Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1817 Part II NEXT-1818 Part II    
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
History at a Glance
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Perceval Spencer
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"The Demon
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Nations in Arms
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London

"Proclamación y jura de la Independencia de Chile"
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1818 Part I
Charles XIII of Sweden d.; succeeded by Jean Bernadotte as Charles XIV of Sweden

Charles XIII
Charles XIV John (king of Sweden and Norway)
Chilean Declaration of Independence

The Chilean Declaration of Independence is a document declaring the independence of Chile from the Spanish Empire. It was drafted in January 1818 and approved by Supreme Director Bernardo O'Higgins on February 12, 1818 at Talca, despite being dated in Concepción on January 1, 1818.

The ceremony of independence was performed on February 12, 1818, the first anniversary of the Battle of Chacabuco.

The original document, displaying manuscript comments by O'Higgins, was damaged at the Palace of the Real Audiencia of Chile.

 In 1832, under President José Joaquín Prieto, a new copy was sent to Peru to be signed by O'Higgins, and later by his former ministers, Miguel Zañartu, Hipólito Villegas and José Ignacio Zenteno, who were still living in Chile.

This copy was kept at the Palacio de La Moneda until the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, when it was destroyed during the fighting.
Chilean Declaration of Independence document preserved at the National Congress of Chile, Valparaíso

Do you swear to defend the fatherland to the last drop of your blood, to keep it unharmed in the hands of Fernando VII, our lord, or his rightful heir; to uphold and protect our religion and our laws; to maintain justice and recognize the supreme Counselor of the Regency as the representative of His Royal Majesty?

—First National Junta Oath, 18 September 1810

Historical background
By 1817, the Chilean War of Independence had entered its final phase, and there was little doubt that its final goal, national independence, would be realized. Even though Chile had been operating independently from Spain for several years, no formal declaration of independence had yet been produced.

One of the first official documents to address the issue of independence was the Provisional Constitutional Regulations of 1812, introduced by José Miguel Carrera on October 27, 1812. Article V of this document states that "No decree, ruling or order, issued by any authority or courts outside the territory of Chile, will have any effect; anyone who tries to give them force will be punished as criminals of the State", while also recognizing the authority of Fernando VII in Article III.

At the beginning of Patria Nueva, a period that began with the victory at the Battle of Chacabuco, Chile had a government with its own authorities which controlled much of the territory of Chile, had a flag, a coat-of-arms and its own currency, all of which indicated that Chile had become an independent state. Thus, there was no pressing need to make an explicit declaration of independence, as the United States of America had done in 1776, or Venezuela in 1811, or Colombia in 1813, or Argentina in 1816.

The President of Chile, Bernardo O'Higgins, bore in mind the problems experienced by the previous era, and convinced the members of his assembly that declaring independence would be difficult and problematic at this time, as the country was still warring against the Spanish Royalists and because the establishment of internal order was indispensable towards the goal of independence. Therefore, it was decided that a plebiscite would be held instead.

  Popular consultation
On November 13, 1817, the Superior Governmental Junta, in the absence of Bernardo O'Higgins who was overseeing military operations in the southern part of Chile, issued a decree declaring that a referendum was to be set up to run for fifteen days. The referendum would be held in each of the four administrative quarters of Santiago, and would run for fifteen days, during which residents would sign their views in favor or against the Declaration of Independence. Cities and towns were advised to follow the same procedure.

The decree was sent alongside the referendum form to the authorities of the regional governments and bore the signatures of several Junta members: Luis de la Cruz, Francisco Antonio Pérez, José Manuel Astorga, and the Minister of the Interior Miguel Zañartu. On November 15, Zañartu sent a brief to the same recipients instructing them to publish the form "as soon as possible".

The result of the referendum was favorable to O'Higgins. The new order had the support of the majority of citizens who participated in the referendum, though many who did not agree did not participate because they feared their votes would bring persecution towards them. However, in Concepción, the plebiscite was not complete, and was only held in a few locations, as reported by O'Higgins on December 23, 1817 from his camp opposite Talcahuano: "[...] habían empezado a remitir algunos partidos las suscripciones [...] pero las ocurrencias ulteriores en la provincia y la medida últimamente adoptada de hacer emigrar de ella a todos sus habitantes, no permiten esta operación". During the month of December, after checking the results, the government began preparations to make a solemn declaration of independence. This coincided with news about the upcoming arrival of a new Royalist expedition under the command of Spanish Brigadier Mariano Osorio, aimed at reconquering Chile.

Since the plebiscite had decided in favor of a declaration of independence, it was decided that a formal act would be drawn up which concisely and clearly represented the will of the Chilean people. The process would mimic that of other countries which had already declared their independence. A manifesto was also to be published which would outline the rationale and reasons for the declaration. The person in charge of this work would be Miguel Zañartu, and secondly Bernardo Vera y Pintado.

At the end of 1817, Bernardo O'Higgins was present at the siege of Talcahuano against the Spanish forces. When the uncertain military situation forced them to lift the siege, they retreated to Morrillos de Perales (now known as the "U" hill). This was a position which the patriots had chosen and which dominated one of the gates of Talcahuano. On January 1, 1818, a message of independence asserting that Chile was a "free and sovereign country, not a rebel province" was drafted, written on a drum according to folklore. The message was addressed to the Spanish colonel José Ordóñez, controller of the port of Talcahuano and former mayor of Concepción. This document is considered the first declaration of independence of Chile.

"Proclamación y jura de la Independencia de Chile", by Pedro Subercaseaux Errázuriz (1945)
Pledge of independence
The formal ceremony and pledge of independence was set for the first anniversary of the Battle of Chacabuco: February 12, 1818.

On February 9, Luis de la Cruz published the program of the ceremonies and celebration to be held in Santiago. These activities commenced on February 11 in the afternoon with the firing of cannons from Cerro Santa Lucía. At nine o'clock on February 12, all the authorities and people of the Palacio Directorial de Santiago mounted a stage in front of the Plaza de Armas in Santiago.

The ceremony was opened by José Gregorio Argomedo, prosecutor of the Chilean Court of Appeals, who gave a speech representing the government, after which the minister Miguel Zañartu read the Act of Independence

de la Cruz then requested the oath from José Ignacio Cienfuegos, administrator of the Santiago Diocese, who had earlier added the phrasing "Y así juro porque creo en mi conciencia que ésta es la voluntad del Eterno" ("And so I swear on my conscience that this is the will of the Eternal"). Following this, Cruz heard the oath from José de San Martín, the General in Chief of the Chilean Army. Minister Zañartu also took the oath along with several other authorities and public officials. Finally, the Mayor of Santiago, Francisco de Borja Fontecilla, swore the oath to the people.

  On February 13, a Te Deum was sung at the Santiago Cathedral, and, the next day, the cathedral celebrated a Mass of thanksgiving. After this, Tomás Guido gave a speech congratulating the Chilean people on behalf of the Buenos Aires government. The public celebration of independence in Santiago lasted until February 16. The declaration itself was widely distributed to the populace. Another document, which covered the motives behind the revolution and declaration of independence, written by Bernardo Vera, was also distributed to the public to a lesser extent.

In Talca, on February 12, Bernardo O'Higgins presided over the swearing-in of the Independent Southern Army, and the subsequent ceremony with ceremonial gunfire, a Mass, Te Deum and public festivities. During these few days, the declaration of independence was made in many other cities and towns of Chile, with as many festivities as could be had. In La Serena, independence was declared on February 27 and the festivities lasted until March 1 and in Copiapó the ceremony took place between March 27 and 28.

On June 15, 1820, Valdivia was sworn into the new nation, after Thomas Cochrane led a successful attempt to capture Valdivia from the royalists. Later, on January 22, 1826, the pledge of independence would be made in San Carlos, Chiloé, after the Spanish signed the Treaty of Tantauco, which gave the Chiloé Archipelago to Chile.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


World Countries

Bavarian constitution proclaimed

On 26 May 1818, the constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria was proclaimed.

The Landtag would have two houses, an upper house (Herrenhaus) comprising the aristocracy and noblemen, including the high-class hereditary landowners, government officials and nominees of the crown. The second house, a lower house (Abgeordnetenhaus), would include representatives of small landowners, the towns and the peasants. The rights of Protestants were safeguarded in the constitution with articles supporting the equality of all religions, despite opposition by supporters of the Roman Catholic Church. The initial constitution almost proved disastrous for the monarchy, with controversies such as the army having to swear allegiance to the new constitution. The monarchy appealed to the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire for advice, the two refused to take action on Bavaria's behalf, but the debacles lessened and the state stabilized with the accession of Ludwig I to the throne following the death of Maximilian in 1825.

Within the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Palatinate enjoyed a special legal and administrative position, as the Bavarian government maintained substantial achievements of the French period. The German historian Heiner Haan[1] described the special status of the Palatinate within Bavaria as a relation of "Hauptstaat" (main state, i.e. Bavaria) and "Nebenstaat" (alongside state, i.e. the Palatinate).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Internal customs in Prussia abolished
Allies evacuate their troops from France
Treaty of 1818

The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom. It resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations, and allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.

The two nations agreed to a boundary line involving the 49th parallel north, in part because a straight-line boundary would be easier to survey than the pre-existing boundaries based on watersheds. The treaty marked both the United Kingdom's last permanent major loss of territory in what is now the Continental United States and the United States' only permanent significant cession of North American territory to a foreign power. Britain ceded all of Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel and west to the Rocky Mountains, including all of the Red River Colony south of that latitude, while the U.S. ceded the northernmost tip of the territory of Louisiana above the 49th parallel.

A map of the historical territorial expansion of the United States of America.
Treaty provisions

The treaty name is variously cited as Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves, Convention of Commerce (Fisheries, Boundary and the Restoration of Slaves), and Convention of Commerce between His Majesty and the United States of America.

- Article I secured fishing rights along Newfoundland and Labrador for the U.S.

- Article II set the boundary between British North America and the United States along "a line drawn from the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods, [due south, then] along the 49th parallel of north latitude..." to the "Stony Mountains"[3] (now known as the Rocky Mountains). Britain ceded the part of Rupert's Land and Red River Colony south of the 49th parallel (including the Red River Basin — which now forms parts of Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota — as well as a small piece of modern-day Montana near Triple Divide Peak). The United States ceded the small portion of the Louisiana Purchase that lay north of the 49th parallel (namely, parts of the Milk River, Poplar River, and Big Muddy Creek watersheds in modern-day Alberta and Saskatchewan).
This article settled a boundary dispute caused by ignorance of actual geography in the boundary agreed to in the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War.

  That earlier treaty had placed the boundary between the United States and British possessions to the north along a line going westward from the Lake of the Woods to the Mississippi River. The parties had failed to realize that the river did not extend that far north, so such a line would never meet the river. In fixing this problem, the 1818 treaty inadvertently created an exclave of the United States, the Northwest Angle, which is the small section of the present state of Minnesota that is the only part of the United States outside Alaska north of the 49th parallel.

- Article III provided for joint control of land in the Oregon Country for ten years. Both could claim land and both were guaranteed free navigation throughout.

- Article IV confirmed the Anglo-American Convention of 1815, which regulated commerce between the two parties, for an additional ten years.

- Article V agreed to refer differences over a U.S. claim arising from the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812, to "some Friendly Sovereign or State to be named for that purpose". The U.S. claim was for return of, or compensation for, slaves that were in British territory or on British naval vessels when the treaty was signed. The Treaty of Ghent article in question was about handing over property, and the U.S. claimed that these slaves were the property of U.S. citizens.

-Article VI established that ratification would occur within at most six months of signing the treaty.
The treaty was negotiated for the U.S. by Albert Gallatin, ambassador to France, and Richard Rush, minister to the UK; and for the UK by Frederick John Robinson, Treasurer of the Royal Navy and member of the privy council, and Henry Goulburn, an undersecretary of state.
The treaty was signed on October 20, 1818. Ratifications were exchanged on January 30, 1819. The Convention of 1818, along with the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817, marked the beginning of improved relations between the British Empire and its former colonies, and paved the way for more positive relations between the U.S. and Canada, notwithstanding that repelling U.S. invasion was a defence priority in Canada until the Second World War.

Despite the relatively friendly nature of the agreement, it nevertheless resulted in a fierce struggle for control of the Oregon Country in the following two decades. The British-chartered Hudson's Bay Company, having previously established a trading network centered on Fort Vancouver on the lower Columbia River, with other forts in what is now eastern Washington and Idaho as well as on the Oregon Coast and in Puget Sound, undertook a harsh campaign to restrict encroachment by U.S. fur traders to the area.

  By the 1830s, with pressure in the U.S. mounting to annex the region outright, the company undertook a deliberate policy to exterminate all fur-bearing animals from the Oregon Country, in order to both maximize its remaining profit and to delay the arrival of U.S. mountain men and settlers. The policy of discouraging settlement was undercut to some degree by the actions of John McLoughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, who regularly provided relief and welcome to U.S. immigrants who had arrived at the post over the Oregon Trail.

By the middle 1840s, the tide of U.S. immigration, as well as a U.S. political movement to claim the entire territory, led to a renegotiation of the agreement. The Oregon Treaty in 1846 permanently established the 49th parallel as the boundary between the United States and British North America to the Pacific Ocean.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Illinois becomes a state of the U.S.

Illinois, constituent state of the United States of America. It stretches southward 385 miles (620 km) from the Wisconsin border in the north to Cairo in the south. In addition to Wisconsin, the state borders Lake Michigan to the northeast, Indiana to the east, Kentucky to the southeast, Missouri to the west, and Iowa to the northwest. Illinois was named for the Illinois Indians. The capital is Springfield, in the west-central part of the state.

Admitted as the 21st member of the union on Dec. 3, 1818, Illinois lies within both the so-called old industrial belt and the fertile agricultural heart of the country. The presence of Chicago, one of the country’s most prominent cities, creates sharp distinctions between the state’s largely urban and suburban northeast and the more evenly balanced urban-rural population downstate. In political life, Illinois is divided between Cook county (which contains much of the Chicago metropolitan area) and “downstate”—that is, all the other counties, even those north of Cook, such as Lake county. Because of its great length, Illinois exhibits qualities characteristic of both the Northern and Southern regions of the United States; although its northern portion touches the Upper Midwest, its southern point is actually farther south than Richmond, Va., and has great affinities with neighbouring Kentucky and Missouri. Further contrasts derive from the racial and ethnic complexity of the population.

These internal divisions, while not unique to Illinois, perhaps became magnified through the state’s critical role in the economic and political life of the country. Rich in coal and petroleum reserves and ideally located for the acquisition of raw materials and distribution of finished goods, Illinois ranks among the top states in value of exports, agricultural income, and value added by manufacturing. Chicago is a national railroad hub, the city’s O’Hare International Airport is among the world’s busiest, and Illinois highways and waterways are thick with commercial traffic. Politically, Illinois has tended to be a “swing state,” its votes often mirroring fluctuating social tensions that underlie the growing, but unevenly distributed, economic prosperity. Area 57,916 square miles (150,002 square km). Population (2010) 12,830,632; (2013 est.) 12,882,135.

A Paleo-Indian culture existed in southern Illinois from about 8000 bc. The Mississippian people, whose religious centre was at Cahokia in southwestern Illinois, constituted probably the largest pre-Columbian (c. ad 1300) community north of Mexico in the Mississippi floodplain. Native American tribes in Illinois were all Algonquian-speaking peoples: in the north were the Kickapoo, Sauk, and Fox; in the Lake Michigan area the Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Ojibwa (Chippewa); on the central prairies the Kaskaskia and Peoria; and in the south the Cahokia and Tamaroa.

The first Europeans to visit Illinois were the French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette in 1673, when they explored the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. Near present-day Peoria, René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, established the first French foothold, Fort Crèvecoeur, and built Fort Saint Louis near Ottawa. In the 1760s, after the French and Indian War, France ceded to Britain its claim to lands east of the Mississippi. The following years were uneasy—British policy was unfavourable to the area’s economic development, Native Americans resented the British presence, and settlements were without civil government. By 1773 the number of settlers had declined to about 1,000 plus a few hundred slaves.

In 1778, during the American Revolution, the capture by American forces of Kaskaskia, the British seat of government in the region, made Illinois a county of Virginia. The first settlement on the site of Chicago was made in 1779 by the black pioneer Jean-Baptist-Point Du Sable.

On July 4, 1800, the Northwest Territory was divided, and the Illinois country was made a part of Indiana Territory; Illinois Territory was formed in 1809 by dividing Indiana Territory, and Illinois attained statehood nine years later.
Early years of statehood
In 1818, two-thirds of the population lived along the eastern and western edges of southern Illinois and primarily engaged in the fur trade. The final conflict with Native Americans was the Black Hawk War in 1832.

Southern and central Illinois remained the more heavily settled areas of the state during the early 19th century. In 1848 the Illinois and Michigan Canal was completed, linking the waters of the Illinois River with Lake Michigan and thereby the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan watersheds. The canal formed part of the journey for settlers and travelers from the East Coast, who reached Chicago via the Erie Canal and went on to points south and west. With rail expansion many towns became prosperous. The Cumberland Road, leading westward from Maryland and terminating at Vandalia, brought many settlers to Illinois.

The Illinois constitution of 1818 gave blacks the status of indentured servants, and slavery would have been legalized except for fear that such a move would prevent admission to the union. In 1824 Illinois voters rejected a proposal for a constitutional convention whose implicit purpose was to legalize slavery. Following the heavy influx of Yankees into northern Illinois during the 1830s and ’40s, which offset the prevailing Southern, proslavery attitudes, abolitionist sentiment translated itself into the constitution of 1848, which abolished slavery and forbade the importing of slaves. However, repressive laws limiting the rights of African Americans remained part of Illinois law.
When the Civil War broke out, northern Illinois remained loyal to the Union and to the Illinoisan in the White House, Abraham Lincoln. A movement to ally southern Illinois with the Confederacy failed. Some 250,000 Illinoisans fought for the Union; among them was its most able general and a future president, Ulysses S. Grant.

  Economic and social maturation
Chicago’s great fire of 1871 was only a temporary deterrent in the city’s progress toward becoming an industrial colossus. The great need for workers in its mills, rail yards, and slaughterhouses was filled by both European immigrants and freed blacks who had come to Illinois beginning in the 1860s. Until well into the 20th century, Illinois was a main focus of the American labour movement. Two events in Chicago, the Haymarket Riot of 1886 and the Pullman Strike of 1894, became landmarks in the militant rise of the unions.

At the same time, Illinois was becoming a pioneer in social legislation, with a state board of health created in 1877; a compulsory school-attendance law in 1883; a “sweatshop act” providing for factory inspections and restrictions on child labour in 1893; and a work limit for children of 8 hours per day and 48 hours per week, also in 1893. The World’s Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893, was America’s first international exhibition of the vast technological and scientific strides it had made during the 19th century.

Progress and politics since 1900
During the decades up to and including the 1920s and ’30s, the name Chicago became an international byword for bootleg liquor, gangsterism, and organized crime—epitomized in the notoriety of Al Capone. Downstate Illinois was also notorious as a region of violence. “Bloody Williamson” county was the site of a feud, beginning in 1868, among five families of Tennessee and Kentucky origin. A dispute over a card game in a tavern near Carbondale grew into an eight-year vendetta fought by ambush or nighttime murder in barnyards, bars, and country stores. This violent tradition continued into the 1920s with the racist crusades of the Ku Klux Klan, the coal strikes, and the wars among the Shelton, Birger, and other bootlegging gangs. Amid the violence and scandals that rocked state and municipal governments in Illinois, there was tremendous economic and cultural growth.

A reorganization of state government in 1917 brought more than 100 independent agencies and commissions under the governor and became a model for many other states. Chicago became the country’s second largest city in the 1880s, and in 1933–34 its Century of Progress Exposition drew attention again to further industrial achievement. In 1942 the world’s first self-sustained atomic chain reaction was set off at the University of Chicago, ushering in the atomic age.

Confluence of the Mississippi (left) and Ohio rivers at Cairo, Illinois.
Since the Civil War, intense competition between the Republican and Democratic parties has characterized the political life of Illinois. This factor and the state’s large electoral vote make it a significant battleground in presidential elections. The three distinguishable political regions are Chicago, which is heavily Democratic; Chicago’s suburban metropolitan area and the rich farmlands of north and central Illinois, which are strongly Republican; and southern Illinois, which may swing one way or the other. Today the two parties have almost equal strength statewide.

Throughout the state’s history both Democratic and Republican officials have been so frequently the target of corruption and fraud that Illinois politics has gained a checkered national reputation. The state has not had as governor a dominating personality like Wisconsin’s Robert La Follette, who changed the political climate of that state so that the public would expect and demand integrity. Many state and local officials have served prison time, and three governors in the late 20th and early 21st centuries have been convicted of federal felonies.

From 1955 until his death in 1976, Mayor Richard J. Daley of Chicago built up enormous statewide—and nationwide—power in the Democratic Party, largely through his administrative control of all city and, effectively, Cook county departments and their patronage. Court decisions limiting the awarding of jobs as political rewards have diminished the power of the Chicago mayor and the governor.

  Since Illinois has less rigid campaign funding laws than most states, a system has evolved in which the speaker of the House of Representatives and the president of the Senate have great power because they see to the funding of the legislators. This has resulted in a balance of power among the legislative leaders, the governor, and the mayor of Chicago.

James R. Thompson, a Republican from Chicago, was first elected governor in 1976 and was reelected for four consecutive terms, a record in the history of the state. During most of that period he was faced with a Democratic-controlled House and Senate. As a result, Thompson used his extensive veto powers—including total veto, line-item veto, appropriation-reduction veto, and the amendatory veto—to influence legislation.

After his election as governor in 1990, Jim Edgar followed a more fiscally prudent path than his fellow Republican Thompson. Edgar, aided somewhat by a healthy national economy, put the state’s fiscal house in order and during the last two years of his administration increased funding for education. George Ryan, a conservative Republican, succeeded Jim Edgar as governor in 1999. He startled many of his followers by visiting Cuba under Fidel Castro’s reign, becoming the first U.S. governor to do so, and by essentially placing a moratorium on the execution of prisoners on death row, pardoning several inmates and commuting the sentences of the rest. However, Ryan was indicted in 2003 and found guilty in 2006 for a bribery scandal that ended his political career.


In 2002 Rod Blagojevich became the first Democrat to be elected governor in more than 25 years; he was reelected in 2006. In November 2008 Illinois’s junior U.S. senator, Democrat Barack Obama, was elected president of the United States. One month later Blagojevich was arrested on federal corruption charges that included his alleged attempt to obtain personal financial gain by leveraging his authority as governor to fill Obama’s vacated Senate seat. The state House of Representatives began impeachment proceedings and in January 2009 voted 114–1 in favour of impeachment. The state Senate unanimously convicted Blagojevich on the charges, making Blagojevich the first Illinois governor to be impeached. The Senate removed him from the governorship and barred him from seeking any political office in the state in the future. Lieutenant Governor Pat Quinn was sworn in as governor on Jan. 29, 2009. Quinn was elected outright the following year, and in January 2011 he signed into law a bill that recognized civil unions between same-sex couples. After Blagojevich’s first trial stalled with a hung jury, his subsequent retrial concluded in June 2011 with jurors finding him guilty of 17 counts of bribery, wire fraud, and attempted extortion.

Richard T. Lockhart
Janet M. Cartwright
Paul Simon

Encyclopædia Britannica


World Countries

United States of America
Josef Dobrovsky: "History of the Czech Language"
Dobrovsky Josef

Josef Dobrovsky, (born August 17, 1753, Gyarmat, Hungary—died January 6, 1829, Brno, Moravia, Austrian Empire [now in Czech Republic]), scholar of the Czech language, antiquary, and a principal founder of comparative Slavic linguistics.


Josef Dobrovsky
  Educated for the Roman Catholic priesthood, Dobrovský devoted himself to scholarship after the temporary dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773.

He was tireless in his research on ancient Slavic manuscripts, and he traveled widely, notably to Russia and Sweden in 1792, in search of works removed during the Thirty Years’ War.

His textual criticism of the Bible led him to study Old Church Slavonic and, subsequently, the Slavic languages as a group. His erudition ultimately extended to all fields of Slavic literature, language, history, and antiquities.

The first of his three most important works was Geschichte der böhmischen Sprache und Literatur (1792; “History of the Bohemian Language and Literature”), which included considerations of many earlier works long suppressed because of their Protestant religious content. His grammar of Czech, Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprache (1809; “Learning System of the Bohemian Language”), codified the language and brought order to the usage of the literary language that had come to be neglected in the preceding 150 years.

The foundation of comparative Slavic studies was laid in Dobrovský’s grammar of Old Church Slavonic (1815).

Encyclopædia Britannica

Froude James Anthony

James Anthony Froude, (born April 23, 1818, Dartington, Devon, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1894, Kingsbridge, Devon), English historian and biographer whose History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 12 vol. (1856–70), fundamentally altered the whole direction of Tudor studies. He was immensely prolific, producing also novels and essays.


James Anthony Froude
  Froude was, both at home and at the University of Oxford, which he entered in 1835, dominated by his elder brother Richard Hurrell Froude, famous himself as one of the founders of the Oxford Movement. Froude was influenced also by John Henry Newman, the future cardinal, who was one of his fellow students at Oriel College. After graduating in 1842, he broke with the movement and, with the appearance of The Nemesis of Faith in 1849, the third of his novels, which was in effect an attack on the established church, he was obliged to resign his fellowship at Exeter College. He thereafter made his living by his pen until in 1892 he returned to Oxford as regius professor of modern history. In Froude’s historical works there are numerous instances of his careless handling of his texts, yet there is no evidence of deliberate distortion. His errors derive partly from the tremendous speed at which he worked. But they resulted also from a more fundamental cause. To Froude the 16th century was the crucial period in English history, when the forces of liberty, as expressed by the Reformation, were struggling against the forces of darkness, as represented by the Roman Catholic church. This theme gives to all his work a vigorous partisan quality. He believed indeed that the Anglo-Catholic revival of the 19th century was merely a later version of the same danger. It was his declared duty to open the eyes of his own generation to the perils that had been faced and overcome by the Tudors.

The other great influence upon his attitude to history was Thomas Carlyle, from whom Froude absorbed the doctrines of the role of the hero in history. Henry VIII was Froude’s hero; and his portrait of him was wholly at variance with those drawn by Lord Macaulay, M.A.S. Hume, and John Lingard.

Henry, according to Froude, was the man of courage and energy who guided the nation through its gravest crisis. Elizabeth I, by contrast, was a weak, uncertain ruler who needed Lord Burghley—the hero of the later volumes of his History—to save her from the consequences of her own follies.

Savage attacks by reviewers had no effect on Froude’s methods as a historian or on his popularity with the reading public. There followed, among other works, The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, 3 vol. (1872–74), The Life and Letters of Erasmus, 2 vol. (1894), and English Seamen in the Sixteenth Century (1895). But the great work of the later part of his life was his biography of Carlyle, which appeared in four volumes (1882–84), as well as an edition of Carlyle’s papers, 2 vol. (1881). Here, too, he was severely handled by his enemies, again for his inaccuracy but also for his frank analysis of Carlyle’s defects of character which, Froude claimed, as an honest biographer he must fully examine.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Hallam Henry: "The View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages"

Henry Hallam: "The View of the State
of Europe during the Middle Ages"
Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich  succeeds Fichte Johann Gottlieb (d. 1814) as professor of philosophy at Berlin
Marx Karl

Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, social scientist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and social science. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867–1894).


Karl Marx
  Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne and began to work out the theory of the materialist conception of history. He moved to Paris in 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers and met Friedrich Engels, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London together with his wife and children, where he continued writing and formulating his theories about social and economic activity. He also campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association.

Marx's theories about society, economics and politics – the collective understanding of which is known as Marxism – hold that human societies progress through class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed labouring class that provides the labour for production. States, Marx believed, were run on behalf of the ruling class and in their interest while representing it as the common interest of all; and he predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power and eventually establish a classless society, communism, a society governed by a free association of producers.

Marx actively fought for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic change.

Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.[] Many intellectuals, labour unions and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's ideas, with many variations on his groundwork. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Karl Marx
  Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism

Friedrich Engels
First International
  IDEAS that Changed the World

Myths and Legends
History of Religion
History of Philosophy
Schlegel Friedrich appointed professor of Indian languages at Bonn
see also: Friedrich Wilhelm von Schlegel

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