Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1818 Part II NEXT-1819 Part I    
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
History at a Glance
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Perceval Spencer
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"The Demon
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Nations in Arms
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London

"Das Eismeer" (The Sea of Ice) by Caspar David Friedrich, 1823-4, was inspired by Parry's account from the 1819–1820 expedition.
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob

Jacob Burckhardt, in full Jacob Christopher Burckhardt, Jacob Christopher also spelled Jakob Christoph (born May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland—died August 8, 1897, Basel), one of the first great historians of art and culture, whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860; The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1878, reprinted 1945) became a model for the treatment of cultural history in general.


Jacob Burckhardt in 1892
Burckhardt was the son of a Protestant clergyman. The thriving Burckhardt family was among the most respected in town. For three centuries some of its members had earned wealth in international trade and the manufacture of silk and with their wealth had gained political power, while others had served the community as professors and pastors. Basel’s excellent grammar school provided Burckhardt with a humanistic education.

His first studies at the University of Basel, supplemented by a stay in Neuchâtel, were dominated by a devotion to Greek. But, before the philological and increasingly historical orientation of his interests could fully assert itself, Burckhardt spent three years in the study of formal theology. Although he never regretted this concession to the professional traditions of his father and grandfather, Burckhardt took up divinity without a calling and after a prolonged crisis abandoned it, together with the explicit profession of Christian faith.

Henceforth, he was always to avoid clarification of his religious position, which may be described as a kind of pantheism. Markedly romantic at first, in later years Burckhardt’s religious ideas revealed their classical inspiration and, evincing a profound respect for human destiny, came to underlie his concept of history.
From 1839 to 1843 Burckhardt studied at the University of Berlin, where his talents were acknowledged by two eminent teachers of ancient history, August Boeckh and Johann Gustav Droysen. But it was under the influence of two other professors—Franz Kugler and Leopold von Ranke—that his appreciation of ancient and modern history came into balance in his efforts to comprehend the past as a whole. Art and architecture had fascinated Burckhardt from childhood. Now Franz Kugler provided a formal introduction to the fledgling discipline of art history, which profoundly appealed to the German Romantics. The achievements of painters and architects not only directed Burckhardt’s attention toward Italy and the Renaissance; they also helped to reduce law, politics, and diplomacy to a somewhat inferior status in his concept of the past. At Berlin, Burckhardt’s developing priorities accounted for an ambiguous relationship with the most famous among all his teachers, Leopold von Ranke. Ranke, the master of diplomatic history, assigned an autonomous and exalted function to statehood and nationhood and consequently cast his lot with Prussian and German nationalism, forces that Burckhardt would later denounce with growing violence. Since Ranke and Burckhardt are often used to illustrate diametrically different approaches to historiography, it is important to note that Burckhardt respected the scholarly achievements of his great teacher, and Ranke recognized and commended the ability of his student. Burckhardt was later offered a chair at Berlin, but he declined it.
After two Berlin winters, Burckhardt spent a summer term at the young and modest University of Bonn, where he passed many of his most romantic and imaginative hours among the circle that met in the home of Gottfried Kinkel, a fellow art historian who had in the past, like Burckhardt, given up theology but would, unlike his Swiss friend, become a leader in the unsuccessful liberal revolution that erupted in Germany in 1848–49, by which time their friendship had cooled completely. Burckhardt’s political creed is as hard to define as his religious one. The spirit of his hometown and upbringing was democratic, although tempered with patrician arrogance. His love of freedom was supreme, but he soon came to despise the aspirations of political liberalism in Switzerland and Germany. For Burckhardt 1848–49 was a turning point. Romantic indulgence and political hopes were now dead; his German friends were almost forgotten. With complete concentration he turned to his studies and his teaching. He was a conservative by now, but his conservatism was cultural rather than political. His own time was, he thought, hopelessly superficial. He felt increasingly out of touch with it and concentrated all his energies on reclaiming a past that seemed incomparably deeper and richer. Also in 1849, Margarethe Stehlin, the only woman for whom he ever seems to have had any deep affection, married a Basel banker. He suppressed his feelings without too much difficulty and never again considered marriage, stating that he had no wish to beget children “who would be tutored by a proletarian.”   The University of Basel awarded Burckhardt the degree of Ph.D. in absentia, and after his return from Berlin in 1843 he was quickly authorized to give private lectures. Lecture he did, but for two years he had to earn his living as the editor of the Basler Zeitung, a conservative daily. In 1846–47 he returned to Berlin to prepare, in conjunction with his friend and teacher Kugler, substantially enlarged new editions of Kugler’s two textbooks of art history. The winter of 1847–48 was spent in Rome. Thereafter he resumed his teaching at Basel. The university was small and, on the whole, undistinguished.

Burckhardt’s lectures, by far the largest component of his life’s work and also the most accomplished, were normally delivered before a mere handful of students. Never did his academic audience reach 50; only when he addressed the Basel public at large, as he often did with series of evening lectures, was the attendance more substantial. In 1855 Burckhardt left Basel to teach art history at the newly founded Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, but in 1858 he returned to his home university and henceforward occupied Basel’s only chair of history. For another 20 years, however, he also had to teach in his former grammar school. Only from 1874 could he divide his time evenly between his university lectures in history and art history. From 1886 until his retirement in 1893 he taught art history exclusively. In his courses he covered the entire range of European civilization from ancient Greece to the French Revolution.
Burckhardt, who had learned Italian, in 1837 first crossed the southern frontier of his country, hiking all the way from Basel and back. In the following summer he returned for a month-long tour of northern and central Italy. Thereafter and until 1883, travel in Italy and elsewhere was a regular feature of Burckhardt’s bachelor life.
Burckhardt’s most successful books are unthinkable without his familiarity with the historical sites and art treasures of Europe. His first important work, however, like the last, attested to his deep interest in ancient civilization. In Die Zeit Konstantins des Grossen (1853; The Age of Constantine the Great, 1949) Burckhardt presented a picture of a transitional age, unhealthy and immoral but teeming with religious and cultural activity. While he recognized that the rise of Christianity was inevitable and that it was necessary for the development of an original culture during the Middle Ages, his sympathies lay clearly with the waning forces of the ancient world.

Der Cicerone (1855; The Cicerone, 1873) is a comprehensive study of Italian art, geographically arranged in the form of a travel guide. It went through many editions, but Burckhardt reacted to the popularity of his work with growing aloofness.

Burckhardt’s next book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860), is the major source of his fame. Using programmatic subheadings (the discovery of world and man; the development of individuality; the state as a work of art; the modern sense of humour), Burckhardt deftly analyzed the daily life of Renaissance Italy, its political climate, and the thought of its outstanding minds. His sources—often contemporary chronicles and tales—were in print and readily available yet frequently ignored by historians. He approached them with newly conceived questions in mind. Although Burckhardt emphasized many contrasts between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, he did not underrate medieval achievements.

His concept of history left no room for the idea that the Renaissance or any other period was characterized by general progress over the preceding epoch. If Raphael’s art presented the Renaissance at its best, the ingenious and ruthless mechanism of Renaissance politics reminded Burckhardt of “the works of a clock.” Here he perceived the beginnings of the modern state, a precision instrument of mass control, without consideration for the creative freedom of individuals and minorities.

  Art was to Burckhardt the saving grace of the Renaissance, but in his Die Kultur this vital subject was not treated. Burckhardt hoped to cover it in a separate monograph, but that hope found only partial fulfillment in Die Geschichte der Renaissance in Italien (1867; “History of the Renaissance in Italy”), which deals with architecture only. If eventually Burckhardt’s study of the Renaissance provided a basic model for the treatment of cultural history in general, the implications for art history were best realized by his pupil and successor, Heinrich Wölfflin. Styles of art followed one another as did historical periods. They were determined by common features derived from the general character of a period and in turn helped to define the period’s culture. Among Burckhardt’s minor publications, a small but precious collection of poetry in the Alemannic dialect may be noted: E Hämpfeli Lieder (1853; “The Jumping Jack Songs”).

Friends edited his last great work, four volumes of an uncompleted survey of Greek civilization—Griechische Kulturgeschichte (1898–1902; abridgment in Eng. trans., History of Greek Culture, 1963)—and some essays in art history: Erinnerungen aus Rubens (1898; “Suggestions on Rubens”), Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte von Italien (1898; “Contributions to the Art History of Italy”). Of particular significance are two later posthumous publications. Weltgeschichtliche Betrachtungen (1905; Force and Freedom: Reflections on History, 1943) epitomizes his philosophy of history. Historische Fragmente (“Historical Fragments,” 1929 in Gesamtausgabe; Judgments on History and Historians, 1958) selects highlights from his lecture manuscripts and demonstrates impressively Burckhardt’s gift for visualizing history as a whole. Both books contain passages that can be interpreted as prophetic visions of the violent totalitarian states of the 20th century; but more important than Burckhardt’s prophecies of the future is his vision of the past, which offers, he said, “experience to make us, not shrewder (for the next time), but wiser (for ever).”

Peter G. Bietenholz

Encyclopædia Britannica

Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr (1795-1818) - Nazarenes

Karl Philipp Fohr. Self-Portrait
  Karl Philipp Fohr, a brother of Daniel Fohr, was born at Heidelberg in 1795, and studied at Munich, chiefly by himself from nature and the great masters.

His paintings, which are to be met with at Karlsruhe, Darmstadt, and Frankfurt, display genius and grandeur of style.

In the Städel Institute at Frankfurt are views of Tivoli and Heidelberg.

His death occurred in 1818 at Rome, from bathing in the Tiber.

Karl Philipp Fohr. Ideal Landscape near Rocca Canterana

Karl Philipp Fohr
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"

Enrico di Borgogna (Henry of Burgundy) is an opera eroica or "heroic" opera in two acts by Donizetti Gaetano . Bartolomeo Merelli (who later, as Intendant at La Scala, was to commission Verdi's first opera), wrote the Italian libretto based on Der Graf von Burgund by August von Kotzebue.

Enrico di Borgogna was the third opera composed by Donizetti, but the first to be performed. It premiered on 14 November 1818 at the Teatro San Luca in Venice. In spite of difficulties at the premiere, the critic of Nuovo osservatore veneziano noted of Donizetti that "one cannot but recognize a regular handling and expressive quality in his style. For these, the public wanted to salute Signor Donizetti on stage at the end of the opera".

For the first time in 192 years, the opera was presented at the Vadstena Academy in Sweden in July/August 2012.

Gaetano Donizetti - Enrico di Borgogna - Elisa! Elisa!
Gaetaho Donizetti
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Gounod Charles
Charles Gounod, in full Charles-françois Gounod (born June 17, 1818, Paris, France—died Oct. 18, 1893, Saint-Cloud, near Paris), French composer noted particularly for his operas, of which the most famous is Faust.

Charles Gounod
  Gounod’s father was a painter, and his mother was a capable pianist who gave Gounod his early training in music. He was educated at the Lycée Saint-Louis, where he remained until 1835. After taking his degree in philosophy, he began to study music with the Bohemian composer Anton Reicha. On Reicha’s death Gounod entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied under Fromental Halévy and Jean-François Lesueur. Three years later his cantata Fernand won him the Prix de Rome for music, an award that entailed a three-year stay in Rome at the Villa Medici.

In Italy Gounod devoted a considerable amount of his attention to the works of Giovanni da Palestrina, an Italian Renaissance composer. From Rome he proceeded to Vienna, where a mass and requiem, composed in Italy, were performed in 1842 and 1843. Returning to Paris, he passed through Prague, Dresden, and Berlin and met Felix Mendelssohn in Leipzig.

In Paris, Gounod became organist and choirmaster at the Church of the Missions Étrangères, and for two years he mainly studied theology. In 1846 he entered the seminary of Saint-Sulpice but in 1847 decided against taking holy orders. A requiem and a Te Deum that he had started writing the previous year remained unfinished, and he turned to composing for the operatic stage.

The reception of his earliest operas, Sapho (1851) and La Nonne sanglante (1854; “The Bloody Nun”), was not very enthusiastic, despite favourable reviews by the composer Hector Berlioz.


In his Messe de Sainte-Cécile (1855) he attempted to blend the sacred with a more secular style of composition. An excursion into comic opera followed with Le Médecin malgré lui (1858; The Mock Doctor), based on Molière’s comedy. From 1852 Gounod worked on Faust, using a libretto by M. Carré and J. Barbier based on J.W. von Goethe’s tragedy. The production of Faust on March 19, 1859, marked a new phase in the development of French opera. This work has continued to overshadow all of Gounod’s subsequent stage works, including Philémon et Baucis (1860), La Colombe (1860; “The Dove”), the fairly successful Mireille (1864), based on a Provençal poem by Frédéric Mistral, and Roméo et Juliette (1867).

In 1852 Gounod had become conductor of the Orphéon Choral Society in Paris, for which he wrote a number of choral works, including two masses. From 1870 he spent five years in London, formed a choir to which he gave his name (and which later became the Royal Choral Society), and devoted himself almost entirely to the writing of oratorios. Gallia, a lamentation for solo soprano, chorus, and orchestra, inspired by the French military defeat of 1870, was first performed in 1871 and was followed by the oratorios La Rédemption and Mors et Vita (Life and Death) in 1882 and 1885. He was made a grand officier of the Legion of Honour in 1888.

Gounod’s melodic vein is unmistakably original, though often oversentimental. He knew how to write for the voice and was also a skillful orchestrator; but in his operas his sense of musical characterization, though rarely devoid of charm, is often excessively facile, and the religiosity displayed in his sacred music is too often superficial. His Meditation (Ave Maria) superimposed on Johann Sebastian Bach’s Prelude in C Major (from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I) illustrates both his inventiveness and ease as a melodist and his naïveté in matters of style. The operas Faust, Mireille, and Le Médecin malgré lui show his melodic talents at their best.

Frederick Goldbeck

Encyclopædia Britannica
Gounod - Ave Maria
Omo Bello - soprano
Orchestre Philharmonic de Radio France
Conductor - Mikko Franck
Charles Gounod
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"

"Silent Night" (German: Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht) is a popular Christmas carol, composed in 1818 by Franz Xaver Gruber to lyrics by Joseph Mohr in the small town of Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Austria. It was declared an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in March 2011. The song has been recorded by a large number of singers from every music genre.


Autograph of the carol by Franz Xaver Gruber
The song was first performed on Christmas Eve 1818 at St Nicholas parish church in Oberndorf, a village on the Salzach river. The young priest, Father Joseph Mohr, had come to Oberndorf the year before. He had already written the lyrics of the song "Stille Nacht" in 1816 at Mariapfarr, the hometown of his father in the Salzburg Lungau region, where Joseph had worked as a coadjutor.

The melody was composed by Franz Xaver Gruber, schoolmaster and organist in the nearby village of Arnsdorf. Before Christmas Eve, Mohr brought the words to Gruber and asked him to compose a melody and guitar accompaniment for the church service. Both performed the carol during the mass on the night of December 24.

The original manuscript has been lost. However a manuscript was discovered in 1995 in Mohr's handwriting and dated by researchers at ca. 1820. It shows that Mohr wrote the words in 1816 when he was assigned to a pilgrim church in Mariapfarr, Austria, and shows that the music was composed by Gruber in 1818. This is the earliest manuscript that exists and the only one in Mohr's handwriting.

In 1859, the Episcopal priest John Freeman Young, then serving at Trinity Church, New York City, published the English translation that is most frequently sung today.

The version of the melody that is generally used today is a slow, meditative lullaby, differing slightly (particularly in the final strain) from Gruber's original, which was a sprightly, dance-like tune in 6/8 time.

Today, the lyrics and melody are in the public domain.

The carol has been translated into about 140 languages.

The song was sung simultaneously in French, English and German by troops during the Christmas truce of 1914 during World War I, as it was one carol that soldiers on both sides of the front line knew.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Stille Nacht, Heilige Nacht" - Vienna Boys Choir - Die Wiener Sängerknaben - 1967
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Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"

Mosè in Egitto (Moses in Egypt) is a three-act opera written by Rossini Gioachino to an Italian libretto by Andrea Leone Tottola, which was based on a 1760 play by Francesco Ringhieri, L'Osiride. It premièred on 5 March 1818 at the recently reconstructed Teatro San Carlo in Naples, Italy.


In 1827 Rossini revised the work with a new title: Moïse et Pharaon, ou Le passage de la Mer Rouge (Moses and Pharaoh, or The Crossing of the Red Sea). It was set to a four-act libretto written in French by Luigi Balocchi and Victor-Joseph Étienne de Jouy and the première was given by the Paris Opera at the Salle Le Peletier on 26 March the same year.

Riccardo Muti and many scholars consider Moïse et Pharaon, along with Guillaume Tell, to be among Rossini's greatest achievements:

I prefer it because Rossini himself preferred it. Don't get me wrong. Mosè in Egitto is a wonderful opera, but it remains very much a mere sketch for Moïse et Pharaon. And it's not just me who says that, but the great Rossini himself.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gioachino Rossini - Mose in Egitto - "Involto in fiamma"
(June Anderson, Ernesto Palacio, Zehava Gal & Salvatore Fisichella)
Gioachino Rossini
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F. W. Bessel: "Fundamenta Astronomiae," catalog of 3,222 stars
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (German: [ˈbɛsl]; 22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician (systematizer of the Bessel functions, which were discovered by Daniel Bernoulli). He was the first astronomer to determine the distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax.

Although he left school at the age of 14, he was appointed in January 1810 as director of the Königsberg Observatory by King Frederick William III of Prussia. On the recommendation of fellow mathematician and physicist Carl Gauss he was awarded an honorary doctor degree from the University of Göttingen in March 1811.

Bessel won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1829 and 1841. The asteroid 1552 Bessel was named in his honour.


Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
  Life and work
Bessel was born in Minden, administrative center of Minden-Ravensberg, as second son of a civil servant. At the age of 14 Bessel was apprenticed to the import-export concern Kulenkamp at Bremen. The business's reliance on cargo ships led him to turn his mathematical skills to problems in navigation. This in turn led to an interest in astronomy as a way of determining longitude.

Bessel came to the attention of a major figure of German astronomy at the time, Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers, by producing a refinement on the orbital calculations for Halley's Comet in 1804, using old observation data taken from Thomas Harriot and Nathaniel Torporley in 1607.

Two years later Bessel left Kulenkamp and became Johann Hieronymus Schröter's assistant at Lilienthal Observatory near Bremen. There he worked on James Bradley's stellar observations to produce precise positions for some 3,222 stars.

In January 1810, at the age of 25, Bessel was appointed director of the new founded Königsberg Observatory by King Frederick William III of Prussia. There he published tables of atmospheric refraction derived from Bradley's observations, which won him the Lalande Prize from the French Academy of Sciences in 1811.

While the observatory was still in construction Bessel elaborated the Fundamenta Astronomiae based on Bradley's observations.

The Königsberg Observatory began operation in 1813. Starting in 1819, Bessel determined the position of over 50,000 stars using a meridian circle from Reichenbach, assisted by some of his qualified students. The most prominent of them was Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander.

With this work under his belt, Bessel was able to achieve the feat for which he is best remembered today: he is credited with being the first to use parallax in calculating the distance to a star. Astronomers had believed for some time that parallax would provide the first accurate measurement of interstellar distances—in fact, in the 1830s there was a fierce competition between astronomers to be the first to measure a stellar parallax accurately. In 1838 Bessel won the race, announcing that 61 Cygni had a parallax of 0.314 arcseconds; which, given the diameter of the Earth's orbit, indicated that the star is 10.3 ly away. Given the current measurement of 11.4 ly, Bessel's figure had an error of 9.6%. Nearly at the same time Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve and Thomas Henderson measured the parallaxes of Vega and Alpha Centauri.

As well as helping determine the parallax of 61 Cygni, Bessel's precise measurements allowed him to notice deviations in the motions of Sirius and Procyon, which he deduced must be caused by the gravitational attraction of unseen companions.

His announcement of Sirius's "dark companion" in 1844 was the first correct claim of a previously unobserved companion by positional measurement, and eventually led to the discovery of Sirius B.

An additional responsibility of Bessel at Königsberg was geodesy. Bessel published a method for solving the geodesic problem; he was responsible for the survey of East Prussia which joined the Prussian and Russian trianguation networks; and he obtained an estimate of increased accuracy for the figure of the earth, nowadays referred to as the Bessel ellipsoid.

Despite lacking a university education, Bessel was a major figure in astronomy during his lifetime. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1823, and the largest crater in the Moon's Mare Serenitatis is named Bessel after him. Bessel's work in 1840 contributed in some degree to the discovery of Neptune. In 1832, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Bessel won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1829 and 1841.

In the second decade of the 19th century while studying the dynamics of 'many-body' gravitational systems, Bessel developed what are now known as Bessel functions. Critical for the solution of certain differential equations, these functions are used throughout both classical and quantum physics. Even in the absence of any work in astronomy, Bessel's role in developing the functions which now bear his name would have, by itself, placed him among the most significant and influential mathematicians of the 19th century.

  Bessel is responsible for the correction to the formula for the sample variance estimator named in his honour. This is the use of the factor n-1 in the denominator of the formula, rather than just n.
This occurs when the sample mean rather than the population mean is used to centre the data and since the sample mean is a linear combination of the data the residual to the sample mean overcounts the number of degrees of freedom by the number of constraint equations — in this case one.

In 1842 Bessel took part in the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Manchester, accompanied by the geophysicist Georg Adolf Erman and the mathematician Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi.

After several months of illness Bessel died in March 1846 at his observatory from retroperitoneal fibrosis. This was several months short of the discovery of Neptune in the fall of that year, by his colleagues at Berlin Observatory.

Bessel was son-in-law of the chemist and pharmacist Karl Gottfried Hagen, whose other son-in-law was the physicist Franz Ernst Neumann. The physician and biologist Hermann August Hagen and the hydraulic engineer Gotthilf Hagen, who was Bessel's student and assistant from 1816 to 1818, belong to his relatives.

Bessel had two sons and three daughters. His eldest daughter Marie married Georg Adolf Erman, member of the scholar family Erman. One of their sons was the renowned egyptologist Adolf Erman.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Berzelius Jons Jakob publishes molecular weights of 2,000 chemical compounds
J. F. Encke discovers orbit of Encke's comet
Encke Johann Franz

Johann Franz Encke (23 September 1791 – 26 August 1865) was a German astronomer. Among his activities, he worked on the calculation of the periods of comets and asteroids, measured the distance from the earth to the sun, and made observations of the planet Saturn.


Johann Franz Encke
Encke was born in Hamburg, where his father was a clergyman at the Jakobskirche. He was the youngest of eight children - when his father died when he was four, the family in straitened circumstances. Thanks to the financial assistance of a teacher, he was able to be educated at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums.

He studied mathematics and astronomy from 1811 at the University of Göttingen under Carl Friedrich Gauss; but he enlisted in the Hanseatic Legion for the campaign of 1813–1814, serving as a sergeant in the artillery of the Prussian army, in Holstein and Mecklenburg. In 1814 he resumed his studies at the University but after Napoleon's escape from Elba he returned to the military, serving until 1815 by which time he had become a lieutenant.

Having returned to Göttingen in 1816, he was at once appointed by Bernhardt von Lindenau as his assistant in the observatory of Seeberg near Gotha (he had become acquainted with von Lindenau during his military service). There he completed his investigation of the comet of 1680, for which the Cotta prize was awarded to him in 1817 by judges Gauss and Olbers; he correctly assigned a period of 71 years to the comet of 1812. That comet is now called 12P/Pons-Brooks.

Following a suggestion by Jean-Louis Pons, who suspected one of the three comets discovered in 1818 to be the same one already discovered by him in 1805, Encke began to calculate the orbital elements of this comet. At this time, all the known comets had an orbital period of seventy years and more, with an aphelion far beyond the orbit of Uranus. The most famous comet of this family was Comet Halley with its period of seventy-six years. So the orbit of the comet discovered by Pons was a sensation, because his orbit was found to have a period of 3.3 years, so that the aphelion had to be within the orbit of Jupiter. Encke predicted its return for 1822, but this return was observable only from the southern hemisphere and was seen by Carl Ludwig Christian Rümker in Australia. The comet was also identified with the one seen by Pierre Méchain in 1786 and by Caroline Herschel in 1795.
Encke sent his calculations as a note to Gauss, Olbers, and Bessel. His former mathematics professor published this note and Encke became famous as the discoverer of the short periodic comets. The first object of this family, the Encke comet, was named after him and so it is one of the few comets not named after the discoverer, but after the one who calculated the orbit. Later this comet was identified as the origin of the Taurids meteor showers.

The importance of the predicted return based on the calculation by Encke was rewarded by the Royal Astronomical Society in London by presenting their Gold Medal to him in 1824. In this year Encke married Amalie Becker (1787–1879), daughter of author, bookseller and publisher Rudolph Zacharias Becker, the publisher of works from the Seeberg Observatory. They had three sons and two daughters. In 1825 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Eight masterly treatises on the comet's movements were published by him in the Berliner Abhandlungen (1829–1859). From a fresh discussion of the transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769 he deduced a solar parallax of 8.57 arcsecond. This and the corresponding distance to the sun were long accepted as authoritative. His results were published in two separate tracts, entitled Die Entfernung der Sonne (The distance to the sun, 1822-1824).

In 1822 he became director of the Seeberg observatory, and in 1825 was promoted to a corresponding position at Berlin, where a new observatory, built under his superintendence and with the support of Alexander von Humboldt and King Frederick William III of Prussia, was inaugurated in 1835. Mostly on the recommendation of Bessel, Encke became director of the new observatory and secretary of the Academy of Sciences.

  He directed the preparation of the star maps of the Academy (1830–1859); beginning in 1830, he edited and greatly improved the Astronomisches Jahrbuch; and he issued four volumes of the Astronomische Beobachtungen auf der Sternwarte zu Berlin (Observations of the Berlin observatory, 1840–1857).

Within the following time Encke was involved in the discovery and orbital parameter determination of other short periodic comets and asteroids.

In 1837, Encke described a broad variation in the brightness of the A Ring of Saturn. The Encke Gap was later named in honor of his observations of Saturn's rings.

In 1844, Encke became professor for astronomy at the University of Berlin. Much labor was bestowed by him upon facilitating the computation of the movements of the asteroids.

With this end in view he expounded to the Berlin Academy in 1849 a mode of determining an elliptic orbit from three observations, and communicated to that body in 1851 a new method of calculating planetary perturbations by means of rectangular coordinates (republished in W. Ostwald's Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaften, No. 141, 1903).

Encke visited England in 1840. He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1836. Incipient brain-disease compelled him to withdraw from official life in November 1863. He still was director of the Berlin observatory until his death on 26 August 1865 in Spandau. His successor was Wilhelm Julius Foerster.

He contributed extensively to the periodical literature of astronomy.

Encke's grave is preserved at a cemetery in the Kreuzberg section of Berlin, the Friedhof II der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde (Cemetery No. II of the congregations of Jerusalem's Church and New Church) (entrance: opposite to 58-60, Zossener Str.;61, Baruther Street only for vehicles of the cemetery). His grave is close to that of the mathematician Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oxley's expeditions
Oxley John

John Oxley, in full John Joseph William Molesworth Oxley (born 1783/85?, near Westow, Yorkshire, England—died May 26, 1828, Kirkham, Australia), surveyor-general and explorer who played an important part in the exploration of eastern Australia and also helped open up Van Diemen’s Land (later Tasmania).


Hand-coloured map of New South Wales, Australia, by John Oxley

John Oxley
  Oxley joined the British navy as a midshipman in 1799 and arrived in Australia as a master’s mate in 1802. He worked on coastal surveys and in 1805 was put in command of the Buffalo by Governor Philip King, and in 1806 he commanded another ship to Van Diemen’s Land. Commissioned a lieutenant in England in 1807, he returned to Sydney (1808) with a land grant of 600 acres (240 hectares), bringing goods as an investment. In 1809 he wrote a report on the settling of Van Diemen’s Land and returned to England.

Oxley was appointed surveyor-general of New South Wales, retired from the navy, and returned to Sydney in 1812. He then explored as much territory as he had surveyed in the early years: in 1817 with George Evans in the Lachlan River region and in 1818 along the Macquarie River, failing to find these rivers’ sources but opening up much land for sheepherding. His Two Expeditions into the Interior of New South Wales (1820) was the first description of the area and provided the basis for later explorations by Charles Sturt and T.L. Mitchell.

His coastal surveys included the charting of Jervis Bay and Port Macquarie (1819). In 1823, returning from Port Curtis, he explored Moreton Bay and 50 miles (80 km) up the Brisbane River. His reports led to penal settlements at Port Macquarie and Port Curtis.

From his return in 1812, Oxley had business interests; he was agent for companies and creditors, engaged in cattle raising, and was a breeder of prize sheep; he also served as bank director and agricultural adviser. On his expanded holdings he built his estate at Kirkham in 1815. Oxley was also active in the Bible Society, institutions for orphans, and the Philosophical Society and served as a magistrate and legislator. He died in straitened circumstances.

Encyclopædia Britannica


1817 and 1818 Expeditions of Oxley
see also:  Across the Blue Mountains
British Admiralty Expeditions
The shortest route from Europe to the Pacific, as the crow flies, passes over the North Pole. In the 18th century there were a number of enthusiastic supporters of the theory that the Pole lay in an open temperate sea, and in Britain the Royal Society proposed to the Lords of the Admiralty the investigation of this "interesting point in geography."

William Scoresby
  William Scoresby
As well as the official expeditions, areas new to Europeans were being explored by seamen such as William Scoresby Snr, a British whaler who, with his son, mapped nearly 1000 miles (1600 kilometers) of the east coast of Greenland and, in 1806, reached a latitude of 8V31'.
William Scoresby Jnr, both well educated and well traveled in the Arctic, applied his scientific mind to the many mysteries of the region.
He used a microscope to examine plankton, the tiny organisms on which whales feed, and to study the shapes of snowflakes. He also drew the optical effect created by the refraction of light, which distorted and reversed images of distant ships.


Scoresby William

William Scoresby (5 October 1789 – 21 March 1857), was an English Arctic explorer, scientist and clergyman.

Early years
Scoresby was born in the village of Cropton near Pickering 26 miles south of Whitby in Yorkshire. His father, William Scoresby Senior (1760–1829), made a fortune in the Arctic whale fishery and was also the inventor of the barrel crow's nest. The son made his first voyage with his father at the age of eleven, but then returned to school, where he remained until 1803.

After this he became his father's constant companion, and accompanied him as chief officer of the whaler Resolution when on 25 May 1806, he succeeded in reaching 81°30' N. lat. (19° E. long), for twenty-one years the highest northern latitude attained in the eastern hemisphere. During the following winter, Scoresby attended the natural philosophy and chemistry classes at Edinburgh University, and again in 1809.

William Scoresby

In his voyage of 1807, Scoresby began the study of the meteorology and natural history of the polar regions. Earlier results included his original observations on snow and crystals; and in 1809 Robert Jameson brought certain Arctic papers of his before the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh, which at once elected him to its membership.

In 1811, Scoresby's father resigned to him the command of the Resolution. In the same year he married the daughter of a Whitby shipbroker. In his voyage of 1813, he established for the first time the fact that the polar ocean has a warmer temperature at considerable depths than it has on the surface, and each subsequent voyage in search of whales found him no less eager of fresh additions to scientific knowledge. His letters of this period to Sir Joseph Banks, whose acquaintance he had made a few years earlier, no doubt gave the first impulse to the search for the North-West Passage which followed. On 29 June 1816, commanding the Esk on his fifteenth whaling voyage from Whitby, Scoresby encountered grave problems when ice damaged his ship. With the aid of his brother-in-law's crew on board the John, and after agreeing to surrendering much of their catch, the Esk was repaired, of which Scoresby recounted in his 1820 book The Northern Whale-Fishery.

In 1819, Scoresby gained election as a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and about the same time communicated a paper to the Royal Society of London: "On the Anomaly in the Variation of the Magnetic Needle". In 1820, he published An Account of the Arctic Regions and Northern Whale Fishery, in which he gathers up the results of his own observations, as well as those of previous navigators.

In his voyage of 1822 to Greenland, Scoresby surveyed and charted with remarkable accuracy 400 miles of the east coast, between 69° 30' and 72° 30', thus contributing to the first real and important geographic knowledge of East Greenland. This, however, proved the last of his Arctic voyages. On his return, he learnt of his wife's death, and this event, with other influences acting upon his naturally pious spirit, decided him to enter the church.

He then began divinity studies at Queens' College, Cambridge and became the curate of Bessingby, Yorkshire. Meantime, his Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale Fishery, including Researches and Discoveries on the Eastern Coast of Greenland (1823), had appeared at Edinburgh. The discharge of his clerical duties at Bessingby, and later at Liverpool, Exeter and Bradford, did not prevent him from continuing his interest in science. In 1824, the Royal Society elected him a fellow, and in 1827, he became an honorary corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, while in 1839, he took the Doctor of Divinity degree.

From the first, Scoresby worked as an active member and official of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and he contributed especially to the knowledge of terrestrial magnetism. Of his sixty papers in the Royal Society list, many relate to this department of research. However, his observations extended into many other departments, including researches on optics and, with James Joule, comparing electromagnetic (chemical), thermal (coal/steam), and organic (horse) power sources.

To obtain additional data for his theories on magnetism, he made a voyage to Australia in 1856 on board the ill-fated iron-hulled Royal Charter, the results of which appeared in a posthumous publication: Journal of a Voyage to Australia for Magnetical Research, edited by Archibald Smith (1859). He made two visits to America, in 1844 and 1848; on his return home from the latter visit he made some valuable observations on the height of Atlantic waves, the results of which were given to the British Association. He interested himself much in social questions, especially the improvement of the condition of factory operatives. He also published numerous works and papers of a religious character.

In 1850, Scoresby published a work urging the prosecution of the search for the Franklin expedition and giving the results of his own experience in Arctic navigation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A route to the Pole
Two sturdy bomb vessels, HMS Racehorse and HMS Carcass, were further strengthened to protect them in the ice.

Commanded by Constantine Phipps, the expedition left for the North in June 1773, with orders not to proceed beyond the Pole. In fact the ships got no further than 80°48'N when the onset of bad weather forced them to turn for home.

On calm days during the passage, however, Phipps was able to investigate the depth of the sea. He also attempted to measure its temperature, tor which task he had been issued with a rather primitive thermometer in a water bottle — a device that failed to work. (Phipps tried wrapping a wine bottle in a cloth so that he could bring up the seawater with its temperature unchanged and take a reading on deck.)

His natural history observations, including those on the polar bear, were considered of great value by zoologists, and his narrative of his voyage was also of considerable scientific interest; it was widely read and influenced many who followed him into these northern waters.

Phipps Constantine Henry

Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess of Normanby KG GCB GCH, PC (15 May 1797 – 28 July 1863), styled Viscount Normanby between 1812 and 1831 and known as The Earl of Mulgrave between 1831 and 1838, was a British Whig politician and author. He notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1835 to 1839 and as Home Secretary from 1839 to 1841 and was British Ambassador to France between 1846 and 1852.

Constantine Henry Phipps

Background and education
Normanby was the son of Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave and Martha Sophia, daughter of Christopher Thompson Maling. His great-grandfather William Phipps had married Lady Catherine Annesley, who was the daughter and heiress of James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey and his wife Lady Catherine Darnley (an illegitimate daughter of King James II by his mistress Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester).
Lady Catherine Darnley had later married John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, and hence Constantine Phipps, 2nd Earl of Mulgrave and later 1st Marquess of Normanby was the step-great-great-grandson of the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was the second President of the Cambridge Union Society.

Political career
After attaining his majority, he sat for the family borough of Scarborough from 1818 to 1820. However after dissenting from the family politics, such as by speaking in favour of Catholic Emancipation, he resigned his seat and lived in Italy for two years. On his return in 1822 he was elected for Higham Ferrers and made a considerable reputation by political pamphlets and by his speeches in the house. He was returned for Malton at the general election of 1826, becoming a supporter of Canning.

He was already known as a writer of romantic tales, The English in Italy (1825); in the same year he made his appearance as a novelist with Matilda, and in 1828 he produced another novel, Yes and No.

He succeeded his father as Earl of Mulgrave in 1831. He was sent out as Governor of Jamaica and was afterwards appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1835–1839). He was created Marquess of Normanby on 25 June 1838, and held successively the offices of colonial secretary and home secretary in the last years of Lord Melbourne's ministry. While Colonial Secretary, he wrote a letter of instructions to William Hobson, in which the government's policy for the sovereignty of New Zealand was set out.

Diplomatic career
From 1846 to 1852 he was ambassador at Paris, and from 1854 to 1858 minister at Florence. The publication in 1857 of a journal kept in Paris during the stormy times of 1848 (A Year of Revolution), brought him into violent controversy with Louis Blanc, and he came into conflict with Lord Palmerston and William Ewart Gladstone, after his retirement from the public service, on questions of French and Italian policy.

Lord Normanby married the Hon. Maria Liddell, daughter of Thomas Liddell, 1st Baron Ravensworth, in 1818. He died in London on 28 July 1863, aged 66, and was succeeded in his titles by his son George. The Marchioness of Normanby died in October 1882, aged 84.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The continuing search for the Northwest Passage
The 19th century was the great age of British naval expeditions. England had triumphed in the Napoleonic wars and when it was reported in 1817, by William Scoresby Jnr, that the Arctic Ocean was less ice-bound than in former years, the Admiralty decided to back further searches for the Northwest Passage. The first expeditions were purely exploratory, but gradually their scope widened to include new types of scientific observation. In its turn this requirement stimulated the invention and improved construction of scientific instruments and apparatus.
In the spring of 1818 the Admiralty despatched four ships in an attempt to reach the Pacific. HMS Dorothea and HMS Trent under the command of David Buchan and
Franklin John were to keep a northerly course through the Greenland Sea in the hope ot breaking through into the supposedly ice-free polar region. HMS Isabella and HMS Alexander, commanded by John Ross and W. Edward Parry respectively, were to turn into the Davis Strait and to seek a route north of the American continent.
  On entering Lancaster Sound Ross saw what appeared to him to be a range of mountains closing its far end. Some of his officers wondered if this were but one more example of the mirages frequently encountered in the region, but Ross would not be contradicted nor investigate further. He dubbed the range the "Croker Mountains" in honor of the First Secretary of the Admiralty and resolutely set sail for home. Buchan and Franklin found no open polar sea, of course. Their ships were battered by gales and continually beset by pack-ice. They did little scientific work and finally they too returned to England.

John Ross's report could only be checked by sending another expedition. Official incentives were offered to crews willing to endure the harsh conditions and isolation of the high Arctic. An Act of Parliament of 1744 had offered -£20,000 for the discover)' of a Northwest Passage; that of 1776 had offered £5000 for reaching 89°N by sea. An Act of 1818 confirmed these figures and authorized smaller rewards for partial successes.

Buchan David

David Buchan (1780 – after 8 December 1838) was a Scottish naval officer and Arctic explorer.


In 1802 or 1803 he married Maria Adye, and she bore him at least three children.

HMS Dorothea shown in The Expedition Driven into the Ice,
30 July 1818 by Frederick William Beechey

In 1806, Buchan was appointed as a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, and from about 1808 to 1817 he operated in and around Newfoundland. In 1810 he was captain of HMS Adonis. In autumn 1810 he conducted an expedition to the River of Exploits.

From there he and his men marched inland for 130 miles to establish contact with the dwindling native Beothuk population, one of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas in the region. Unfortunately, the expedition resulted in the death and decapitation of two marines at their hands.

In 1813 Adonis and the frigate Rosamond escorted the Newfoundland fishing fleet back to Britain. The voyage was stormy and the vessels separated near the English Channel. Adonis regained the convoy but as they approached the Scilly Islands they encountered a French fleet. Adonis was too small meaningfully to defend the convoy and in fact only escaped by jettisoning all her guns.

The 1818 Spitsbergen expedition was nearly the first the many Arctic expeditions that followed the Napoleonic Wars. It set out at the same time as that of John Ross into Baffin Bay.
Both were prompted by the interest of John Barrow in Arctic exploration and the fact that in 1817 whalers reported that the normal ice between Greenland and Spitsbergen had disappeared.


The ships were HMS Dorothea (Captain Buchan, first lieutenant Arthur Fleming Morrell, astronomer George Fisher) and HMS Trent under John Franklin who was later famous for his disappearance in the Arctic. They left London on 4 April 1818 and reached Spitsbergen in June. They found that the ice had returned to normal. They entered Magdalena Bay on the west coast where they were frozen in for a few weeks. Escaping the bay they worked their way north through leads in the ice, often dragging the ships with ropes. By early July they were about 30 miles into the ice and could go no further. They were a little north of 80°, about the same latitude as northernmost Spitsbergen.

No European had sailed this far north except William Scoresby. It took only nine days to return to open water, but almost immediately they were hit by a storm which threatened to drive them onto the ice. The storm died down but Dorothea was too damaged to continue in the Arctic. Franklin wanted to continue with Trent but Buchan overruled him. They reached home on 30 September.

Buchan returned to Newfoundland in 1819. Although he intended to return the Beothuk woman Demasduwit to her people, she died of tuberculosis before he was able to make any additional contact with the Beothuk. Buchan later ordered additional efforts to return Demasduwit's niece, the Beothuk woman Shanawdithit, to her family but she refused to go with any European expedition. As far as she knew, all her people had died. Also, after having been with the English, she knew that any Beothuk people would sacrifice her in a religious redemption of those who had been killed before.

Later work

David Buchan was promoted to captain in the Royal Navy on 12 June 1823, but was removed from the active list the same year. He was appointed High Sheriff of Newfoundland from 1825 to 1835.

In December 1838, he was declared lost at sea with the East Indiaman Upton Castle en route from Calcutta to England.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Ross and Parry met a The scene was painted by group of Inuit, with whom John Sacheuse,
an Inuit who they tried to communicate. accompanied the expedition.
Edward Parry
Edward Parry, who was one of those to challenge Ross's vision of the "Croker Mountains," led the expedition of 1819 in HMS Heck and HMS Griper. He sailed into Lancaster Sound, over the supposed position of the "Croker Mountains" and on into Viscount Melville Sound. Crossing 110°W, the ships' companies became eligible for the Parliamentary reward of _£5000.

Shortly after that it became clear that the expedition needed to find a safe anchorage for the ships. Channels were cut in the ice and the ships were toweel into a sate haven. Party and his men then settled down to winter in their ships - a time that must have tested the qualities of officers and men to the full. In fine weather the men exercised on the floe, went off on hunting trips or cut ice for drinking water, while the officers made scientific observations. Afterward there were talks and writing lessons for the men, and lectures for the officers. A ships' newspaper was produced, and all hands joined in the theatricals which were the winter highlight.
The ships broke free ot the ice on August 1. 1820, but, having made little progress in finding the Northwest Passage, Parry returned home. However, in 1821 he set sail again. He began a survey working northward from Hudson Bay, but he was unable to break through and connect the two regions then charted.

After Ross's expedition, the whalermen who had previously stayed in Davis Strait followed his track and found excellent fishing north of Melville Bay. Parry's third voyage led them into the equally lucrative Prince Regent Inlet.

Magnetic North

While Parry's reputation grew, the career prospects of John Ross had been dashed by the episode of the "Croker Mountains."
Hoping to regain favor, he persuaded a wealthy distiller, Felix Booth, to support an expedition. In 1829 he took ship in Victory, an erratic paddle-steamer whose machinery gave endless problems before she froze immovably into the ice at Felix Harbor. In 1831 John Ross and his nephew James Clark Ross were on the Boothia Peninsula when they realized that the Magnetic North Pole - then some 1250 miles (2000 kilometers) from the geographical North Pole — was close at hand. James Ross set out with a sledge party of Inuit to identify the very spot, which he reached on June 1, 1831. By 1832 food was running short so the Rosses trekked north to find the stores that Parry had left after the wreck of his ship Fury in 1825.
These provisions lasted through the winter; in 1833 they left Fury Bay in small boats and were fortunate enough to be picked up by a whaler.
Parry William Edward

Sir William Edward Parry (19 December 1790 – 8 or 9 July 1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer. His 1819 voyage through the Parry Channel was probably the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole. He reached 82°45′ North latitude, setting the record for human exploration farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′26″ by Albert Hastings Markham in 1875–1876.

Early life
Parry was born in Bath, the son of Dr. Caleb Hillier Parry and Sarah Rigby. He was educated at King Edward's School, Bath. At the age of thirteen he joined the flagship of Admiral Cornwallis in the Channel fleet as a first-class volunteer, in 1806 became a midshipman, and in 1810 received promotion to the rank of lieutenant in the frigate Alexander, which spent the next three years in the protection of the Spitsbergen whale fishery. He took advantage of this opportunity for the study and practice of astronomical observations in northern latitudes, and afterwards published the results of his studies in a small volume on Nautical Astronomy by Night (1816). From 1813–1817 he served on the North American station.

Sir William Edward Parry
  Arctic exploration

1818:Baffin Bay

In 1818 he received command of the brig Alexander in the Arctic expedition under Captain (afterwards Sir) John Ross. This expedition followed the coast of Baffin Bay without making any new discoveries.

1819:Halfway across the Arctic
Parry and many others thought that Ross was wrong to turn back after entering Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island. Partly as a result Parry was given command of a new expedition in the HMS Hecla accompanied by the slower HMS Griper under Matthew Liddon. Others on the expedition were Edward Sabine, science officer and Frederick William Beechy. For protection from ice the ships were clad with 3-inch oak, had iron plates on their bows and internal cross-beams.

They also carried food in tin cans, an invention so new that there were as yet no can openers. Instead of taking Ross's easy route counterclockwise around Baffin Bay he headed straight for Lancaster Sound. Fighting his way through ice he reached clear water on 28 July and headed for Lancaster Sound. He passed Ross's farthest west and kept going. Blocked by heavy ice, they went south for more than 100 miles into Prince Regent Inlet before turning back. Continuing west they passed 110°W (about 600 miles west of Lancaster Strait) which entitled them to a £5,000 award offered by Parliament.

Finally blocked by ice they turned back to a place Parry called Winter Harbour on the south shore of Melville Island (somewhere near 107 or 108°W). Cutting their way through new ice the ships reached anchorage on 26 September. Here they were frozen in for the next 10 months. There were three months of total darkness and in the new year the temperature reached −54°F. The men were kept busy with regular exercise while the officers put on plays and produced a newspaper. The first case of scurvy was reported in January and by March fourteen men were on the sick list, about half with mild scurvy. (Parry carried mustard and cress seeds and planted them in his cabin. The leaves seemed to help.) There was some excitement in early March when the first melt water appeared, but by the end of the month the ice was still six feet thick. In June Parry led a group of men dragging a wooden cart to the north shore of the island which he named Hecla and Griper Bay. It was the first of August before the ships were able to float out of the harbor. They got as far west as 113°46'W before turning back. It was too late in the season and new ice was already beginning to form. They reached England in October 1820 having lost only one man. Parry's voyage, which had taken him through the Parry Channel three quarters of the way across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was probably the single most productive voyage in the quest for the Northwest Passage. 1819 was unusually ice-free and no ship was able to travel so far west until Edward Belcher's expedition in 1850. A narrative of the expedition, entitled Journal of a Voyage to discover a North-west Passage, appeared in 1821, publisher John Murray paying 1,000 guineas for it. Upon his return Lieutenant Parry received promotion to the rank of commander. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1821.

1819: Parry Channel runs west from Lancaster Sound. Melville Island is the westernmost yellow Island on the north side.
1821: Foxe Basin. Melville Peninsula on the west between Frozen Strait (south) and Fury and Hecla Strait (north)
1821-23:West side of Foxe Basin
In April 1821 he again left for the Arctic commanding the Fury accompanied by the Hecla under George Francis Lyon. Others with him were George Fisher, scientist and chaplain, William Hooper, purser and diarist, Lieutenants Francis Crozier and Henry Parkyns Hoppner and James Clark Ross, then a midshipman. Experience from the previous voyage led to improvements. The two vessels were nearly identical since the Gripper had not been able to keep up with the Hecla. They had cork insulation, cork plugs for the portholes and a coal-burning stove in the lowest deck to deal with condensation. The men were issued better clothing and lemon juice was stored in kegs rather than glass bottles.

The goal this time was to find a passage near the northwest end of Hudson Bay. After working slowly through the ice of Hudson Strait he headed directly west to Frozen Strait which Christopher Middleton (navigator) had found impassable in 1742. He passed Frozen Strait in a fog and found himself in Repulse Bay, Nunavut which he re-checked and found land-locked. He then ran northeast and mapped the coast of the Melville Peninsula and wintered at Winter Island (Nunavut) at its southeast corner. From the Inuit he learned that northward the coast turned west.

In March and May Lyon led two sledging expeditions into the interior. Freed from the ice in July he then went north and found the Fury and Hecla Strait, which was ice-filled. They waited for the ice to clear, but it did not. In September Lieutenant Ried trekked 100 miles west along the Strait to the ice-filled Gulf of Boothia, the north end of which Parry had approached in 1819. When new ice began to form they went a short distance southeast and wintered at Igloolik. The ship was not freed from ice until 8 August. Since it was late in the season and there were signs of scurvy, he turned for home and reached the Shetlands in mid-October 1823.
During his absence he had in November 1821 been promoted to post rank and shortly after his return he was appointed acting Hydrographer of the Navy. His Journal of a Second Voyage, &c., appeared in 1824.

  1824-25: HMS Fury lost at Prince Regent Inlet
In May 1824 he left London in the Hecla accompanied by Henry Parkyns Hoppner in the Fury. With them were Horatio Thomas Austin, James Clark Ross and William Hooper, purser and diarist. The goal this time was Prince Regent Inlet at the west end of Baffin Island where he had been blocked by ice in 1819. It was a bad year for ice and he did not reach Lancaster Sound until 10 September. He entered Prince Regent Inlet but after 60 miles of ice he was forced to winter at a place he called Port Bowen on the eastern shore. In late July 1825 they freed themselves from ice but 60 miles further south they were caught by wind and ice and the Fury was driven against the western shore. After 48 hours work on the pumps it was deliberately beached. Stores were unloaded in the hope of careening the vessel, but by 25 August it was clear that the keel was broken. Most of the stores were left on the beach and the crew taken on board the Hecla which reached England in October 1825. Parry thought he could see open water south of the wreck site. He published an account of this voyage in 1826.

The wreck site, Fury Beach, near 72°30′N 92°30′W where the coast turns west became an important landmark. John Ross (Arctic explorer) reached it in 1829. He found the hulk gone and many stores piled on the beach. When his ship was frozen in further south he depended on those stores before being rescued. In 1850 Charles Forsyth reached it but was blocked by ice.

Farthest North record
In the following year Parry obtained the sanction of the Admiralty for an attempt on the North Pole from the northern shores of Spitzbergen at Seven Islands. On 23 October 1826 Parry married Isabella Louisa Stanley, daughter of John Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley and Lady Maria Josepha Holroyde before undertaking the expedition.

In 1827 he reached 82°45’N,[3] which remained for 49 years the highest latitude attained. He published an account of this journey under the title of Narrative of the Attempt to reach the North Pole, &c. (1827).


"Das Eismeer" (The Sea of Ice) by Caspar David Friedrich, 1823-4, was inspired by Parry's account from the 1819–1820 expedition. The harsh nature and radical composition, however, caused it to remain unsold until the death of the artist in 1840.
Later career
In April 1829 he was knighted. Parry served as Commissioner of the Australian Agricultural Company based at Tahlee on the northern shore of Port Stephens New South Wales, Australia from 1829 to 1834.

Parry was subsequently selected for the post of comptroller of the newly created department of steam machinery of the Navy, and held this office until his retirement from active service in 1846, when he was appointed captain-superintendent of Haslar Hospital.

He reorganised the Packet Service (overseas mail), which had been transferred from the Post Office to the Admiralty in January 1837.

Steamship companies were contracted to carry the mail, instead of naval vessels, on a regular schedule.

He attained the rank of rear-admiral in 1852, and in the following year became a governor of Greenwich Hospital, and retained this post until his death.

Sir William Parry’s character was influenced by his unwavering belief in Jesus Christ, and besides the journals of his different voyages he also wrote a Lecture to Seamen, and Thoughts on the Parental Character of God. He was noted as "an evangelical [Christian] and an ardent advocate of moral reform in the navy." Parry also pioneered the use of canning techniques for food preservation on his Arctic voyages. However, his techniques were not infallible: in 1939 viable spores of certain heat-resistant bacteria were found in canned roast veal that had travelled with Parry to the Arctic Circle in 1824. The crater Parry on the Moon was named after him, as was Parry County, New South Wales, Parry Sound, Ontario, Canada, and the optical phenomenon Parry arc, documented by him during the 1819–1821 expedition. In 1930, a large sandstone rock at Winter Harbour on Melville Island marking Parry's 1819 wintering site, approximately 5.5 metres (18 ft) long and 3 metres (9.8 ft) high, was designated a National Historic Site of Canada.

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"The Crews of H.M.S. Hecla & Griper Cutting Into Winter Harbour, Sept. 26th, 1819". An engraving from the journal published in 1821.
Ross James Clark

Sir James Clark Ross (15 April 1800 – 3 April 1862) was a British naval officer and explorer remembered today for his exploration of the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry and, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica.

Arctic explorer
Ross was born in London, the nephew of Sir John Ross, under whom he entered the navy in 1812, accompanying him on Sir John's first Arctic voyage in search of a Northwest Passage in 1818. Between 1819 and 1827, Ross took part in four Arctic expeditions under Sir William Parry, and in 1829 to 1833, again served under his uncle on Sir John's second Arctic voyage. It was during this trip that they located the position of the North Magnetic Pole on 1 June 1831 on the Boothia Peninsula in the far north of Canada. It was on this trip, too, that Ross charted the Beaufort Islands, later renamed Clarence Islands by his uncle.

In 1834, Ross was promoted to Captain. In December 1835, he offered his services to the Admiralty to resupply 11 whaling ships which had become trapped in Baffin Bay. They accepted his offer and he set sail in the HMS Cove in January 1836. The crossing was difficult, and by the time he had reached the last known position of the whalers in June, all but one had managed to return home. Ross found no trace of this last vessel, the William Torr, which was probably crushed in the ice in December 1835. He returned to Hull in September 1836 with all his crew in good health.

From 1835–39, except for his voyage with the Cove, he conducted a magnetic survey of Great Britain with Edward Sabine.


Portrait of Sir James Clark Ross by John R. Wildman. The object in the bottom righthand corner is a dip circle, designed by Robert Were Fox and used by Ross to discover the magnetic north pole.
  Antarctic explorer
Between 1839 and 1843, Ross commanded an Antarctic expedition comprising the vessels HMS Erebus and HMS Terror and charted much of the coastline of the continent. Francis Crozier was second in command of the expedition and commanded HMS Terror. Support for the expedition had been arranged by Francis Beaufort, hydrographer of the Navy and a member of several scientific societies. On the expedition was Joseph Dalton Hooker, who had been invited along as assistant surgeon. Erebus and Terror were bomb vessels – an unusual type of warship named after the mortar bombs they were designed to fire and constructed with extremely strong hulls, to withstand the recoil of the mortars, which were to prove of great value in thick ice.

In 1841, James Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, and the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expedition's vessels. They sailed for 250 nautical miles (460 km) along the edge of the low, flat-topped ice shelf they called the Victoria Barrier, later named "Ross Ice Shelf" in his honour. In the following year, he attempted to penetrate south at about 55°W, and explored the eastern side of what is now known as James Ross Island, discovering and naming Snow Hill Island and Seymour Island. It is interesting to note that Ross reported that Admiralty Sound (which he named Admiralty Inlet) appeared to Ross to have been blocked by glaciers at its southern end. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1848 and knighted in 1844.

In 1848, he was sent on one of three expeditions to find Sir John Franklin. (The others were the Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition and the HMS Plover-HMS Herald expedition through the Bering Strait.)

He was given command of HMS Enterprise, accompanied by HMS Investigator, Because of heavy ice in Baffin Bay he only reached the northeast tip of Somerset Island where he was frozen in at Port Leopold. In the spring he and Francis McClintock explored the west coast of the island by sledge. He recognized Peel Sound but thought it too ice-choked for Franklin to have used it (In fact Franklin had used it in 1846.). Next summer he tried to reach Wellington Channel but was blocked by ice and returned to England.

James was married to Lady Ann Ross. He died at Aylesbury in 1862, five years after his wife. A blue plaque marks Ross's home in Eliot Place, Blackheath, London. His closest friend was Captain Francis Crozier with whom he sailed many times. Crozier has never been found after he participated in The Franklin Expedition and became leader after the death of Sir John Franklin.

James also lived in the ancient country house of the Abbotts of St Albans, later known as The Abbey, Aston Abbotts in Buckinghamshire. He is buried with his wife in the local churchyard. In the gardens of the Abbey there is a lake with two islands, named after the ships Terror and Erebus.

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Brit. Order of St. Michael and St. George instituted by the Prince Regent
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is an order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as Prince Regent for his father, King George III.

It is named in honour of two military saints, St Michael and St George.

The Order of St Michael and St George is awarded to men and women who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country. It can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs.

The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority:

-Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)
-Knight Commander (KCMG) or Dame Commander (DCMG)
-Companion (CMG)

It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), and then after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander (KCMG). It is the traditional award for members of the FCO.

The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi (Latin for "Token of a better age"). Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel and St. George. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over Satan.

Representation of the star of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross
The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1936. The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947.
The Order was founded to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted its own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817.
It was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean".
  In 1864, however, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became a part of Greece. The Order's basis was revised in 1868; membership was granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.

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Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (30 March 1818 – 11 March 1888) was a German mayor and cooperative pioneer. Several credit union systems and cooperative banks have been named after Raiffeisen, who pioneered rural credit unions.

Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen
Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen was born on 30 March 1818 at Hamm/Sieg (Westerwald). He was the seventh out of nine children. His father Gottfried Friedrich Raiffeisen was a farmer and also mayor of Hamm for a while. One can go back to his family’s origin until the 16th century in the Swabian-Franconian area. The family of his mother, Amalie Christiane Susanna Maria, born Lantzendörffer, came from the “Siegerland”.

Leaving school at the age of 14 he received three years of education from a local pastor before he entered the military at the age of 17. His career in the military led him to Cologne, Coblenz and Sayn. An eye disease forced him to resign from the military service in 1843 and he went into public service.
He was mayor of several towns: from 1845 he was mayor of Weyerbusch/Westerwald; from 1848 he was mayor of Flammersfeld/Westerwald; and finally he was mayor of Heddesdorf from 1852 until late 1865, when, at the age of 47, his worsening health cut his career short; he had caught typhus in 1863 during an epidemic during which his wife had died. Since his small pension was not sufficient to meet the living of Raiffeisen’s family he initially started a small cigar factory and later on a wine business.

In 1867, he married the widow Maria Panseroth. She outlived him by 12 years and their marriage remained childless. He died on 11 March 1888 in Neuwied-Heddesdorf, shortly before his 70th birthday.
The cover of "Raiffeisen-Ratgeber: Die Darlehnskassen-Vereine" 1866 by Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen. In it Raiffeisen sets out how to establish credit unions and other co-operatives.
Raiffeisen conceived of the idea of cooperative self-help during his tenure as the young mayor of Flammersfeld. He was inspired by observing the suffering of the farmers who were often in the grip of loansharks. He founded the first cooperative lending bank, in effect the first rural credit union in 1864.

Motivated by the misery of the poor part of the population he founded during the starvation winter of 1846/47 the “Verein für Selbstbeschaffung von Brod und Früchten” (Association for DIY-procurement of Bread and Fruits). He had flour bought with the help of private donations. Bread was baked in a self-built bakery and distributed on credit to the poorest amongst the population. The bread society as well as the aid society founded in 1849 in Flammersfeld and the benevolent society created in 1854 in Heddesdorf were pre-cooperative societies based on the principle of benevolent assistance.

In order to secure the liquidity equalization between the small credit banks, in 1872 Raiffeisen created the first rural central bank at Neuwied, the “Rheinische Landwirtschaftliche Genossenschaftsbank” (Rhenish Agricultural Cooperative Bank). In 1881, Raiffeisen created a printing house in Neuwied which still exists today, carries his name and was merged in 1975 with the German cooperative publishing house “Deutscher Genossenschafts-Verlag”.

The cover of "Raiffeisen-Ratgeber: Die Darlehnskassen-Vereine" 1866 by Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen. In it Raiffeisen sets out how to establish credit unions and other co-operatives.
Raiffeisen stated that there is a connection between poverty and dependency. In order to fight poverty one should fight dependency first. Based on this idea he came up with the three 'S' formula: self-help, self-governance and self-responsibility. Originally in German: Selbsthilfe, Selbstverwaltung and Selbstverantwortung. When put into practice the necessary independence from charity, politics and loansharks could be established.

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First professional horse racing in U.S.

SS Savannah was an American hybrid sailing ship/sidewheel steamer built in 1818. It is notable for being the first steamship in the world to cross the Atlantic Ocean, a risk that was accomplished from May to June 1819, although only a fraction of the distance was covered with the ship under steam power. The rest was sailed by wind power. In spite of her historic voyage, Savannah was not a commercial success as a steamship and was converted back into a sailing ship shortly after returning from Europe.

Savannah was wrecked off Long Island in 1821. No other American-owned steamship would cross the Atlantic for almost thirty years after Savannah's pioneering voyage. Two British sidewheel steamships, Brunel's SS Great Western and Menzies' SS Sirius, raced to New York in 1838, both voyages being made under steam power alone.


Savannah was originally built as a sailing packet at the New York shipyard of Fickett & Crockett. While the ship was still on the slipway, Captain Moses Rogers persuaded Scarborough & Isaacs, a wealthy shipping firm from Savannah, Georgia, to purchase the vessel, convert it to a steamship and gain the prestige of inaugurating the world's first transatlantic steamship service.

Savannah was therefore equipped with a steam engine and paddlewheels in addition to her sails. Moses Rogers himself supervised the installation of the machinery, while his brother-in-law Steven Rogers (no blood relation) oversaw construction of the ship's hull and rigging.

Given that the craft had sails and did not rely exclusively on steam engine-driven paddles, some sources contend that the first ocean-going steamship was the SS Royal William launching several years later, in 1831. The Royal William was the first vessel to cross the ocean almost entirely from steam engine power. Another claimant is the British-built Dutch-owned Curaçao, which used steam power for several days when crossing the Atlantic both ways in 1827.

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