state constitution was ratified—this one disenfranchising the black population—there was virtually no African American participation in government, and a tide of social and political reaction was in full flood.

The economy recovered slowly from the devastation of the war. Sharecropping as a system of land tenure and labour relations emerged, and with it came an even greater dependence on a single crop: cotton. Depressed agricultural conditions fanned a populist revolt among small farmers in the 1890s. After 15 years of delay because of depression and capital shortages, cotton manufacturing and pig-iron production began to grow steadily in the state from about 1880. Despite a long interruption brought about by the depression of the 1890s, Alabama had by the turn of the 20th century become one of the more highly industrialized Southern states.

  Since 1900
In 1900 Alabama was still largely rural. The onset of the boll weevil blight in 1915 seriously damaged its one-crop agriculture, forcing a diversification of the rural economy. Rural dwellers, mostly poor and black, embarked on the Great Migration, an exodus to Southern cities and to the North, where cheap foreign labour supplies had dried up during World War I. A factor in encouraging the out-migration of black Alabamians was the pattern of racial segregation under the Jim Crow system, which was enforced legally and extralegally. The proportion of blacks in the state’s population began a slow decline, which reduced their numbers to less than one-third of the total population by mid-century.

The Great Depression of the 1930s made suffering virtually universal in the state. Many thousands of tenant farmers lost their credit when the price of cotton fell to its lowest point. Birmingham’s industrial economy almost came to a standstill. Federal relief programs alleviated some problems, and the Tennessee Valley Authority created new economic activity in northern Alabama.

The buildup of military spending in the state lifted the Alabama economy out of depression in the World War II years. Statewide, the war did more to encourage industrialization than any other historical factor. After the war the contributions of the federal government in support of agriculture and national defense, including the space program, and the provision of such services as road building, education, and welfare, helped to transform the state’s economy. The mechanization of agriculture in the 1940s and ’50s completed the revolution in the state’s agricultural economy.

Racial segregation nevertheless continued to give rigidity to the social framework of Alabama and effectively excluded the black population from political and economic power. The 1954 U.S. Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision declaring segregation in public education unconstitutional encouraged black Alabamians to work to improve race relations. Progress was nevertheless slow and bitter. The state acquired international significance as the site of such noteworthy civil rights actions as the bus boycott of 1955–56 in Montgomery, which introduced Martin Luther King, Jr., to the country; the Freedom Rides of 1961; street demonstrations in Birmingham in 1963 in which commissioner of public safety Eugene (“Bull”) Connor turned fire hoses and police dogs on black protesters; Gov. George C. Wallace’s defiant attempt to stop the desegregation of the state university that same year; the death of four black children in an explosion that destroyed their Birmingham Sunday school, also in 1963; and the march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965.

This period of black activism precipitated major revisions in U.S. federal law. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 finally ended segregation in public accommodations and provided protection against some forms of employment discrimination. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed most means of limiting the political rights of blacks.

As a result of these activities, African American citizens attained better access to public services, broader educational and economic opportunities, and freer political participation.


Temple B'Nai Sholom in Huntsville, established in 1876.
It is the oldest synagogue building in continuous use in the state.
By the early 21st century the proportion of registered black voters had increased dramatically, and African Americans have been elected in increasing numbers to state and local government positions. Job opportunities in some professions and in government have improved markedly for African Americans, though poverty in the state is still disproportionately high in black communities. Many professional and civic bodies and most schools have achieved a good measure of integration. Progress has been sometimes slow and incomplete but nevertheless significant. Symbolic of changing attitudes was, in 2007, Alabama’s becoming the fourth state to apologize officially for its role in the institution of slavery.

Charles Goode Gomillion
Robert J. Norrell

Encyclopædia Britannica


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Bolivar Simon becomes President of Colombia

Simon Bolivar
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"

Grimm's famous Deutsche Grammatik (German Grammar) was the outcome of his purely philological work. The labors of past generations from the humanists onwards resulted in an enormous collection of materials in the form of text editions, dictionaries, and grammars, although most of it was uncritical and unreliable.

Some work had even been done in the way of comparison and determination of general laws, and the concept of a comparative Germanic grammar had been clearly grasped by the illustrious Englishman George Hickes by the beginning of the 18th century in his Thesaurus. Ten Kate in the Netherlands had [afterwards] (after Grimm's book?) made valuable contributions to the history and comparison of Germanic languages. Even Grimm himself did not initially intend to include all the languages in his Grammar, but he soon found that Old High German postulated Gothic, and that the later stages of German could not be understood without the help of other West Germanic varieties including English, and that the rich literature of Scandinavia could likewise not be ignored. The first edition of the first part of the Grammar, which appeared in 1819 treated the inflections of all these languages. It included a general introduction in which he vindicated the importance of an historical study of the German language against the a priori, quasi-philosophical methods then in vogue.

In 1822 this same volume appeared in a second edition (really a new work, for, as Grimm himself says in the preface, it cost him little reflection to "mow the first crop down to the ground"). The considerable gap between the two stages of Grimm's development of these two editions is significantly shown by the fact that, while the first edition gives only the inflections, the second volume addresses phonology with no fewer than 600 pages - more than half of the volume. Grimm had, at last, awakened to the full conviction that all philology must be based on rigorous adhesion to the laws of sound change in order to be sound, and he subsequently never deviated from this principle. This gave to all his investigations, even in their boldest flights, an iron-bound consistency, and a force of conviction that distinguishes science from dilettanteism. Prior to Grimm's time, philology was nothing than laborious and conscientious dilettanteism, with occasional instances of scientific inspiration.

  His advances must be attributed mainly to the influence of his contemporary Rasmus Christian Rask. Rask was born two years later than Grimm, but his remarkable precocity set him beyond his years. In Grimm's first editions, his Icelandic paradigms are based entirely on Rask's grammar, and in his second edition, he relied almost entirely on Rask for Old English. His debt to Rask can be appreciated only by comparing his treatment of Old English in the two editions; the difference is very great. For example, in the first edition he declines dæg, dæges, plural dægas, without having observed the law of vowel-change pointed out by Rask. (The correct plural is dagas.) There can be little doubt that the appearance of Rask's Old English grammar was the primary impetus for Grimm to recast his work from the beginning.

To Rask also belongs the merit of having first distinctly formulated the laws of sound-correspondence in the different languages, especially in the vowels (those more fleeting elements of speech previously ignored by etymologists).

The Grammar was continued in three volumes, treating principally derivation, composition and syntax, the last of which was unfinished. Grimm then began a third edition, of which only one part, comprising the vowels, appeared in 1840, his time being afterwards taken up mainly by the dictionary. The Grammar stands alone in the annals of science for its comprehensiveness, method and fullness of detail.

Every law, every letter, every syllable of inflection in the different languages was illustrated by an almost exhaustive mass of material, and it has served as a model for all succeeding investigators. Diez's grammar of the Romance languages is founded entirely on its methods, which have also exerted a profound influence on the wider study of the Indo-European languages in general.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Brothers Grimm
Wilhelm and Jakob Grimm

"Grimms Fairy Tales"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Georg Hermes: "Philosophical Introduction to Christian Theology"
Hermes Georg

Georg Hermes (22 April 1775, Dreierwalde – 26 May 1831, Bonn) was a German Roman Catholic theologian. Born at Dreierwalde, in Westphalia, Hermes was educated at the gymnasium and University of Münster. He later taught at both of these institutions.

In 1820, he was appointed professor of theology at Bonn, where he died. Hermes had a devoted band of adherents, of whom the most notable was Peter Josef Elvenich (1796–1886), who became professor at Breslau in 1829, and in 1870 threw in his lot with the Old Catholic movement.

His works were Untersuchungen über die innere Wahrheit des Christenthums (Münster, 1805), and Einleitung in die christkatholische Theologie, of which the first part, a philosophical introduction, was published in 1810, the second part, on positive theology, in 1829. The Einleitung was never completed. His Christkatholische Dogmatik was published, from his lectures, after his death, by two of his students, Johann Heinrich Achterfeldt and Joseph Braun (5 vols, 1831–1834).

The Einleitung had a major and controversial effect upon Catholic theology in Germany.
Hermes himself was very largely under the influence of the Kantian and Fichtean ideas, and though in the

  philosophical portion of his Einleitung he strongly criticizes both these thinkers, rejects their doctrine of the moral law as the sole guarantee for the existence of God, and condemns their restricted view of the possibility and nature of revelation, enough remained of purely speculative material to render his system obnoxious to the Catholic Church.

After his death, the contests between his followers and their opponents grew so bitter that the dispute was referred to the Papal see. The judgment was negative; on 25 September 1835 a papal bull condemned both parts of the Einleitung and the first volume of the Dogmatik. Two months later, the remaining volumes of the Dogmatik were likewise condemned. The controversy did not cease—in 1845 a systematic attempt was made anonymously by FX Werner to examine and refute the Hermesian doctrines, as contrasted with the orthodox Catholic faith (Der Hermesianismus, 1845). In 1847, the condemnation of 1835 was confirmed by Pius IX.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"

Schopenhauer’s philosophy returned to the Kantian distinction between appearances and things-in-themselves, or between phenomena and noumena, in order to stress the limitations of reason. In his major philosophical work, The World as Will and Representation (1819), Schopenhauer reiterated Kant’s claim that, given the structure of human cognition, knowledge of things as they really are is impossible; the best that can be obtained are comparatively superficial representations of things.

The World as Will and Representation (German: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung) is the central work of the German philosopher Schopenhauer Arthur. The first edition was published in December 1818 (?), and the second expanded edition in 1844. In 1948, an abridged version was edited by Thomas Mann.
English translations
In the English language, this work is known under three different titles. Although English publications about Schopenhauer played a role in the recognition of his fame as a philosopher in later life (1851 until his death in 1860) and a three volume translation by R. B. Haldane and J. Kemp, titled The World as Will and Idea, appeared already in 1883–1886, the first English translation of the expanded edition of this work under this title The World as Will and Representation appeared by E.F.J.Payne (who also translated several other works of Schopenhauer) as late as in 1958 (paperback editions in 1966 and 1969). A later English translation by Richard E. Aquila in collaboration with David Carus is titled The World as Will and Presentation (2008).

Translator Aquila believes that the reader will not grasp the details of the philosophy of Schopenhauer properly without this new title: "The World as Will and Presentation." According to him, “Idea,” “Representation,” and “Presentation” are all acceptable renderings of the word Vorstellung, but it is the notion of a performance or a theatrical presentation that is key in his interpretation.

The world that we perceive is a “presentation” of objects in the theatre of our own mind; the observers, the “subject,” each craft the show with their own stage managers, stagehands, sets, lighting, code of dress, pay scale, etc. The other aspect of the world, the Will, or “thing in itself,” which is not perceivable as a presentation, exists outside time, space, and causality. Aquila claims to make these distinctions as linguistically precise as possible.

  Relationship to earlier philosophical work
The main body of the work states at the beginning that it assumes prior knowledge of Immanuel Kant's theories, and Schopenhauer is regarded by some as remaining more faithful to Kant's metaphysical system of transcendental idealism than any of the other later German Idealists. However, the book contains an appendix entitled critique of the Kantian philosophy, in which Schopenhauer rejects most of Kant's ethics and significant parts of his epistemology and aesthetics. Schopenhauer demands that the introduction be read before the book itself, although it is not fully contained in this book but appeared earlier under the title On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. He also states in his introduction that the reader will be at his best prepared to understand his theories if he has lingered in the school of Plato or he is already familiar with Indian philosophy.

Schopenhauer believed that Kant had ignored inner experience, as intuited through the will, which was the most important form of experience. Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation; the Kantian thing-in-itself. He believed, therefore, that we could gain knowledge about the thing-in-itself, something Kant said was impossible, since the rest of the relationship between representation and thing-in-itself could be understood by analogy to the relationship between human will and human body. According to Schopenhauer, the entire world is the representation of a single Will, of which our individual wills are phenomena. In this way, Schopenhauer's metaphysics go beyond the limits that Kant had set, but do not go so far as the rationalist system-builders who preceded Kant.

Other important differences are Schopenhauer's rejection of eleven of Kant's twelve categories, arguing that only causality was important. Matter and causality were both seen as a union of time and space and thus being equal to each other.

Schopenhauer frequently acknowledges drawing on Plato in the development of his theories and, particularly in the context of aesthetics, speaks of the Platonic forms as existing on an intermediate ontological level between the representation and the Will.

Development of the work
The development of Schopenhauer's ideas took place very early in his career (1814–1818) and culminated in the publication of the first volume of Will and Representation in 1819.

This first volume consisted of four books – covering his epistemology, ontology, aesthetics and ethics, in order. Much later in his life, in 1844, Schopenhauer published a second edition in two volumes, the first a virtual reprint of the original, and the second a new work consisting of clarifications to and additional reflections on the first. His views had not changed substantially.

His belated fame after 1851 stimulated renewed interest in his seminal work, and led to a third and final edition with 136 more pages in 1859, one year before his death.

In the preface to the latter, Schopenhauer noted: "If I also have at last arrived, and have the satisfaction at the end of my life of seeing the beginning of my influence, it is with the hope that, according to an old rule, it will last longer in proportion to the lateness of its beginning."

Schopenhauer used the word "will" as a human's most familiar designation for the concept that can also be signified by other words such as "desire," "striving," "wanting," "effort," and "urging."

Schopenhauer's philosophy holds that all nature, including man, is the expression of an insatiable will to life. It is through the will that mankind finds all their suffering. Desire for more is what causes this suffering.

Titelblatt des Erstdruckes 1819
Volume 1

Epistemology (Book 1)

As mentioned above, Schopenhauer's notion of the will comes from the Kantian thing-in-itself, which Kant believed to be the fundamental reality behind the representation that provided the matter of perception, but lacked form. Kant believed that space, time, causation, and many other similar phenomena belonged properly to the form imposed on the world by the human mind in order to create the representation, and these factors were absent from the thing-in-itself. Schopenhauer pointed out that anything outside of time and space could not be differentiated, so the thing-in-itself must be one and all things that exist, including human beings, must be part of this fundamental unity. Our inner-experience must be a manifestation of the noumenal realm and the will is the inner kernel of every being. All knowledge gained of objects is seen as self-referential, as we recognize the same will in other things as is inside us.
Ontology (Book 2)
In Book 2, electricity and gravity are described as fundamental forces of the will. Knowledge is something that was invented to serve the will and is present in both human and non-human animals. It is subordinate to the demands of the will for all animals and most humans. The fundamental nature of the universe and everything in it is seen as this will.

Schopenhauer presents a pessimistic picture on which unfulfilled desires are painful, and pleasure is merely the sensation experienced at the instant one such pain is removed. However, most desires are never fulfilled, and those that are fulfilled are instantly replaced by more unfulfilled ones.

Aesthetics (Book 3)
Like many other aesthetic theories, Schopenhauer's centers on the concept of genius. Genius, according to Schopenhauer, is possessed by all people in varying degrees and consists of the capacity for aesthetic experience. An aesthetic experience occurs when an individual perceives an object and understands by it not the individual object itself, but the Platonic form of the object. The individual is then able to lose himself in the object of contemplation and, for a brief moment, escape the cycle of unfulfilled desire by becoming "the pure subject of will-less knowing."

Those who have a high degree of genius can be taught to communicate these aesthetic experiences to others, and objects that communicate these experiences are works of art. Based on this theory, Schopenhauer viewed Dutch still-life as the best type of painting, because it was able to help viewers see beauty in ordinary, everyday objects. However, he sharply criticized depictions of nude women and prepared food, as these stimulate desire and thus hinder the viewer from the aesthetic experience and becoming "the pure subject of will-less knowing."

Music also occupies a privileged place in Schopenhauer's aesthetics, as he believed it to have a special relationship to the will. Where other forms of art are imitations of things perceived in the world, music is a direct expression and articulation of the will.

  Ethics (Book 4)
Schopenhauer claims in this book to set forth a purely descriptive account of human ethical behavior, in which he identifies two types of behavior: the affirmation and denial of the will.

According to Schopenhauer, the Will (the great Will that is the thing-in-itself, not the individual wills of humans and animals, which are phenomena of the Will) conflicts with itself through the egoism that every human and animal is endowed with. Compassion arises from a transcendence of this egoism (the penetration of the illusory perception of individuality, so that one can empathise with the suffering of another) and can serve as a clue to the possibility of going beyond desire and the will. Schopenhauer categorically denies the existence of the "freedom of the will" in the conventional sense, and only adumbrates how the will can be "released" or negated, but is not subject to change, and serves as the root of the chain of causal determinism. His praise for asceticism led him to think highly of Buddhism and Vedanta Hinduism, as well as some monastic orders and ascetic practices found in Catholicism. He expressed contempt for Protestantism, Judaism, and Islam, which he saw as optimistic, devoid of metaphysics and cruel to non-human animals. According to Schopenhauer, the deep truth of the matter is that in cases of the over-affirmation of the will – that is, cases where one individual exerts his will not only for its own fulfillment but for the improper domination of others – he is unaware that he is really identical with the person he is harming, so that the Will in fact constantly harms itself, and justice is done in the moment in which the crime is committed, since the same metaphysical individual is both the perpetrator and the victim.

Schopenhauer discusses suicide at length, noting that it does not actually destroy the Will or any part of it in any substantial way, since death is merely the end of one particular phenomenon of the Will, which is subsequently rearranged.
By asceticism, the ultimate denial of the will, one can slowly weaken the individual will in a way that is far more significant than violent suicide, which is, in fact, in some sense an affirmation of the will.

According to Schopenhauer, denial of the will to live is the way to salvation from suffering. "Schopenhauer tells us that when the will is denied, the sage becomes nothing, without actually dying." When willing disappears, both the willer and the world become nothing. "...[T]o one who has achieved the will-less state, it is the world of the willer that has been disclosed as 'nothing'. Its hold over us, its seeming reality, has been 'abolished' so that it now stands before us as nothing but a bad dream from which we are, thankfully, awaking." As Schopenhauer wrote: "...to those in whom the will has turned and denied itself, this very real world of ours, with all its Suns and Milky Ways, is — nothing."
Criticism of the Kantian Philosophy (Appendix)
At the end of Book 4, Schopenhauer appended a thorough discussion of the merits and faults of Kant's philosophy. Schopenhauer's critique of the Kantian philosophy asserted that Kant's greatest error was the failure to distinguish between perceptual, intuitive knowledge, or insight and conceptual, discursive knowledge, or investigative thinking. One of Kant's greatest contributions, according to Schopenhauer, was the distinction of the phenomenon from the thing-in-itself.

Volume 2
The second volume consisted of several essays expanding topics covered in the first. Most important are his reflections on death and his theory on sexuality, which saw it as a manifestation of the whole will making sure that it will live on and depriving humans of their reason and sanity in their longing for their loved ones. Less successful is his theory of genetics: he argued that humans inherit their will, and thus their character, from their fathers, but their intellect from their mothers and he provides examples from biographies of great figures to illustrate this theory. The second volume also contains attacks on contemporary philosophers such as Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel.

The contents of Volume II are as follows.

Supplements to the First Book

First Half: The Doctrine of the Representation of Perception (through § 1 – 7 of Volume I)

On the Fundamental View of Idealism
On the Doctrine of Knowledge of Perception or Knowledge of the Understanding
On the Senses
On Knowledge a Priori
Second Half: The Doctrine of the Abstract Representation or of Thinking

On the Intellect Devoid of Reason
On the Doctrine of Abstract Knowledge, or Knowledge of Reason
On the Relation of Knowledge of Perception to Abstract Knowledge
On the Theory of the Ludicrous
On Logic in General
On the Science of Syllogisms
On Rhetoric
On the Doctrine of Science
On the Methods of Mathematics
On the Association of Ideas
On the Essential Imperfections of the Intellect
On the Practical Use of Our Reason and on Stoicism
On Man's Need for Metaphysics

Supplements to the Second Book

On the Possibility of Knowing the Thing-in-Itself
On the Primacy of the Will in Self-Consciousness
On Objectification of the Will in the Animal Organism
On Retrospect and More General Consideration
On Objective View of the Intellect
On the objectification of the Will in Nature without Knowledge
On Matter
On Transcendent Considerations on the Will as Thing-in-Itself
On Teleology
On Instinct and Mechanical Tendency
On Characterization of the Will-to-Live

Supplements to the Third Book

On Knowledge of the Ideas
On the Pure Subject of Knowing
On Genius
On Madness
On Isolated Remarks on Natural Beauty
On the Inner Nature of Art
On the Aesthetics of Architecture
On Isolated Remarks on the Aesthetics of the Plastic and Pictorial Arts
On the Aesthetics of Poetry
On History
On the Metaphysics of Music

Supplements to the Fourth Book

On Preface
On Death and Its Relation to the Indestructibility of Our Inner nature
On Life of the Species
On The Hereditary Nature of Qualities
On The Metaphysics of Sexual Love [+ Appendix]
On the Affirmation of the Will-to-Live
On the Vanity and Suffering of Life
On Ethics
On the Doctrine of the Denial of the Will-to-Live
On The Road to Salvation
On Epiphilosophy

The value of this work is much disputed. Some rank Schopenhauer as one of the most original and inspiring of all philosophers, while others see him as inconsistent and too pessimistic.

He has had a huge effect on psychoanalysis and the works of Sigmund Freud; some researchers have even questioned whether Freud was telling the truth when he said that he had not read Schopenhauer until his old age.
The notion of the subconscious is present in Schopenhauer's will and his theory of madness was consistent with this. Also, his theory on masochism is still now widely proposed by doctors.

Nietzsche, Popper, Wittgenstein, Tolstoy, Jung, Borges, D. H. Lawrence, Camus, Beckett, Mahler and Wagner were all strongly influenced by his work.

For Nietzsche, the reading of The World as Will and Representation aroused his interest in philosophy. Although he despised especially Schopenhauer's ideas on compassion, Nietzsche would admit that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers that he respected, lauding him in his essay Schopenhauer als Erzieher (Schopenhauer as Educator 1874), one of his Untimely Meditations.

Schopenhauer's discussions of language and ethics were a major influence on Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Some see Schopenhauer's account of the Will as closely resembling classic examples of Monism. Schopenhauer also developed some ideas that can be found in the theory of evolution, before Darwin began to publish his work, for example the idea that all life strives to preserve itself and to engender new life, and that our mental faculties are merely tools to that end.

However, he saw species as fixed. His respect for the rights of animals, – including a vehement opposition to vivisection – has led many modern animal rights activists to look up to him. He thought of animals and humans as both being objectifications of the same underlying Will.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The title page of the expanded 1844 publication
  Arthur Schopenhauer

Schopenhauer Arthur

  IDEAS that Changed the World

Myths and Legends
History of Religion
History of Philosophy
Jean Sismondi: "Nouveaux principes d'economie politique"
Sismondi Jean

Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi, in full Jean-Charles-Léonard Simonde de Sismondi (born May 9, 1773, Geneva, Switzerland—died June 25, 1842, Chêne, near Geneva), Swiss economist and historian who warned against the perils of unchecked industrialism.


Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi
  His pioneering theories on the nature of economic crises and the risks of limitless competition, overproduction, and underconsumption influenced such later economists as Karl Marx and John Maynard Keynes.

Sismondi became a clerk in a bank in Lyon, France, at age 16 and witnessed the unfolding of the French Revolution. To escape the Revolution’s spreading effects, he and his family went in 1794 to Tuscany, where they became farmers. Sismondi’s experiences and observations there resulted in Tableau de l’agriculture toscane (1801; Picture of Tuscan Agriculture). Living in his native Geneva from 1800 on, he became such a successful author of books and essays that he could decline offers of professorships. Sismondi’s monumental 16-volume Histoire des républiques italiennes du moyen âge (1809–18; History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages), which regarded the free cities of medieval Italy as the origin of modern Europe, inspired the leaders of that country’s Risorgimento (nationalist unification movement).
As an economist, Sismondi was at first a loyal follower of Adam Smith, the proponent of laissez-faire economics.

His Nouveaux principes d’économie politique (1819; “New Principles of Political Economy”), however, represented a break with Smith’s ideas.
Sismondi argued for governmental regulation of economic competition and for a balance between production and consumption. He foresaw a growing rift between the bourgeoisie and the working class—coining the term class struggle—and called for reforms to ameliorate the living conditions of the latter, though he stopped short of condemning private property.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Horace Wilson: "Sanskrit-English Dictionary"
Wilson Horace Hayman

Horace Hayman Wilson (26 September 1786 – 8 May 1860) was an English orientalist. He studied medicine at St Thomas's Hospital, and went out to India in 1808 as assistant-surgeon on the Bengal establishment of the British East India Company. His knowledge of metallurgy caused him to be attached to the mint at Calcutta, where he was for a time associated with John Leyden.


Horace Hayman Wilson
  He became deeply interested in the ancient language and literature of India, and by the recommendation of Henry Thomas Colebrooke, he was in 1811 appointed secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. In 1813 he published the Sanskrit text with a graceful, if somewhat free, translation in English rhymed verse of Kalidasa's charming lyrical poem, the Meghaduuta, or Cloud-Messenger.

He prepared the first Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1819) from materials compiled by native scholars, supplemented by his own researches. This work was only superseded by the Sanskritwörterbuch (1853–1876) of Rudolf Roth and Otto von Böhtlingk, who expressed their obligations to Wilson in the preface to their great work. He was interested in Ayurveda and traditional Indian medical and surgical practices. He compiled the local practices observed for cholera and leprosy in his publications in the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta.
In 1827 Wilson published Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus, which contained a very full survey of the Indian drama, translations of six complete plays and short accounts of twenty-three others. His Mackenzie Collection (1828) is a descriptive catalogue of the extensive collection of Oriental, especially South Indian, manuscripts and antiquities made by Colonel Colin Mackenzie, then deposited partly in the India Office, London (now part of the Oriental and India Office Collections of the British Library) and partly at Madras (Chennai).
He also wrote a Historical Sketch of the First Burmese War, with Documents, Political and Geographical (1827), a Review of the External Commerce of Bengal from 1813 to 1828 (1830), a translation of Vishnu Purana (1840), and a History of British India from 1805 to 1835, (1844–1848) in continuation of James Mill's 1818 The History of British India.

He acted for many years as secretary to the committee of public instruction, and superintended the studies of the Sanskrit College in Calcutta. He was one of the staunchest opponents of the proposal that English should be made the sole medium of instruction in native schools, and became for a time the object of bitter attacks. In 1832 Oxford University selected Dr. Wilson to be the first occupant of the newly founded Boden chair of Sanskrit: he had placed a column length advertisement in The Times on 6 March 1832 p 3, giving a list of his achievements and intended activities, along with testimonials, including one from a rival candidate, as to his suitability for the post. In 1836 he was appointed librarian to the East India Company. He also taught at the East India Company College. He was a member of the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta and was an original member of the Royal Asiatic Society, of which he was director from 1837 up to the time of his death. Wilson is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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