Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1816 Part II NEXT-1817 Part II    
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
History at a Glance
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Perceval Spencer
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"The Demon
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Nations in Arms
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London

Students marching to the Wartburg in 1817
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1817 Part I
Attempt on the life of Prince Regent after opening of Parliament
The attack on the Prince Regent, 28 January 1817
After the Prince Regent's coach was attacked on the way back from Parliament on 28 January 1817, the government embarked on the so-called "Gag Acts", a number of measures to repress the radicals, including the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act. The rejection of the draft bill, and the increasingly repressive measure, led to a series of events that included the Blanketeers' march, as the radicals attempted, as Poole puts it: "to appeal in the last resort to the crown over the head of parliament, and to exercise in person the right of petitioning which had been denied them by proxy".
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act

The Habeas Corpus Suspension Act 1817 (57 Geo. III, c. 3) was an Act passed by the British Parliament.

The Home Secretary, Lord Sidmouth, introduced the second reading of the Bill on 24 February 1817. In his speech he said there was "a traitorous conspiracy...for the purpose of overthrowing...the established government" and referred to "a malignant spirit which had brought such disgrace upon the domestic character of the people" and "had long prevailed in the country, but especially since the commencement of the French Revolution". This spirit belittled Britain's victories and exalted the prowess of her enemies and after the war had fomented discontent and encouraged violence: "An organised system has been established in every quarter, under the semblance of demanding parliamentary reform, but many of them, I am convinced, have that specious pretext in their mouths only, but revolution and rebellion in their hearts".

The Act was renewed later in the parliamentary session (57 Geo. III, c. 55). In autumn 1817 Sidmouth went through the list of all those detained under the Act and released as many as possible, personally interviewing most of the prisoners. He also tried to alleviate some of their conditions: "Solitary confinement will not be continued except under special circumstances". The Act was repealed in February 1818 by the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act 1818 (58 Geo. III, c. 1).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Monroe James (1758—1831) inaugurated as fifth President of the U.S. (-1825)

James Monroe
"March of the Blanketeers" from Manchester to London halted at Stockport

The Blanketeers or Blanket March was a demonstration organised in Manchester in March 1817. The intention was for the participants, who were mainly Lancashire weavers, to march to London and petition the Prince Regent over the desperate state of the textile industry in Lancashire, and to protest over the recent suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act. The march was broken up violently and its leaders imprisoned. The Blanketeers formed part of a series of protests and calls for reform that culminated in the Peterloo Massacre and the Six Acts.

England suffered economic hardship in the years immediately following the Napoleonic Wars, and Lord Liverpool's government faced growing demands for social, political and economic reform. In the textile towns of the industrial north, wages fell sharply as the factory system developed, and traditional handloom weavers were among the worst affected.

The Corn Laws of 1815 onward were intended to protect British agricultural workers from cheap foreign imports, but their effect was to increase grain prices and decrease supplies, causing hardship among the poor. In 1816 (the "Year without a summer") severe weather resulted in poor harvests, leading to further food shortages during the winter of 1816—1817. Discontent led to riots, first in some country districts and then in towns and cities, notably the London Spa Fields riots of November–December 1816.

A Reform Bill for universal suffrage was drafted, with considerable input from the Northern radicals, and presented to Parliament at the end of January by Thomas Cochrane, but it was rejected on procedural grounds by the House of Commons.
William Benbow (pictured in Punch in 1848) announced the march at a public meeting.
After the Prince Regent's coach was attacked on the way back from Parliament on 28 January 1817, the government embarked on the so-called "Gag Acts", a number of measures to repress the radicals, including the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act.

The rejection of the draft bill, and the increasingly repressive measure, led to a series of events that included the Blanketeers' march, as the radicals attempted, as Poole puts it: "to appeal in the last resort to the crown over the head of parliament, and to exercise in person the right of petitioning which had been denied them by proxy".

In January and February 1817, various workers' and deputies' meetings in Manchester were addressed by the radical orators Samuel Drummond and John Bagguley. A recurring theme of these meetings was the supposed legal right of individuals to address petitions directly to the Crown.
Drummond and Bagguley helped plan a march to London to present such a petition, holding meetings along the way and encouraging others to join the demonstration, and these plans were announced by William Benbow at a public meeting in Manchester on 3 March, at which the hope was expressed that the marchers would be 20,000 strong. Some Lancashire reformers opposed the march and advised their supporters not to take part. Samuel Bamford, a weaver, writer and radical leader from Middleton, had been part of the delegation to London to discuss and forward the abortive Reform Bill. He thought the march ill-planned and unwise, predicting that they would be "denounced as robbers and rebels and the military would be brought to cut them down or take them prisoners", and expressed his relief that no Middleton people went as marchers. Bamford would later claim that one of the organisers disappeared with the money raised to feed the Blanketeers, leaving them without a means of support on the march.  
Samuel Bamford opposed the march, but was arrested in the aftermath
Assembly and march
On 10 March 1817 around 5,000 marchers, mainly spinners and weavers, met in St. Peter's Field, near Manchester, along with a large crowd of onlookers, perhaps as many as 25,000 people in total. Each marcher had a blanket or rolled overcoat on his back, to sleep under at night and to serve as a sign that the man was a textile worker, giving the march its eventual nickname. The plan was for the marchers to walk in separate groups of ten, in order to avoid any accusation of illegal mass assembly. Each group of ten carried a petition bearing twenty names, appealing directly to the Prince Regent to take urgent steps to improve the Lancashire cotton trade. The organisers stressed the importance of lawful behaviour during the march, and Drummond was quoted as declaring: "We will let them see it is not riot and disturbance we want, it is bread we want and we will apply to our noble Prince as a child would to its Father for bread." Nevertheless, magistrates had the Riot Act read, the meeting was broken up by the King's Dragoon Guards, and 27 people were arrested including Bagguley and Drummond. Plans for the march were thus in confusion, but several hundred men set off. The cavalry pursued and attacked them, in Ardwick on the outskirts of Manchester and elsewhere, including an incident at Stockport that left several marchers with sabre wounds and one local resident shot dead. Many dropped out or were taken into custody by police and the yeomanry between Manchester and Stockport, and the majority were turned back or arrested under vagrancy laws before they reached Derbyshire. There were unconfirmed stories that just one marcher, variously named as "Abel Couldwell" or "Jonathan Cowgill", reached London and handed over his petition.
  "Ardwick Bridge conspiracy" and aftermath
Some concern was expressed over the harsh suppression of the march, but the Manchester magistrates quickly provided justification for the authorities' actions. On 28 March a private meeting of reformers was broken up in the Ardwick Bridge area of Manchester, and the following day it was announced that a major conspiracy had been discovered. According to the official story, deputies in Manchester and other northern towns had been planning an uprising in which the army and local officials would be attacked, mills burned, and imprisoned Blanketeers liberated. It was said that up to fifty thousand people were expected to take part. Many suspected insurrectionists were arrested immediately, including Samuel Bamford, whose memoirs contain a detailed description of his arrest and detention. The prisoners were taken to London in irons for personal interrogation by a secret tribunal including the Foreign Secretary, Lord Castlereagh and the Home Secretary, Lord Sidmouth. In some cases they were held without trial for months before their eventual release. No sign of the uprising was seen on the appointed day, but the event was used to support the government's case for the continued emergency measures. Parliament renewed the suspension of Habeas Corpus again in June and it was not reinstated until the following March, at which time legislation indemnifying officials for any unlawful actions during the period of suspension was also passed. Meanwhile, the Pentridge or Pentrich Rising in Derbyshire in June 1817 continued the trend of insurrection among the working classes in the name of social and political reform.

The government also clamped down on press comment and radical writing.

It had already passed the Power of Imprisonment Bill in February 1817, prompting the journalist William Cobbett to leave for America for fear of arrest for his pro-reform writing and publishing, and the Seditious Meetings Act in March of that year, as a direct response to the Blanketeers' march. On 12 May Sidmouth circulated instructions to the Lords Lieutenant that magistrates could use their own judgement on what constituted "seditious or blasphemous libel" and could arrest and bail anyone caught selling it. The Six Acts, which followed the Peterloo massacre, would include further restrictions designed to limit the freedom of the press.

The Blanketeers March and the subsequent conspiracy alarms led the Manchester magistrates to form the short-lived Manchester and Salford Yeomanry cavalry, intended to combat any future attempts at insurrection. It became infamous two years later for its role in the Peterloo Massacre.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wartburg Festival

The first Wartburg festival (German: Wartburgfest) on 18 October 1817 was an important event in German history that took place at the Wartburg Castle near Eisenach.


Students marching to the Wartburg in 1817
After the German War of Liberation against France and Napoleon, many people were bitter about dreams of German unity shattered after the Congress of Vienna. Democratic reforms were stalled, and governments had cracked down on press freedom and rights of association.

In 1815 the students of Jena founded the youth organization Teutonia in order to encourage German unity at the university.

Many of them had participated as voluntary soldiers on the fields against Napoleon, e.g. in the Lützow Free Corps, the black-red-gold colour scheme of which was adopted for the Flag of Germany. The German students demonstrated for a national state and a liberal constitution and condemned "reactionary" forces in the newly recreated German states.

  On the occasion of the three-hundredth anniversary of Martin Luther's nailing of his theses and the fourth anniversary of the bloody Battle of Nations at Leipzig, the student groups organized a festival at the Wartburg.
This castle had been a refuge for Martin Luther. Inasmuch as he had translated the Bible there and thus set a standard for the German language, it became a symbol of German nationalism.

A key event was a book-burning of reactionary literary works, and symbols of Napoleon like a corporal's cane. This act was used in 1933 as a justification for the Nazi book burnings.

The event itself was also used as a justification for further suppression of liberal forces, such as the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819.

In 1832, the Hambacher Fest was held in similar manner. A second festival at the Wartburg was held during the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bolivar Simon establishes independent government of Venezuela
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)

The Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817) was the second phase of the Serbian Revolution against the Ottoman Empire, which erupted shortly after the re-annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empire, in 1813. The occupation was enforced following the defeat of the First Serbian Uprising (1804-1813), during which Serbia existed as a de facto independent state for over a decade. The second revolution ultimately resulted in Serbian semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Principality of Serbia was established, governed by its own parliament, constitution and royal dynasty. De jure independence followed during the second half of the 19th century.


The Takovo Uprising (1889), painting by Paja Jovanović
The First Serbian Uprising managed to liberate the country for a significant time (1804-1813) from Ottoman Empire; for the first time in three centuries, Serbs governed themselves without the supremacy of the Ottoman Empire or Habsburg Austria.

After the failure of the First Serbian uprising, most commanders escaped to the Habsburg Monarchy; only a few remained in Serbia. Karađorđe Petrović leader of the First Serbian Uprising, escaped with his family. Despite the efforts of Karađorđe to obtain allies among Austrian Serbs, Bosnian Serbs, Russians, or Napoleon Bonaparte, the rebel Serbian state was crushed by the Ottomans in 1813.

Miloš Obrenović surrendered to the Ottoman Turks and received the title of "obor-knez" ("senior leader"). Stanoje Glavaš also surrendered to the Turks and was made a supervisor of a road, but the Turks killed him after they became suspicious of him. Hadži Prodan Gligorijević knew the Turks would arrest him and so declared an uprising in 1814, but Obrenović felt the time was not right for an uprising and did not provide assistance.

Hadži Prodan's Uprising soon failed and he fled to Austria. After the failure of this revolt, the Turks inflicted more persecution against the Serbs, such as high taxation, forced labor, and rape. In March 1815, Serbs had several meetings and decided upon a new revolt.

The national council proclaimed open revolt against the Ottoman Empire in Takovo on April 24, 1815. Obrenović was chosen as the leader and famously spoke, "Here I am, here you are. War to the Turks!" When the Ottomans discovered the new revolt they sentenced all of its leaders to death. The Serbs fought in battles at Ljubić, Čačak, Palež, Požarevac and Dublje and drove the Ottomans out of the Pashaluk of Belgrade.

In mid-1815, the first negotiations began between Obrenović and Maraşlı Ali Paşa (English, Marashli Ali Pasha; Serbian, Marašli Ali Paša), the Ottoman governor. Obrenović managed to get a form of partial autonomy for Serbs, and, in 1816, the Turkish Porte signed several documents for the normalization of relations between Serbs and Turks. The result was acknowledgment of a Serbian Principality by the Ottoman Empire. Although the principality paid a yearly tax to the Porte and had a garrison of Turkish troops in Belgrade until 1867, it was, in most other matters, an independent state.

In 1817, Obrenović succeeded in forcing Maraşlı Ali Paşa to negotiate an unwritten agreement, and, with this, the Second Serbian uprising was finished. The same year, Karađorđe, the leader of the First Uprising, returned to Serbia and was assassinated by Obrenović's orders. Obrenović received the title of Prince of Serbia. Under the grandson of his brother, Milan, Serbia gained formal independence in 1878 under the Treaty of Berlin.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mississippi becomes a state of the U.S.

Mississippi, constituent state of the United States of America. Its name derives from a Native American word meaning “great waters” or “father of waters.” Mississippi became the 20th state of the union in 1817. Jackson is the state capital.

Mississippi is smaller than most of the U.S. states and is bounded on the north by Tennessee, on the east by Alabama, on the south by Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico, and on the west by Louisiana and Arkansas. Mississippi is naturally well suited to agriculture; its soil is rich and deep, and its landscape is laced with many rivers. Until the mid-20th century the dominance of a rural, unhurried lifestyle generally worked to the state’s advantage. This way of life was manifest in part in a culture of gentility, the legacy of which is still evident in the many historic mansions located in such old towns as Columbus, Biloxi, Natchez, Vicksburg, and Holly Springs.

With increasing urbanization and industrialization, however, the leisurely approach to life in many ways became a hindrance to Mississippi’s economic and social development. For decades an unusually large dependent population, a predominantly agricultural economy, and a prevailing resistance to change have kept Mississippi’s per capita income low and created an inadequate standard of living for many families. Moreover, the state has been the site of intense interracial conflict, sitting centre stage during the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century.
In the early 21st century roughly half of all Mississippians still lived in rural areas—though not necessarily on farms—and the state continued to rank low in many economic indexes. Area 47,692 square miles (123,522 square km). Population (2010) 2,967,297; (2013 est.) 2,991,207.

The earliest inhabitants

Three major groups of indigenous peoples constituted the earliest inhabitants of present-day Mississippi. The largest of these groups, the Choctaw, numbered approximately 20,000 and were located primarily in the southern and central part of the state.

The other two groups were the Natchez, who numbered about 4,500 and were centred in southwestern Mississippi, and the Chickasaw, who had a population of about 5,000 and ranged from their principal villages in the northeastern part of the state into what are now Tennessee and Kentucky. The Natchez were virtually annihilated during a war with the French garrison at Fort Rosalie (now the city of Natchez) in 1729–31, and the Choctaw and Chickasaw were eventually removed from Mississippi to the Oklahoma territory via the infamous Trail of Tears in the 1830s.

Exploration and settlement
In the winter of 1540 Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto led a large expedition into Mississippi and wintered along the Pontotoc Ridge. In the following spring he reached the Mississippi River, but, because he found no gold or silver in the region, the Spanish directed their efforts elsewhere.

Some 130 years later a small group of French Canadians sailed down the Mississippi River and immediately recognized its commercial and strategic importance.

In 1699 a French expedition led by Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville established France’s claim to the lower Mississippi valley. French settlements were soon established at Fort Maurepas, Mobile, Biloxi, Fort Rosalie, and New Orleans.

Following the French and Indian War, which ended in 1763, France ceded its possessions east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans, to Great Britain, which also gained possession of the Spanish territory of Florida. Great Britain subsequently divided Florida into two colonies, one of which, called West Florida, included the area between the Apalachicola and Mississippi rivers. Fort Rosalie was renamed Fort Panmure, and the Natchez District was established as a subdivision of West Florida. Natchez flourished during the early 1770s. After the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775–83), Spain regained possession of Florida and occupied Natchez. The Peace of Paris treaties of 1783 fixed the 31st parallel as the boundary between Spanish Florida and the United States, but Spain continued to occupy Natchez until the dispute was settled in 1798.


Statehood and Civil War
The original Mississippi Territory created by the U.S. Congress in 1798 was a strip of land extending about 100 miles (160 km) north to south and from the Mississippi River to the Chattahoochee on the Georgia border. The territory was increased in 1804 and 1812 to reach from Tennessee to the Gulf of Mexico. In 1817 the western part achieved statehood as Mississippi (the eastern part became the state of Alabama in 1819). Natchez, the first territorial capital, was replaced in 1802 by nearby Washington, which in turn was replaced by Jackson in 1822.

The 1820s and ’30s were marked by the decline of the so-called Jeffersonian Republicans (supporters of the political ideals of the Democratic-Republican Party under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson), the ascendancy of Jacksonian Democracy (under Andrew Jackson), and the removal of the indigenous population to Oklahoma.

Those were the days of steamboats, land speculation, and the emergence of a cotton economy based on slavery. Slave ownership, however, was not common among the numerous small landowners, who generally were Jacksonian Democrats. Rather, it was prevalent among the more influential, though smaller, group of large landholders, most of whom followed the Whig Party, which opposed the political views of Jackson.

Throughout the 1830s and ’40s, the parallel lines of party and class in Mississippi divided the Whigs from the Democrats and embittered their dialogue. In the 1850s, however, members of the Whig and Democratic parties of the South made an uneasy truce, prompted by the demand in the North for the abolition of slavery. The move did not settle differences; it merely sublimated them. The two parties had closed ranks only to defend a labour system that had become a symbol of the Southern way of life.

In January 1861 Mississippi seceded from the union, and within a year the state was in the clutch of the American Civil War (1861–65). The people suffered; the land was devastated; and, by the end of the war, the state was in economic ruin.

  The aftermath of the Civil War
Throughout the period of Reconstruction (1865–77) following the Civil War and for more than a decade afterward, Mississippi’s former slaves and their former owners grappled with the political, social, and economic consequences of emancipation. The white minority could not or would not accept a biracial society based on equality of opportunity. In 1890 the ruling elite adopted a constitution that both institutionalized a system of racial segregation and established an economic order that kept the black population in a position of dependency. Mississippians had hoped to find economic recovery in the coming of industry and the railroads, but the hope was only partially realized. Emancipation had given the former slaves freedom of mobility, but most remained in the state and eventually were absorbed into the system of tenant farming, by which they were basically given rights to cultivate land in exchange for a share of the product. The continued economic interdependence of the black and white communities kept intact many of the social customs and traditions that had developed before the war.

From World War I through the civil rights movement
World War I (1914–18) hastened the end of Mississippi’s physical and psychological isolation, and most of the bitterness remaining from the Civil War was lost in a surge of patriotism. Between World War I and World War II (1939–45) the state was affected by an agricultural depression in the 1920s, the disastrous Mississippi River flood of 1927, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, as well as the coming of farm-production controls and the beginnings of new industrialization. After World War II, government farm programs and mechanization revolutionized agricultural production.

In 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court declared racially segregated schools unconstitutional. That decision was followed by years of legal attacks against racial segregation and by large-scale registration of Southern black voters. In 1955 Emmett Till, a 14-year-old black boy from Chicago, was brutally murdered in Mississippi after allegedly whistling at a white woman in a local grocery store, and his white murderers were acquitted of the crime; this event jolted the country and further fueled the movement for civil rights.

White Mississippians reacted to black protests, marches, and demonstrations with increasing violence during the early 1960s. In 1962, state officials defied a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that ordered the admission of a black student, James H. Meredith, to the University of Mississippi. Following a night of rioting during which two people were killed, Meredith was admitted and the colour barrier was officially broken in Mississippi. The violence continued, however, with the most serious incident occurring during the “long, hot summer” of 1964, when the Ku Klux Klan murdered three young civil rights workers—two white and one black—and deposited their bodies in a partially finished dam near the town of Philadelphia, Miss.

Mississippi maintained a dual, segregated school system, despite its unconstitutionality, into the late 1960s. Finally, in October 1969, under a federal court order, the state’s school system was unified and desegregated. Although the great majority of white Mississippians opposed the integration of white and black students in the schools, they adjusted to that change with only minor isolated incidents of violence. Over the following decades a succession of strong and progressive governors helped to lead Mississippi from its troubled history as a socially conservative society into a new era of black and white cooperation.


Jackson, Mississippi
Mississippi since the mid-20th century
After accommodating themselves to the major social changes of the mid-20th century, Mississippians could at last turn their attention and energy to the development of the state’s human and natural resources. By the 1970s, economic development was proceeding at a moderate but steady pace. Out-migration of white Mississippians had virtually ceased, and among the black population it had declined significantly. Although per capita income remained below the national average, it had risen substantially as a result of urbanization, industrialization, and the decline in agricultural employment.

A development that both paralleled and promoted this economic and social progress was the growth of the two-party system. Until the mid-20th century the Democratic Party had held a monopoly on the state’s political process. Since that time, however, the Republican Party has challenged the once dominant party at every level. This development has shifted the focus of the political debate in Mississippi from a defense of old traditions to a discussion of new alternatives. Although the state’s limited natural resources and its long years of agricultural dependency and racial discrimination left a lasting mark, Mississippi by the early 21st century had made notable progress toward overcoming the attitudes and attributes that had impeded its social, economic, and political development for so many years.

John N. Burrus
David G. Sansing

Encyclopædia Britannica


World Countries

United States of America
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818

The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India. The war left the Company in control of most of India. It began with an invasion of the Maratha territory by 110,400 British East India Company troops, the largest such British controlled force massed in India. The troops were led by the Governor General Hastings (no relation to Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General of Bengal) and he was supported by a force under General Thomas Hislop.

The operations began with action against Pindaris, a band of Muslims and Marathas from central India.

The Peshwa Baji Rao II's forces, followed by those of Mudhoji II Bhonsle of Nagpur and Malharrao Holkar III of Indore, rose against the British company. Pressure and diplomacy convinced the fourth major Maratha leader, Daulatrao Shinde of Gwalior, to remain neutral even though he lost control of Rajasthan. British victories were swift, resulting in the breakup of the Maratha Empire and the loss of Maratha independence. The Peshwa was defeated in the battles of Khadki and Koregaon. Several minor battles were fought by the Peshwa's forces to prevent his capture.

The Peshwa was eventually captured and placed on a small estate at Bithur, near Kanpur. Most of his territory was annexed and became part of the Bombay Presidency. The Maharaja of Satara was restored as the ruler of his territory as a princely state. In 1848 this territory was also annexed by the Bombay Presidency under the doctrine of lapse policy of Lord Dalhousie. Bhonsle was defeated in the battle of Sitabaldi and Holkar in the battle of Mahidpur. The northern portion of Bhonsle's dominions in and around Nagpur, together with the Peshwa's territories in Bundelkhand, were annexed by British India as the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. The defeat of the Bhonsle and Holkar also resulted in the acquisition of the Maratha kingdoms of Nagpur and Indore by the British. Along with Gwalior from Shinde and Jhansi from the Peshwa, all of these territories became princely states acknowledging British control. The British proficiency in Indian war-making was demonstrated through their rapid victories in Khadki, Sitabardi, Mahidpur, Koregaon, and Satara.

Map of India after the Second Anglo-Maratha War, 1805
The Marathas and the British
The Maratha Empire was founded in 1674 by Shivaji of the Bhosle dynasty. Common elements among the citizens of Shivaji's Maratha Empire were the Marathi language, the Hindu religion, a strong sense of belonging, and a national feeling. Shivaji led resistance efforts to free the Hindus from the Muslim Sultanate of Bijapur and established rule of the native Hindus. This kingdom was known as the Hindavi Swarajya ("Hindu self-rule") in the Marathi language. Shivaji's capital was located at Raigad. Shivaji successfully defended his kingdom from attacks by the Mughal Empire. A key component of the Maratha administration was the council of eight ministers, called the Ashta Pradhan (council of eight). The senior-most member of the Ashta Pradhan was called the Peshwa or the Mukhya Pradhan (prime minister). The Peshwa was the right-hand man of Shivaji.

Shivaji and most of the Maratha warriors belonged to the Maratha caste of the four-tier Hindu caste system, whereas all of the Peshwas belonged to the Brahmin caste. After Shivaji's death, the Maratha empire began to disintegrate. The Peshwas took over as hereditary rulers of the state. A struggle for power between Tarabai and Chhatrapati Shahu ensued.

Growing British power
While the Marathas were fighting the Mughals in the early 18th century, the British held settlements in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta.
The British fortified the naval base of Bombay after they saw the Marathas defeat the Portuguese at neighbouring Vasai in May 1739. In an effort to keep the Marathas out of Bombay, the British sent envoys to negotiate a treaty.

The envoys were successful, and a treaty was signed on 12 July 1739 that gave the British East India Company rights to free trade in Maratha territory. In the south, the Nizam of Hyderabad had enlisted the support of the French for his war against the Marathas. In reaction to this, the Peshwa requested support from the British, but was refused.

Unable to see the rising power of the British, the Peshwa set a precedent by seeking their help to solve internal Maratha conflicts. Despite the lack of support, the Marathas managed to defeat the Nizam over a period of five years.

During the period 1750–1761, the British defeated the French in India, and established supremacy in Bengal in the east and Madras in the south. They were unable to expand to the west as the Marathas were dominant there, but they entered Surat on the west coast via the sea.

The Marathas marched beyond the Indus as their empire grew. The responsibility for managing the sprawling Maratha empire in the north was entrusted to two Maratha leaders, Shinde and Holkar, as the Peshwa was busy in the south.

The two leaders did not act in concert, and their polices were influenced by personal interests and financial demands. They alienated other Hindu rulers such as the Rajputs, the Jats, and the Rohillas, and they failed to diplomatically win over other Muslim leaders.

A large blow to the Marathas came in their defeat on 14 January 1761 at Panipat against the Afghan Ahmad Shah Abdali. An entire generation of Maratha leaders lay dead on the battlefield as a result of that conflict. Between 1761 and 1773, the Marathas regained the lost ground in the north.

  Anglo-Maratha relations
The Maratha gains in the north were undone because of the contradictory policies of Holkar and Shinde and the internal disputes in the family of the Peshwa, which culminated in the murder of Narayanrao Peshwa in 1773. Due to this, the Marathas virtually disappeared from north India. Raghunathrao was ousted from the seat of Peshwa due to continuing internal Maratha rivalries. He sought help from the British, and they signed the Treaty of Surat with him in March 1775. This treaty gave him military assistance in exchange for control of Salsette Island and Bassein Fort.

The treaty set off discussions amongst the British in India as well as in Europe because of the serious implications of a confrontation with the powerful Marathas. Another cause for concern was that the Bombay Council had exceeded its constitutional authority by signing such a treaty. The treaty was the cause of the start of the First Anglo-Maratha War. This war was virtually a stalemate, with no side being able to defeat the other. The war concluded with the treaty of Salabai in May 1782, mediated by Mahadji Shinde. The foresight of Warren Hastings was the main reason for the success of the British in the war. He had destroyed the anti-British coalition and created a division between the Shinde, the Bhonsle, and the Peshwa.

The Marathas were still in a very strong position when the new British Governor General Cornwallis arrived in India in 1786. After the treaty of Salabai, the British followed a policy of coexistence in the north. The British and the Marathas enjoyed more than two decades of peace, thanks to the diplomacy of Nana Phadnavis, the Brahmin minister in the court of the 11-year-old Peshwa Sawai Madhavrao. The situation changed soon after Nana's death in 1800. The power struggle between Holkar and Shinde caused Holkar to attack the Peshwa in Pune in 1801, since the Peshwa sided with Shinde. The Peshwa Baji Rao II fled Pune to safety on a British warship. Baji Rao feared loss of his own powers and signed the treaty of Vasai. This made the Peshwa in effect a subsidiary ally of the British.

In response to the treaty, the Bhonsle and Shinde attacked the British, refusing to accept the betrayal of their sovereignty to the British by the Peshwa. This was the start of the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1803. Both were defeated by the British, and all Maratha leaders lost large parts of their territory to the British.

The British East India Company
The British had travelled thousands of miles to arrive in India. They studied Indian geography and mastered local languages to deal with the Indians. They were technologically advanced, with superior equipment to that available locally. Chhabra hypothesizes that even if the British technical superiority were discounted, they would have won the war because of the discipline and organization in their ranks. After the first Anglo-Maratha war, Warren Hastings declared in 1783 that the peace established with the Marathas was on such a firm ground that it was not going to be shaken for years to come.

The British believed that a new permanent approach was needed to establish and maintain continuous contact with the Peshwa's court in Pune. The British appointed Charles Malet, a senior merchant from Bombay, to be a permanent Resident at Pune because of his knowledge of the languages and customs of the region.

The Maratha Empire had failed to upgrade its guerrilla warfare tactics as their Empire grew. Efforts to westernise the armies were half-hearted and undisciplined: newer techniques were not absorbed by the soldiers while the older methods and experience were lost. The Maratha Empire lacked an efficient spy system, and they were poor students of diplomacy. Maratha artillery was outdated, and they did not manufacture their own guns. Weapons were imported and the supply often failed. Foreign officers were responsible for the handling of the imported guns; the Marathas never trained their own men in any considerable numbers for the purpose. Military movements were made without knowledge of local geography; when moving troops or retreating, they would suddenly come across a river and be trapped when they were unable to locate boats or a crossing. The enemy would take advantage of this to gain the best position, and the Marathas would lose the battle or would be overtaken and slaughtered while fleeing.
At the time of the war, the power of the British East India Company was on the rise, whereas the Maratha Empire was on the decline. The British had been victorious in the previous Anglo-Maratha war. The Peshwa of the Maratha Empire at this time was Baji Rao II. Several Maratha leaders who had formerly sided with the Peshwa were now under British control or protection. The British had an arrangement with the Gaekwad dynasty of the Maratha province of Baroda to prevent the Peshwa from collecting revenue in that province. Gaekwad sent an envoy to the Peshwa in Pune to negotiate a dispute regarding revenue collection. The envoy, Gangadhar Shastri, was under British protection. He was murdered, and the Peshwa's minister Trimbak Dengle was suspected of the crime.

The British seized the opportunity to force Baji Rao into a treaty. The treaty (The Treaty of Pune) was signed on 13 June 1817. Key terms imposed on the Peshwa included the admission of Dengle's guilt, renouncing claims on Gaekwad, and surrender of significant swaths of territory to the British. These included his most important strongholds in the Deccan, the seaboard of Konkan, and all places north of the Narmada and south of the Tungabhadra rivers.
The Peshwa was also not to communicate with any other powers in India. The British Resident Mountstuart Elphinstone also asked the Peshwa to disband his cavalry.

  Maratha planning
The Peshwa disbanded his cavalry, but secretly asked them to stand by, and offered them seven months' advance pay. Baji Rao entrusted Bapu Gokhale with preparations for war. In August 1817, the forts at Sinhagad, Raigad, and Purandar were fortified by the Peshwa. Gokhale secretly recruited troops for the impending war. Many Bhils and Ramoshis were hired. Efforts were made to unify Bhonsle, Shinde, and Holkar; even the mercenary Pindaris were approached. The Peshwa identified unhappy Indians in the service of the British Resident Elphinstone and secretly recruited them. One such person was Jaswant Rao Ghorpade. Efforts were made to secretly recruit Europeans as well.

Some Indians, such as Balaji Pant Natu, stood steadfastly with the British. Several of the Indian sepoys rejected the Peshwa's offers, and others reported the matter to their superior officers. On 19 October 1817, Baji Rao II celebrated the Dassera festival in Pune, where troops were assembled in large numbers. During the celebrations, a large flank of the Maratha cavalry pretended they were charging towards the British sepoys but wheeled off at the last minute. This display was intended as a slight towards Elphinstone  and as a scare tactic to prompt the defection and recruitment of British sepoys to the Peshwa's side. The Peshwa made plans to kill Elphinstone, despite opposition from Gokhale. Elphinstone was fully aware of these developments thanks to the espionage work of Balaji Pant Natu and Ghorpade.

Burton provides an estimate of the strength of various Maratha powers in or around 1817: He estimated the various Maratha powers totals to 81,000 infantry, 106,000 horse or cavalry and 589 guns. Of these the Peshwa had the highest number of cavalry at 28,000, along with 14,000 infantry and 37 guns. The Peshwa headquarters was in Pune, which was the southernmost location amongst the other Maratha powers. Holkar had the second largest cavalry ,amounting to 20,000, and an infantry force of 8,000. His guns totaled to 107 guns.

Shinde and Bhonsle had similar numbers of cavalry and infantry, with each having 15,000 and 16,000 cavalry, respectively. Shinde had 16,000 infantry and Bhonsle, 18,000. Shinde had the larger share of guns amounting to 140 whereas Bhonsle had 85. Holkar, Shinde and Bhonsle were headquartered in Indore, Gwalior and Nagpur respectively.

The Pashtun leader Amir Khan was located in Tonk in Rajputana and his strength was 12,000 cavalry, 10,000 infantry and 200 guns. The Pindaris were located north of the Narmada valley in Chambal and Malwa region of central India. Three Pindari leaders sided with Shinde, these were Setu, Karim Khan and Dost Mohammad. They were mostly horsemen with strengths of 10,000, 6,000 and 4,000. The rest of the Pindari chiefs, Tulsi, Imam Baksh, Sahib Khan, Kadir Baksh, Nathu and Bapu were allied with Holkar. Tulsi and Imam Baksh each had 2,000 horsemen, Kadir Baksh, 21,500. Sahib Khan, Nathu and Bapu had 1,000, 750 and 150 horsemen.
The Peshwa's territory was in an area called the Desha, now part of the modern state of Maharashtra. The region consists of the valleys of the Krishna and Godavari rivers and the plateaus of the Sahyadri Mountains. Shinde's territory around Gwalior and Bundelkhand was a region of rolling hills and fertile valleys that slopes down toward the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the north. The Pindari territory was the valleys and forests of the Chambal, the north western region of the modern state of Madhya Pradesh. It was a mountainous region with a harsh climate. The Pindaris also operated from Malwa, a plateau region in the north west of the state of Madhya Pradesh, north of the Vindhya Range. Holkar was based in the upper Narmada River valley.
The war was mostly a mopping-up operation intended to complete the expansion of the earlier Anglo-Maratha war, which was stopped due to economic concerns of the British. The war began as a campaign against the Pindaris. Seeing that the British were in conflict with the Pindaris, the Peshwa's forces attacked the British at 16:00 on 5 November 1817 with the Maratha left attacking the British right. The Maratha forces comprised 20,000 cavalry, 8,000 infantry, and 20 guns whereas the British had 2,000 cavalry, 1,000 infantry, and eight guns. On the Maratha side, an additional 5,000 horse and 1,000 infantry were guarding the Peshwa at Parvati Hill. The British numbers include Captain Ford's unit, which was en route from Dapodi to Khadki. The British had also asked General Smith to come to Khadki for the battle but they did not anticipate he would arrive in time.
  Three hills in the region were the Parvati Hill, the Chaturshringi Hill, and the Khadki hill. The Peshwa watched the battle from the Parvati Hill whereas the British East India Company troops were based on the Khadki hill. The two hills are separated by a distance of four kilometres. The river Mula is shallow and narrow and could be crossed at several locations. A few canals (nallas in Marathi) joined the river and though these were not obstacles, some of them were obscured due to the vegetation in the area.

The Maratha army was a mix of Rohillas, Rajputs, and Marathas. It also included a small force of the Portuguese under their officer, de Pinto. The left flank of the Maratha army, commanded by Moropant Dixit and Raste, was stationed on the flat ground on which the University of Pune stands today. The centre was commanded by Bapu Gokhale and the right was under Vinchurkar. British troop movements began on 1 November 1817 when Colonel Burr moved his forces towards what is now Bund Garden via the Holkar Bridge. The Maratha were successful initially in creating and exploiting a gap in the British left and centre.

These successes were nullified by the Maratha horses being thrown into disarray by a hidden canal and the temporary loss of command by Gokhale, whose horse was shot. The Marathas were rendered leaderless when Moropant Dixit on the right was shot dead. The British infantry advanced steadily, firing volley after volley, causing the Maratha cavalry to retreat in a matter of four hours. The British soon claimed victory. The British lost 86 men and the Maratha about 500.

The Pindaris
After the second Anglo-Maratha war, Shinde and Holkar had lost many of their territories to the British. They encouraged the Pindaris to raid the British territories. The Pindaris, who were mostly cavalry, came to be known as the Shindeshahi and the Holkarshahi after the patronage they received from the respective defeated Maratha leaders.

The Pindari leaders were Setu, Karim Khan, Dost Mohammad, Tulsi, Imam Baksh, Sahib Khan, Kadir Baksh, Nathu, and Bapu. Of these, Setu, Karim Khan, and Dost Mohammad belonged to Shindeshahi and the rest to Holkarshahi. The total strength of the Pindaris in 1814 was estimated at 33,000.
The Pindaris frequently raided villages in Central India. The result of the Pindari raids was that Central India was being rapidly reduced to the condition of a desert because the peasants were unable to support themselves on the land. They had no option but to join the robber bands or starve. In 1815, 25,000 Pindaris entered the Madras Presidency and destroyed over 300 villages on the Coromandel coast. Another band swept the Nizam's kingdom while a third entered Malabar.

Other Pindari raids on British territory followed in 1816 and 1817. Francis Rawdon-Hastings saw that there could not be peace or security in India until the predatory Pindaris were extinguished.
Location of Malwa in an 1823 depiction of India. Malwa was the headquarters of some of the Pindaris in the early 19th century
British planning
To lead an army against the Pindaris in the hope of engaging them in a regular battle was not possible. To effectively crush the Pindaris, they would have to be surrounded so that they could have no means of escape. Francis Rawdon-Hastings obtained authority from the British government to take action against the Pindaris while performing diplomacy with the principal Maratha leaders to act in concert with him. The Pindaris continued to have the sympathy of almost all the Maratha leaders. In 1817 Rawdon-Hastings collected the strongest British army which had yet been seen in India, numbering roughly 120,000 men. The army was assembled from two smaller armies, the Grand Army or Bengal army in the north under his personal command, and the Army of the Deccan under General Hislop in the south.

The British plan was to normalize relations with the Shinde, Holkar, and Amir Khan. The three were known to be well disposed towards the Pindaris and harboured them in their territories. Shinde was secretly planning with the Peshwa and the Nepal Ministry to form a coalition against the British. His correspondence with Nepal was intercepted and presented to him in Durbar. He was forced to enter into a treaty by which he pledged to assist the British against the Pindaris and to prevent any new gangs being formed in his territory. Diplomacy, pressure, and the treaty of Gwalior kept Shinde out of the war.
Amir Khan disbanded his army on condition of being guaranteed the possession of the principality of Tonk in Rajputana. He sold his guns to the British and agreed to prevent predatory gangs from operating from his territory.
  The army for the war was composed of two armies, the Grand Army or the Bengal Army with a strength of 40,000 troops and the Army of the Deccan with a strength of 70,400. The Grand Army was divided into three divisions and a reserve. The left division was led by Major General Marshall and the central division was under Francis Rawdon-Hastings. The reserve was under General Ochterlony. The second army, the Army of the Deccan was composed of five divisions. The divisions were led by General Hislop, Brigadier General Doveton, General Malcolm, Brigadier General Smith, Lieutenant Colonel Adams. The Army of Deccan comprised 70,400 troops, bringing the total strength of the entire composite British East India Company army to 110,400. In addition the Madras and Pune residencies each had two battalions and a detail of an artillery unit. The Madras residency had an additional three troops of the 6th Bengal Cavalry. In October and early November, the first division of the Grand Army was sent to Sind, the second to Chambal, the third to Eastern Narmada. The reserve division was used to pressurise Amir Khan. The effect of the dispatching of the first and second divisions was to cut off Shinde from his potential allies. He and Amir Khan were thus pressured into signing a treaty.

The first and third division of the army of the deccan were concentrated at Harda to hold the fords of the Narmada. The second division was used placed at Malkapur to keep a watch on the Berar Ghats. The fourth division marched to Khandesh occupying the region between Pune and Amravati (Berar) administrative divisions whereas the fifth division was placed at Hoshangabad and the reserve division was placed between the Bhima and Krishna rivers.

Attack on the Pindaris
The attack on the Pindaris was carried out as planned. The Pindaris were attacked, and their homes were surrounded and destroyed. General Hislop from the Madras Residency attacked the Pindaris from the south and drove them beyond the Narmada river, where governor general Francis Rawdon-Hastings was waiting with his army.[49] Karim Khan surrendered to the British and was given lands in Gorakhpur. The principal routes from Central India were occupied by British detachments. The Pindari forces were completely broken up, scattered in the course of a single campaign. They made no stand against the regular troops, and even in small bands they were unable to escape the ring of forces drawn around them. The Pindaris rapidly dispersed over the country. The Pindari chiefs were reduced to the condition of hunted outlaws. The desperate Pindaris expected the Marathas to help them, but none dared to give them even a place of shelter for their families. Karim and Setu had still 23,000 men between them but such a force was no match for the armies that surrounded them. In whatever direction they turned they were met by British forces. Defeat followed defeat. One gang made their escape to the south, leaving all their baggage behind them. Many fled to the jungles and perished. Others sought refuge in the villages, but were killed without mercy by the villagers who had not forgotten the sufferings they had been inflicted upon by the Pindaris. The Pindari chiefs Karim Khan and Wasil Mohammed had been present with their Durras at the battle of Mahidpur. Since by this time the Maratha powers had been reduced significantly, the pursuit of Setu and the other leaders was resumed with vigor. All the leaders had surrendered before the end of February and the Pindari system and power was brought to a close. They were removed to Gorakhptir where they obtained grants of land for their subsistence. Karim Khan became a farmer on the small estate he received beyond the Ganges in Gorakpur. Wasil Mohammed attempted to escape. He was found and committed suicide by taking poison. Setu, a Jat by caste, was hunted by John Malcolm from place to place until he had no followers left. He vanished into the jungles of Central India in 1819 and was killed by a tiger.
Flight of the Peshwa
On the orders of Elphinstone, General Smith arrived in Yerwada near Pune on 13 November at the site of the present Deccan College. Smith and his troops crossed the river on 15 November and took up positions at Ghorpadi. On the morning of 16 November, the Marathas were engaged in a battle with the British. While the Maratha generals such as Purandare, Raste, and Bapu Gokhale were ready to advance on to the British forces, they were demoralized after learning that the Peshwa and his brother had fled to Purandar. A force of 5,000 additional Marathas was located at the confluence of two rivers—the Mula and the Mutha—under the leadership of Vinchurkar, but they remained idle. Bapu Gokhale retreated to guard the Peshwa in flight. The next morning, General Smith advanced towards the city of Pune and found that the Peshwa had fled towards the city of Satara. During the day Pune surrendered, and great care was taken by General Smith for the protection of the peaceful part of the community. Order was soon re-established. The British forces entered Shanivar Wada on 17 November and the Union flag was hoisted by Balaji Pant Natu. However the saffron flags of the Peshwa were not removed from Kotwali Chavdi until the defeat of Baji Rao at Ashti; it might seem that the British still believed that the war was not raised by Baji Rao but he was forced to do so under pressure from Bapu Gokhle, Trimabkji Dengle and Moreshwar Dikshit.

The Peshwa now fled to the town of Koregaon. The Battle of Koregaon took place on 1 January 1818 on the banks of the river Bhima, north west of Pune. General Stauton arrived near Koregaon along with 500 infantry, two six-pounder guns, and 200 irregular horsemen. Only 24 of the infantry were of European origin; they were from the Madras Artillery. The rest of the infantry was composed of Indians employed by the British. The village of Koregaon was on the north bank of the river, which was shallow and narrow at this time of year. The village had a fortified enclosure constructed in the standard Maratha fashion. Stauton occupied the village but was unable to take the fortified enclosure, which was occupied by the Marathas. The British were cut off from the river, their only source of water. A fierce battle ensued that lasted the entire day. Streets and guns were captured and recaptured, changing hands several times. Baji Rao's commander Trimabkji killed Lt. Chishom thereby avenging the death of Govindrao Gokhle, the only son of Bapu Gokhle.  The Peshwa watched the battle from atop a nearby hill about two miles away. The Marathas evacuated the village and retreated during the night. This move on the part of the Marathas may seem justifiable because they were employing the tactics of Ganimi Kawa rather than Rangdi Maslat. The British lost 175 men and about a third of the irregular horse, with more than half of the European officers wounded. The Marathas lost 500 to 600 men. When the British found the village evacuated in the morning, Staunton took his battered troops and pretended to march on to Pune, but actually went to Shirur.

  After the battle the British forces under general Pritzler pursued the Peshwa, who fled southwards towards Karnataka with the Raja of Satara. The Peshwa continued his flight southward throughout the month of January. Not receiving support from the Raja of Mysore, the Peshwa doubled back and passed General Pritzler to head towards Solapur. Until 29 January the pursuit of the Peshwa had not been productive. Whenever Baji Rao was pressed by the British, Gokhale and his light troops hovered around the Peshwa and fired long shots. Some skirmishes took place, and the Marathas were frequently hit by shells from the horse artillery. There was, however, no advantageous result to either party. On 7 February General Smith entered Satara and captured the royal palace of the Marathas. He symbolically raised the British flag. The next day, the Bhagwa Zenda —the flag of Shivaji and the Marathas— was raised in its place. To gain the support of the population, the British declared that they would not interfere with the tenets of any religion. They announced that all Watans, Inams, pensions, and annual allowances would be continued provided that the recipients withdrew from the service of Baji Rao. During this time Baji Rao remained in the vicinity of Solapur.

On 19 February, General Smith got word that the Peshwa was headed for Pandharpur. General Smith's troops attacked the Peshwa at Ashti en route. During this battle, Gokhale died while defending the Peshwa from the British. The Raja of Satara was captured along with his brother and mother. The Maratha king, first imprisoned by Tarabai in the 1750s had lost power much earlier but was reinstated by Madhav rao Peshwa in 1763 after Tarabai's death. Since then the king had retained a titular position of appointing the Peshwas. The Emperor Alamgir II in his farman to the Peshwa had complimented them for looking after the Chhatrapati family. The Chhatrapati declared in favour of the British and this ended the Peshwa's legal position as head of the Maratha confederacy, this was done by a jahirnama which stated Peshwas were no longer the head of the Maratha confederacy. However Baji Rao II challenged the jahirnama of removing him from his position as Peshwa by issuing another jahirnama removing Mountstuart Elphinstone as British Resident to his state. The death of Gokhale and the skirmish at Ashti hastened the end of the war. Soon after this Baji Rao was deserted by the Patwardhans.

By 10 April 1818, General Smith's forces had taken the forts of Sinhagad and Purandar. Mountstuart Elphinstone mentions the capture of Sinhagadh in his diary entry for 13 February 1818: "The garrison contained no Marathas, but consisted of 100 Arabs, 600 Gosains, and 400 Konkani. The Killadar was a boy of eleven; the real Governor, Appajee Punt Sewra, a mean-looking Carcoon. The garrison was treated with great liberality; and, though there was much property and money in the place, the Killadar was allowed to have whatever he claimed as his own." On 3 June 1818 Baji Rao surrendered to the British and negotiated the sum of INR eight lakhs as annual maintenance.

Baji Rao obtained promises from the British in favor of the Jagirdars, his family, the Brahmins, and religious institutions. The Peshwa was sent to Bithur near Kanpur. While the downfall and banishment of the Peshwa was mourned all over the Maratha Empire as a national defeat, the Peshwa seemed unaffected. He contracted more marriages and spent his long life engaged in religious performances and excessive drinking.

Indian Camp Scene
Events in Nagpur
Madhoji Bhonsle, also known as Appa Saheb, consolidated his power in Nagpur after the murder of his cousin, the imbecile ruler Parsoji Bhonsle. He entered into a treaty with the British on 27 May 1816. He ignored the request of the British Resident Jenkins to refrain from contact with Baji Rao II. Jenkins asked Appa Saheb to disband his growing concentration of troops and come to the residency, which he also refused to do.
Appa Saheb openly declared support for the Peshwa, who was already fighting the British near Pune. As it was now clear that a battle was in the offing, Jenkins asked for reinforcements from nearby British East India Company troops. He already had about 1,500 men under Lieutenant-Colonel Hopentoun Scott. Jenkins sent word for Colonel Adams to march to Nagpur with his troops. Like other Maratha leaders, Appa Shaeb employed Arabs in his army. They were typically involved in holding fortresses. While they were known to be among the bravest of troops, they were not amenable to discipline and order. The total strength of the Marathas was about 18,000.

The Residency was to the west of the Sitabardi hill, a 300-yard (270 m) hillock running north-south. The British East India Company troops occupied the north end of the hillock. The Marathas, fighting with the Arabs, made good initial gains by charging up the hill and forcing the British to retreat to the south. British commanders began arriving with reinforcements: Lieutenant Colonel Rahan on 29 November, Major Pittman on 5 December, and Colonel Doveton on 12 December. The British counterattack was severe and Appa Saheb was forced to surrender. The British lost 300 men, of which 24 were Europeans; the Marathas lost an equal number. A treaty was signed on 9 January 1818. Appa Saheb was allowed to rule over nominal territories with several restrictions. Most of his territory, including the forts, was now controlled by the British. They built additional fortifications on Sitabardi hill.

A few days later Appa Saheb was arrested. He was being escorted to Allahabad when he escaped to Punjab to seek refuge with the Sikhs. They turned him down and he was captured once again by the British near Jodhpur. Raja Mansingh of Jodhpur stood surety for him and he remained in Jodhpur, where he died on 15 July 1849 at 44 years of age.

  Subjugation of Holkar
Holkar was offered terms similar to those offered to Shinde; the only difference was that Holkar accepted and respected the independence of Amir Khan. The Court of Holkar was at this time practically nonexistent. When Tantia Jog, an official of the Holkar, urged acceptance of the offer he was suspected of being in collusion with the British. In reality he made the suggestion because he was aware of the power of the British as he had seen their armies in action when he had commanded a battalion in the past. Holkar responded to the Peshwa's call for insurrection against the British by initiating a battle in Mahidpur.

The battle of Mahidpur between Holkar and the British was fought on 21 December 1817. The charge on the British side was led by Malcolm himself. A deadly battle ensued lasting from midday until 3:00 am. Lieutenant General Thomas Hislop was commander in chief of the Madras army. Hislop came in sight of the Holkar army about 9:00 am. The British East India Company's army lost 800 men but Holkar's force was destroyed. The British East India Company's losses were 800 killed or wounded but Holkar's loss was much larger with about 3,000 killed or wounded. These losses meant Holkar was deprived of any means of rising in arms against the British, and this broke the power of the Holkar dynasty. The battle of Mahidpur proved disastrous for the Maratha fortunes.
Henry Durand wrote, "After the battle of Mahidpur not only the Peshwa's but the real influence of the Mahratta States of Holkar and Shinde were dissolved and replaced by British supremacy." Although the power of the Holkar family was broken, the remaining troops remained hostile and a division was retained to disperse them. The ministers made overtures of peace, and on 6 January 1818 the Treaty of Mandeswar was signed; Holkar accepted the British terms in totality. Holkar came under British authority as an independent prince subject to the advice of a British Resident.

End of the war and its effects
At the end of the war, all of the Maratha powers had surrendered to the British. Shinde and the Pashtun Amir Khan were subdued by the use of diplomacy and pressure, which resulted in the Treaty of Gwailor on 5 November 1817. Under this treaty, Shinde surrendered Rajasthan to the British and agreed to help them fight the Pindaris. Amir Khan agreed to sell his guns to the British and received a land grant at Tonk in Rajuptana. Holkar was defeated on 21 December 1817 and signed the Treaty of Mandeswar on 6 January 1818. Under this treaty the Holkar state became subsidiary to the British. The young Malhar Rao was raised to the throne. Bhonsle was defeated on 26 November 1817 and was captured but he escaped to live out his life in Jodhpur. The Peshwa surrendered on 3 June 1818 and was sent off to Bithur near Kanpur under the terms of the treaty signed on 3 June 1818. Of the Pindari leaders, Karim Khan surrendered to Malcolm in February 1818; Wasim Mohammad surrendered to Shinde and eventually poisoned himself; and Setu was killed by a tiger.

The war left the British, under the auspices of the British East India Company, in control of virtually all of present-day India south of the Sutlej River. The famed Nassak Diamond was acquired by the Company as part of the spoils of the war. The British acquired large chunks of territory from the Maratha Empire and in effect put an end to their most dynamic opposition. The terms of surrender Malcolm offered to the Peshwa were controversial amongst the British for being too liberal: The Peshwa was offered a luxurious life near Kanpur and given a pension of about 80,000 pounds. A comparison was drawn with Napoleon, who was confined to a small rock in the south Atlantic and given a small sum for his maintenance.
Map of India after the Third Anglo-Maratha War, 1819
Trimbakji Dengale was captured after the war and was sent to the fortress of Chunar in Bengal where he spent the rest of his life. With all active resistance over, John Malcolm played a prominent part in capturing and pacifying the remaining fugitives.

The Peshwa's territories were absorbed into the Bombay Presidency and the territory seized from the Pindaris became the Central Provinces of British India. The princes of Rajputana became symbolic feudal lords who accepted the British as the paramount power. Thus Francis Rawdon-Hastings redrew the map of India to a state which remained more or less unaltered until the time of Lord Dalhousie. The British brought an obscure descendant of Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, to be the ceremonial head of the Maratha Confederacy to replace the seat of the Peshwa. An infant from the Holkar family was appointed as the ruler of Nagpur under British guardianship. The Peshwa adopted a son, Nana Sahib, who went on to be one of the leaders of the Rebellion of 1857. After 1818, Montstuart Elphinstone reorganized the administrative divisions for revenue collection, thus reducing the importance of the Patil, the Deshmukh, and the Deshpande. The new government felt a need to communicate with the local Marathi-speaking population; Elphinstone pursued a policy of planned standardization of the Marathi language in the Bombay Presidency starting after 1820.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

August Bockh: "The Public Economy of Athens"
Bockh August

August Bockh (German: [bœk]; November 24, 1785 – August 3, 1867) was a German classical scholar and antiquarian.

He was born at Karlsruhe, and educated at the local gymnasium; in 1803 he left for the University of Halle, where he studied theology. F.A. Wolf was teaching there, and creating an enthusiasm for classical studies; Böckh transferred from theology to philology, and became the best of Wolf's scholars. In 1807, he established himself as Privatdozent in the University of Heidelberg and was shortly afterwards appointed professor extraordinarius, becoming professor two years later.

In 1811, he removed to the new Humboldt University at Berlin, where he had been appointed professor of eloquence and classical literature. He remained there till his death. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of Berlin in 1814, and for a long time acted as its secretary. Many of the speeches contained in his Kleine Schriften were delivered in this latter capacity.

Böckh died at Berlin in 1867.


August Bockh
Böckh worked out the ideas of Wolf in regard to philology and illustrated them by his practice. Discarding the old idea that philology consisted in a minute acquaintance with words and the exercise of the critical art, he regarded it as the entire knowledge of antiquity (totius antiquitatis cognitio), historical and philosophical.

He divides philology into five parts: first, an inquiry into public acts, with a knowledge of times and places, into civil institutions, and also into law; second, an inquiry into private affairs; third, an exhibition of the religions and arts of the ancient nations; fourth, a history of all their moral and physical speculations and beliefs, and of their literatures; and fifth, a complete explanation of the language.

Böckh set forth these ideas in a Latin oration delivered in 1822 (Gesammelte kleine Schriften, i.). In his speech at the opening of the congress of German philologists in 1850, he defined philology as the historical construction of the entire life — therefore, of all forms of culture and all the productions of a people in its practical and spiritual tendencies. He allows that such a work is too great for any one person; but the very infinity of subjects is the stimulus to the pursuit of truth, and scholars strive because they have not attained.

An account of Böckh's division of philology will be found in Freund's Wie studiert man Philologie?.

From 1806, till his death Böckh's literary activity was unceasing. His principal works include an edition of Pindar, the first volume of which (1811) contains the text of the Epinician odes; a treatise, De Metris Pindari, in three books; and Notae Criticae: the second (1819) contains the Scholia; and part ii. of volume ii. (1821) contains a Latin translation, a commentary, the fragments and indices. It was for a long time the most complete edition of Pindar. But it was especially the treatise on the metres which placed Böckh in the first rank of scholars. This treatise forms an epoch in the treatment of the subject. In it the author threw aside all attempts to determine the Greek metres by mere subjective standards, pointing out at the same time the close connection between the music and the poetry of the Greeks. He investigated minutely the nature of Greek music as far as it can be ascertained, as well as all the details regarding Greek musical instruments; and he explained the statements of the ancient Greek writers on rhythm. In this manner he laid the foundation for a scientific treatment of Greek metres.
His Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener (1817; 2nd ed. 1851, with a supplementary volume Urkunden über das Seewesen des attischen Staats; 3rd ed. 1886) was translated into English under the title of The Public Economy of Athens.

In it he investigated a subject of peculiar difficulty with profound learning. He amassed information from the whole range of Greek literature, carefully appraised the value of the information given, and shows throughout every portion of it rare critical ability and insight.
A work of a similar kind was his Metrologische Untersuchungen über Gewichte, Münzfüsse, und Masse des Alterthums (1838).

In regard to the taxes and revenue of the Athenian state he derived a great deal of his most trustworthy information from inscriptions, many of which are given in his book. When the Berlin Academy of Sciences projected the plan of a Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, Böckh was chosen as the principal editor.

This work (1828-1877) is in four volumes, the third and fourth volumes being edited by J. Franz, E. Curtius, A. Kirchhoff and H. Röhl.

Böckh's activity was continually digressing into widely different fields. He gained for himself a foremost position amongst the investigators of ancient chronology, and his name occupies a place by the side of those of Ideler and Mommsen.

  His principal works on this subject were: Zur Geschichte der Mondcyclen der Hellenen (1855); Epigraphisch-chronologische Studien (1856); Über die vierjährigen Sonnenkreise der Alten (1863), and several papers which he published in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy. Böckh also occupied himself with philosophy. One of his earliest papers was on the Platonic doctrine of the world, De Platonica corporis mundani fabrica et de vera Indole, Astronomiae Philolaice (1810), to which may be added Manetho und die Hundsternperiode (1845).

In opposition to Otto Gruppe, he denied that Plato affirmed the diurnal rotation of the earth (Untersuchungen über das kosmische System des Platon, 1852), and when in opposition to him Grote published his opinions on the subject (Plato and the Rotation of the Earth) Böckh was ready with his reply. Another of his earlier papers, and one frequently referred to, was Commentatio Academica de simultate quae Platonicum Xenophonic intercessisse fertur (1811). Other philosophical writings were Commentatio in Platonis qui vulgo fertur Minoem (1806), and Philolaos des Pythagoreers Lehren nebst den Bruchstücken (1819), in which he endeavoured to show the genuineness of the fragments.

Besides his edition of Pindar, Böckh published an edition of the Antigone of Sophocles (1843) with a poetical translation and essays. An early and important work on the Greek tragedians is his Graecae Tragoediae Principum ... num ea quae supersunt et genuine omnia sint et forma primitive servata (1808).

The smaller writings of Böckh began to be collected in his lifetime. Three of the volumes were published before his death, and four after (Gesammelte kleine Schriften, 1858-1874). The first two consist of orations delivered in the university or academy of Berlin, or on public occasions. The third, fourth, fifth and sixth contain his contributions to the Transactions of the Berlin Academy, and the seventh contains his critiques. Böckh's lectures, delivered from 1809-1865, were published by Bratusehek under the title of Encyclopadie und Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften (2nd ed Klussmann, 1886). His philological and scientific theories are set forth in Elze, Über Philologie als System (1845), and Reichhardt, Die Gliederung der Philologie entwickelt (1846). His correspondence with Karl Otfried Müller appeared at Leipzig in 1883.

John Paul Pritchard has made an abridged translation of Böckh's Encyclopaedie und Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften: August Boeckh, On Interpretation and Criticism, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cobbett William: "Paper against Gold, the History and Mystery of the Bank of England"
Lutheran and Reformed Churches in Prussia form Evangelical Union
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"

The Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences (German: Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, 1817) is a systematic work by Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich in which an abbreviated version of his earlier Science of Logic was followed by the articulation of the Philosophy of Nature and the Philosophy of Spirit (also translated as Philosophy of Mind). The work describes the pattern of the Idea as manifesting itself in dialectical reasoning.

While some believe that the philosophy of nature and mind are applications of the logic, this is a misunderstanding. The purpose of the Encyclopedia is descriptive: to describe how Geist (Spirit or Mind) develops itself and not to apply the dialectical method to all areas of human knowledge, but Spirit is in process of growing, like a seed growing into a mature tree: it passes through stages. The first stage of Spirit's development is described in the Logic. Thus the Logic presents the categories of thought as they are in themselves; they are the minimal conditions for thinking anything at all, the conceptions that run in the background of all our thinking. These logical categories turn out to be none other than Geist itself. In order to get at what a thing is, we must think about it. No amount of observing will bring us to the essence of things. Thinking and being are equivalent, and so logic and metaphysics are equivalent as well. The underlying element of it all is Geist; thus the activity of thinking is no less than Geist articulating itself. (This is how Hegel could say that logic is the thought of the mind of God before creation.)

As Geist works itself out more fully, it reaches the point where it simply cannot remain as it is; it is incomplete, and therefore it "others" itself; this is where the philosophy of nature emerges. When this stage of its development is completed, Geist "returns" to itself, which is the emergence of the philosophy of mind.

English translations of all three parts are available from Oxford University Press, with each part bound as a separate book.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Hegel Friedrich

"The Philosophy of History"
H. F. R. de Lamennais (Lamennais Felicite): "Essai sur l'indifference en matiere de religion"

H. F. R. de Lamennais:
"Essai sur l'indifference en matiere de religion"
Juan Llorente, a former secretary of the Inquisition, publishes his "History of the Inquisition in Spain"
Llorente Juan Antonio

Juan Antonio Llorente (March 30, 1756 in Rincón de Soto (La Rioja), Spain – February 5, 1823 in Madrid) was a Spanish historian.


Portrait of Don Juan Antonio Llorente
by Francisco Goya (1809-1813)
He studied at the University of Zaragoza, and, having been ordained priest, became vicar-general to the bishop of Calahorra in 1782. In 1785, he became commissary of the Holy Office (Inquisition) at Logroño and, in 1789, its general secretary at Madrid.
In the crisis of 1808, Llorente identified himself with the Bonaparte regime and was engaged for a few years in superintending the execution of the decree for the suppression of the monastic orders, in examining the archives of the Spanish Inquisition and in arguing for the submission of the Spanish church to the Bonaparte monarch. His 1810 project for a division of Spain in prefectures and subprefectures (under the French revolutionary inspiration) was never brought into practice because of the war. On the return of King Ferdinand VII to Spain in 1814, he retreated to France, where he published his great work, Histoire critique de l'Inquisition espagnole (Paris, 1817-1818). Translated into English, German, Dutch and Italian, it attracted much attention in Europe and involved its author in considerable persecution. After the coup of Rafael de Riego (1820), he supported the new Liberal government. The discovery of his Carbonarian activities and the publication of his Portraits politiques des papes in 1822 culminated in a peremptory order to leave France. Both the personal character and the literary accuracy of Llorente have been assailed, but, although he was not an exact historian, there is no doubt, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), that he made an honest use of documents relating to the Inquisition which are no longer extant. The English translation of the Historia (London, 1826) is abridged. Llorente also wrote Memorias para la historia de la revolución de España (Paris, 1814-1816), translated into French (Paris, 1815-1819); Noticias históricas de las tres provincias vascongadas (Madrid, 1806-1808); an autobiography, Noticia biográfica (Paris, 1818), and other works.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Joseph de Maistre (Maistre Joseph): "Du Pape"

Joseph de Maistre: "Du Pape"
Mommsen Theodor

Theodor Mommsen, in full Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (born November 30, 1817, Garding, Schleswig [now in Germany]—died November 1, 1903, Charlottenburg, near Berlin, Germany), German historian and writer, famous for his masterpiece, Romische Geschichte (The History of Rome). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902.


Theodor Mommsen

  Early years
Mommsen was the son of a Protestant minister in Garding, Schleswig, and he grew up in Oldesloe (now Bad Oldesloe). He received his basic classical training in the senior classes of the Gymnasium (secondary school) Christianeum in Altona, then part of the Duchy of Holstein. From 1838 to 1843 he studied jurisprudence at the University of Kiel; inasmuch as the study of jurisprudence in Germany at the time was largely a study of Roman law, this had an essential influence on the direction of his future research. He owed his idea of the close interrelationship between law and history not so much to his teachers as to the writings of Friedrich Karl von Savigny, one of the founders of the historical school of jurisprudence. After he had received his master’s and his doctor’s degrees, a research scholarship granted by his sovereign, the king of Denmark, allowed him to spend three years—from 1844 to 1847—in Italy. During this time Italy became his second home and the Archaeological Institute in Rome one of the headquarters from which he pursued his research. By that time Mommsen had already conceived the plan for the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, a comprehensive collection of Latin inscriptions preserved since antiquity on stone, iron, and other enduring materials, arranged according to the basic principles of philological methodology.
Having been prepared for this field by the young Kiel professor Otto Jahn, he soon became a master of epigraphy—the study and interpretation of inscriptions—under the guidance of Bartolomeo Borghesi, the learned statesman of San Marino. Within the next several decades Mommsen made the corpus of Latin inscriptions into a source work that was essential in complementing the one-sidedly literary tradition and that, for the first time, made a comprehensive understanding of life in the ancient world possible.

Theodor Mommsen in 1881
  When he returned from Italy, Mommsen found his country in a state of mounting unrest. As a native of Schleswig he was a subject of the Danish king, but he considered himself German, wanted to remain German, and looked forward to German unity. For him freedom meant not only the independence of the German states from foreign influence but also the freedom of the German citizen to adapt himself to any sort of constitution except that of despotism or a police state. A liberal, he considered the republic the ideal state, yet he was quite content with a constitutional monarchy so long as it was not a cover for some sort of pseudo-constitutional autocracy. Mommsen’s political activities began with his editorship of the Schleswig-Holsteinische Zeitung for the provisional government established during the revolution of 1848. Yet journalism was not much to his taste; he was happy when, at the end of 1848, he was offered a professorship in civil law at the University of Leipzig. Nevertheless, he remained politically minded as long as he lived—as a thoughtful and critical observer as well as an active politician. (He was a deputy in the Prussian Landtag from 1873 to 1879 and in the German Reichstag from 1881 to 1884.)

He continued to devote time and energy to politics, but it is doubtful that he thereby served his country’s and his own best interests. While he was an acknowledged authority in his field of scholarship, in politics he remained a camp follower, who achieved no more than many others. Moreover, he more than once jeopardized his career by his political activities. Because of his participation in an uprising in Saxony in May 1849, he lost his professorship and almost landed in prison.
After his dismissal from his post in Leipzig, Mommsen in 1852 accepted a professorship in jurisprudence in Zürich. The grief he expressed about being an “exile” showed how deeply he felt himself to be a German. In 1854, however, he was offered a professorship in Prussia at the University of Breslau. It was at this time that he married Marie Reimer, daughter of a bookseller. Their long and happy marriage produced 16 children.

Mommsen late in his career
  The historian and his works
During the years he spent at Leipzig, Zürich, and Breslau, Mommsen wrote the first three volumes of the Römische Geschichte, up to the Battle of Thapsus, 46 bc. This work embodied the new historical method applied to the history of Rome. Mommsen critically examined hitherto unquestioned traditions and rejected the attitude of the Enlightenment, which had idealized the classical age. He readily acknowledged himself to be a disciple of the historian Barthold Georg Niebuhr, who introduced rigorous criticism of sources into historiography, however much their methods of research and presentation differed and despite the fact that he went considerably beyond his great predecessor in demythologizing Roman history. In Mommsen’s view it was important that the ancients should come down to earth from the Olympian heights upon which they appeared to the mass of the public.

This modern style was not to everyone’s taste, for, in bringing the past to life, he used the political and sociological vocabulary of the 19th century. When he speaks of the squirearchy and the cloth exerting their “malignant” influence even in ancient Rome, it is Mommsen the liberal politician speaking. Nevertheless, his Römische Geschichte is not a politically tendentious work but a piece of scholarship of the highest rank, which gains from its distinction of style.

The philologist is regarded as the preserver of verbal tradition, but as a philologist Mommsen was more than that: he was an artist, and he proved his artistry in his treatment of language.

He disliked any incongruous mixture of prose styles and, in the Römische Geschichte and Römisches Staatsrecht (“Roman Constitutional Law”), he created two works, both of which attain exemplary unity of form and content yet demonstrate two different styles. Without being a creative poet, he used the means of poetry and enjoyed exercising his poetic talent. An excellent testimony to his abilities is the Liederbuch dreier Freunde (“Songbook of Three Friends”), which he published in 1843 together with his brother Tycho and the writer and poet Theodor Storm. Throughout his life Goethe was his ideal not only as a poet but also as “the wisest man of the century.” His perfect command of English, French, and Italian did much to make his journeys of research successful; he quoted Shakespeare in his letters almost as often as Goethe.
To many critics Mommsen’s glorification of the dictator Caesar and his disparagement of Caesar’s opponents, Pompey and Cicero, seem strangely inconsistent with his political liberalism. He tried to make his critics understand that he had praised Caesar only as a saviour of the decaying state; yet Mommsen’s admiration for the autocrat reveals something of his own character. He himself was an autocrat in his own branch of scholarship, adopting a manner that his opponents labeled “caesarism.”

At the same time, however, he had an unusual need for the fellowship of like-minded men. He held personal contacts to be one of the most important elements of life; indeed, it might be said that he had a genius for friendship. Yet it was mostly a friendship with men who looked up to him. With anyone who considered himself Mommsen’s equal, a friendly relationship was not likely to last long.

It was only as a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences that Mommsen could pursue his project of publishing his collection of Latin inscriptions, and for this reason in 1858 he was offered a post in Berlin. In 1861 he also became a professor in the philosophy faculty at the university; because of his philological and historical interests he chose that faculty rather than that of law.

As a teacher of Roman history and epigraphy—especially in his seminars—he trained many students who were later to make their mark in these fields. The main part of his scholarly work was taken up with the continuation of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (published 1863 and after).

He also acted as adviser on many other great scholarly enterprises, such as the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, the exploration of the limes (Roman border fortifications in southwestern Germany), the numismatic work of the Prussian Academy, and the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. Even in old age his mind was open to the new demands of scholarship, as shown by his interest in the new study of papyrology.

Mommsen’s historical work was interrupted by his work on inscriptions; thus, the Römische Geschichte was never completed. Its first three volumes had been published in 1854–56.

  When, several decades later, in Berlin, Mommsen set out to complete his history, he abandoned the idea of writing the fourth volume, which was to contain the history of the emperors, because he felt that he would not be capable of writing it in the same brilliant style as his history of the republic. The fifth volume (1885) deals with the history of the Roman provinces in the first three centuries of the empire. No one but Mommsen could have depicted this period in so authoritative a manner, for no one else knew the nonliterary sources—the inscriptions and coins—as did he. The Römische Geschichte has been translated into English as The History of Rome, with the fifth volume entitled The Provinces of the Roman Empire.

The greatest monument to Mommsen’s scholarship, the work which is of even greater significance for scholars than the Römische Geschichte, is Römisches Staatsrecht (“Roman Constitutional Law”), published in 3 volumes between 1871 and 1888. He himself said that if he were to be remembered by anything, it would be by this work. The Romans themselves never codified their constitutional law; Mommsen was the first to do it. His historical approach to classical scholarship led him to systematize the innumerable legal details upon which the Roman constitution was based and to explain this complex body of law through an understanding of its historical development. Only an individual who, like Mommsen, was grounded both in law and in the classics would be in a position to investigate the public law of the Romans, and only an individual trained to think in historical concepts could understand it.

In public law, criminal law stands side by side with constitutional law, and Mommsen’s last great work, published in 1899, is Römisches Strafrecht (“Roman Criminal Law”).

When Mommsen, who had already become a mythical figure for his contemporaries, died just four weeks before his 86th birthday, he had attained what he had always wanted. The task which he had set himself to fulfill, according to his own almost superhuman standards, he had completed.

Lothar F.K. Wickert

Encyclopædia Britannica
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"

On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (19 April 1817) is a book by Ricardo David on economics. The book concludes that land rent grows as population increases. It also presents the theory of comparative advantage, the theory that free trade between two or more countries can be mutually beneficial, even when one country has an absolute advantage over the other countries in all areas of production.

Ricardo claims in the preface that Turgot, Stuart, Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, Sismondi, and others had not written enough "satisfactory information" on the topics of rent, profit, and wages. Principles of Political Economy is Ricardo's effort to fill that gap in the literature. Regardless of whether the book achieved that goal, it secured, according to Ronald Max Hartwell, Ricardo's position among the great classical economists Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, John Stuart Mill, and Karl Heinrich Marx. In his book Adam's Fallacy: A Guide to Economic Theology, economist Duncan K. Foley highlights that in the Principles Ricardo criticizes Adam Smith's treatment of the theory of value and distribution for circular reasoning, in particular as far as concerns rent, and that Ricardo considers the labor theory of value, properly understood, a more logically sound basis for political economic reasoning. Foley also discusses the chapter On Machinery, which Ricardo included in his third and final (1821) version of Principles. Here Ricardo famously analysed the impact of the adoption of machinery on the different classes of society, revising his earlier view that mechanization could be expected to be of benefit to each of the classes of the society. The increase in productivity due to mechanization lowers the production costs and thus also the real prices of commodities. Whereas the landowning class and capitalists benefit from the lower prices, workers in contrast do not reap such benefit from the lower prices if capitalists reduce the wage fund in order to finance the expensive machinery, causing technological unemployment among workers. In this case, Ricardo points out, wages are forced down by competition among workers, and the introduction of new machines can lead to an over-all decline in the well-being of the working class.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Title page from the first edition
Austen Jane , Eng. novelist, d. (b. 1775)
  Jane Austen 

"Pride and Prejudice"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Byron: "Manfred"

Manfred: A dramatic poem is a poem written in 1816–1817 by Lord Byron George Gordon. It contains supernatural elements, in keeping with the popularity of the ghost story in England at the time. It is a typical example of a Romantic closet drama.

Byron wrote this "metaphysical drama", as he called it, after his marriage failed in scandal amidst charges of sexual improprieties and an incestuous affair between Byron and his half-sister, Augusta Leigh. Attacked by the press and ostracised by London society, Byron fled England for Switzerland in 1816 and never returned. Because Manfred was written immediately after this, and because it regards a main character tortured by his own sense of guilt for an unmentionable offence, some critics consider it to be autobiographical, or even confessional. The unnamed but forbidden nature of Manfred's relationship to Astarte is believed to represent Byron's relationship with his half-sister Augusta.

Byron commenced this work in late 1816, only a few months after the famed ghost-story sessions which provided the initial impetus for Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. The supernatural references are made clear throughout the poem.

Manfred was adapted musically by Robert Schumann in 1852, in a composition entitled Manfred: Dramatic Poem with music in Three Parts, and later by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in his Manfred Symphony. Friedrich Nietzsche was impressed by the poem's depiction of a super-human being, and wrote some music for it.

Manfred is a Faustian noble living in the Bernese Alps. Internally tortured by some mysterious guilt, which has to do with the death of his most beloved, Astarte, he uses his mastery of language and spell-casting to summon seven spirits, from whom he seeks forgetfulness. The spirits, who rule the various components of the corporeal world, are unable to control past events and thus cannot grant Manfred's plea. For some time, fate prevents him from escaping his guilt through suicide.

At the end, Manfred dies, defying religious temptations of redemption from sin. Throughout the poem he succeeds in challenging all of the authoritative powers he faces, and chooses death over submitting to the powerful spirits. Manfred directs his final words to the Abbot, remarking, "Old man! 'tis not so difficult to die".

Biographic relevance
Manfred was written shortly after the failure of Byron's marriage to Annabella Millbanke, who most likely accused him of an incestuous relationship with his half-sister Augusta Leigh. At the time, he had exiled himself permanently from England and was living at the Villa Diodati in Switzerland.

Most of Manfred was written on a tour through the Bernese Alps in September 1816. The third act was rewritten in February 1817 since Byron was not happy with its first version.

Manfred has as its epigraph the famous phrase of Shakespeare's Hamlet: "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy."

Manfred shows heavy influence by Goethe's Faust, which Byron most likely read in translation (although he claimed to have never read it); still, it is by no means a simple copy.

1817 first edition, John Murray, London.
In performance
Manfred was not originally intended for the stage; it was written to be a dramatic poem or, as Byron called it, a "metaphysical" drama.

Manfred has received much more attention on stage for its musical treatments by Tchaikovsky and Schumann than it has on its own dramatic terms. It was later famously played by Samuel Phelps. There are no recorded full stagings in Britain in the twentieth century, but readings are more popular, partly because of the difficulty of staging a play set in the Alps, partly because of the work's nature as a closet drama that was never actually intended for the stage in the first place. The exceptional size of the role of Manfred also makes the play difficult to cast. There was a production on BBC Radio 3 in 1988, however, which starred Ronald Pickup as Manfred.

Chamois Hunter
Abbot of St. Maurice
Witch of the Alps
The Destinies
The Seven Spirits

SCENE I: MANFRED alone. – Scene, a Gothic Gallery. – Time, Midnight.
SCENE II: The Mountain of the Jungfrau. – Time, Morning.-- MANFRED alone upon the Cliffs.

SCENE I: A Cottage amongst the Bernese Alps. MANFRED and the CHAMOIS HUNTER.
SCENE II: A lower Valley in the Alps.-- A Cataract.
SCENE III: The Summit of the Jungfrau Mountain.
SCENE IV: The Hall of ARIMANES.-- ARIMANES on his Throne, a Globe of Fire, surrounded by the SPIRITS.


SCENE I: A Hall in the Castle of Manfred.
SCENE II: Another Chamber. MANFRED and HERMAN.
SCENE III: The Mountains.-- The Castle of MANFRED at some distance.-- A Terrace before a Tower.-- Time, Twilight. HERMAN, MANUEL, and other Dependants of MANFRED.
SCENE IV: Interior of the Tower.
Manfred in literature
It is interesting to note that the character Manfred was mentioned by Alexandre Dumas, père in his novel The Count of Monte Cristo, where the Count declares: "No, no, I wish to do away with that mysterious reputation that you have given me, my dear viscount; it is tiresome to be always acting Manfred. I wish my life to be free and open." Indeed, the Count of Monte Cristo is quite similar to Manfred, in that he wants to keep his past a secret, feels superior to social conventions, and is following an agenda that runs counter to the social mores. On page 61 of The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon, Di Presso seems to refer (perhaps by accident) to Metzger as Manfred.

Manfred's oft-quoted speech from Act II Scene 1 which begins "Think'st thou existence doth depend on time?" is quoted on page 351 of The Masters of Solitude by Marvin Kaye and Parke Godwin. Fyodor Dostoyevsky mentions the poem in Notes from Underground when the narrator states, "I received countless millions and immediately gave them away for the benefit of humanity, at the same moment confessing before the crowd all my infamies, which, of course, were not mere infamies, but also contained within them a wealth of 'the lofty and the beautiful' of something Manfred-like" (Dostoyevsky, page 57. Bantam Books 2005).

'In Memory of My Feelings', the poem by Frank O'Hara, includes the line "Manfred climbs to my nape,/ speaks, but I do not hear him,/ I'm too blue."
"Scene from Manfred" by Thomas Cole, 1833.
In Jonathan Strange and Mr Norrell by Susanna Clarke, Byron is said to have written Manfred after meeting the magician Jonathan Strange and finding him most disagreeable. It is suggested that he wrote it because he was so disappointed with Strange that he created a magician more to his liking.
Manfred in ballet
"In Byron's poem, the hero, a superhuman character, is doomed by fate to destroy those he loves. In vain he undertakes to find Astarte, his ideal spirit who alone has the power to assuage the feeling of guilt with which he is obsessed.

The argument for Manfred, in the choreographic version, lets the imagination run free using this basic theme to which references borrowed from other autographical poems by Byron have been associated.

  Inspiration has also been taken from the libretto that Tchaikovsky produced from the original work.

The characters and events forming the storyline come from the life of Byron himself.

Therefore, we meet the loves and hates of his youth, his tireless quest for wisdom and peace, in friendship, in love, and in patriotic fervour."

Programme for Manfred, Palais des Sports, 1979.

Other references to Manfred
In the Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera Patience Manfred is referenced in Colonel Calverley's patter song "If you want a receipt for that popular mystery" (A Heavy Dragoon) listing one ingredient as "a little of Manfred but not very much of him".

German gothic metal band The Vision Bleak extensively quote from Manfred in their song "A Curse of the Grandest Kind", off their 2010 album Set Sail to Mystery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
George Gordon, Lord Byron 

"Don Juan"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Grillparzer Franz: "Die Ahnfrau"

Relief „Die Ahnfrau“ von Rudolf Weyr am Grillparzer-Denkmal im Volksgarten Wien, 1889
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"

Lalla Rookh is an Oriental romance by Moore Thomas, published in 1817. The title is taken from the name of the heroine of the frame tale, the daughter of the 17th-century Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The work consists of four narrative poems with a connecting tale in prose.

The name Lalla Rookh, or Lala-Rukh (Persian: لالہ رخ‎), means "tulip cheeked" and is an endearment frequently used in Persian poetry.

Engaged to the young king of Bukhara, Lalla Rookh goes forth to meet him, but falls in love with Feramorz, a poet from her entourage. The bulk of the work consists of four interpolated tales sung by the poet: "The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan" (loosely based upon the story of Al-Muqanna), "Paradise and the Peri", "The Fire-Worshippers", and "The Light of the Harem". When Lalla Rookh enters the palace of her bridegroom she swoons away, but revives at the sound of a familiar voice. She awakes with rapture to find that the poet she loves is none other than the king to whom she is engaged.

Lalla Rookh was the basis of number of musical settings, including the song I'll Sing Thee Songs of Araby by Frederic Clay & W. G. Wills (1877).

It is also the basis of the operas Lalla-Rûkh, festival pageant (1821) by Gaspare Spontini, partly reworked into Nurmahal oder das Rosenfest von Caschmir (1822), Lalla-Roukh by Félicien David (1862), Feramors by Anton Rubinstein (1863), and The Veiled Prophet by Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (1879).

One of the interpolated tales, Paradise and the Peri, was set as a choral-orchestral work by Robert Schumann (1843).
Lines from the poem form the lyrics of the song "Bendemeer Stream".
Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm (founded 1889), often known as "the Grotto", a social group with membership restricted to Master Masons, and its female auxiliary, the Daughters of Mokanna (founded 1919), also take their names from Thomas Moore's poem.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Thomas Moore
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Mme. de Stael (De Stael Germaine), Fr. novelist, d. (b. 1766)

Madame de Staël en Corinne (1807).
Collection du château de Coppet (Suisse).
Mme de Stael

"Corinne, Or Italy"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Storm Theodor

Theodor Woldsen Storm, (born Sept. 14, 1817, Husum, Schleswig—died July 4, 1888, Hademarschen), poet and novelist whose novellas are among the finest in German literature.


Theodor Woldsen Storm
  He is an outstanding representative of German poetic Realism, which had as its aim the portrayal of the positive values of everyday life. He took for his models the late Romantics and Eduard Mörike, who, along with Gottfried Keller, Paul von Heyse, and the Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, was his friend and correspondent. Storm’s early lyrics (Gedichte, 1852; “Poems”) are songlike and characterized by their simplicity and beauty of form. Their main themes are love, nature, and an intense love of homeland.
Storm practiced law in Husum until 1853, when the Danish occupation of Schleswig forced him to move to Potsdam. His strong patriotic feelings are expressed in his poetry from this period. After living in Heiligenstadt, where he had been transferred as a magistrate, he returned to Schleswig when the Danish left it in 1864. A year later his wife died, occasioning the climax of his lyrics in the cycle Tiefe Schatten (1865). By this time, however, he had already begun to concentrate on writing novellas. One of his most important early works is Immensee (1850; Eng. trans., 1863), a moving story of the vanished happiness of childhood, which, like so many of his works, is coloured by a haunting nostalgia. As his writing matured his novellas displayed subtler psychological insight, greater realism, and a wider scope of themes—including class tensions, social problems, and religious bigotry—expressing his recurrent concern with man’s isolation and struggle with his fate.
He retired in 1880 to Hadermarschen, where he wrote his last and greatest novella, Der Schimmelreiter (1888; The Rider on the White Horse, 1917), which, with its forceful hero and terse, objective style, shows vivid imagination and great narrative verve. Among his other major works are the charming story Pole Poppenspäler (1874), the historical novella Aquis submersus (1875), and the novella Im Schloss (1861).

Encyclopædia Britannica

A poem about his hometown Husum, the grey town by the grey sea (German: Die graue Stadt am grauen Meer).
Die Stadt

Am grauen Strand, am grauen Meer
Und seitab liegt die Stadt;
Der Nebel drückt die Dächer schwer,
Und durch die Stille braust das Meer
Eintönig um die Stadt.

Es rauscht kein Wald, es schlägt im Mai
Kein Vogel ohn' Unterlaß;
Die Wandergans mit hartem Schrei
Nur fliegt in Herbstesnacht vorbei,
Am Strande weht das Gras.

Doch hängt mein ganzes Herz an dir,
Du graue Stadt am Meer;
Der Jugend Zauber für und für
Ruht lächelnd doch auf dir, auf dir,
Du graue Stadt am Meer.
  The town

By the grey shore, by the grey sea
—And close by lies the town—
The fog rests heavy round the roofs
And through the silence roars the sea
Monotonously round the town.

No forest murmurs, no bird sings
Unceasingly in May;
The wand'ring goose with raucous cry
On autumn nights just passes by,
On the shoreline waves the grass.

Yet all my heart remains with you,
O grey town by the sea;
Youth's magic ever and a day
Rests smiling still on you, on you,
O grey town by the sea.
see also: Theodor Woldsen Storm
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Thoreau Henry David

Henry David Thoreau, (born July 12, 1817, Concord, Massachusetts, U.S.—died May 6, 1862, Concord), American essayist, poet, and practical philosopher, renowned for having lived the doctrines of Transcendentalism as recorded in his masterwork, Walden (1854), and for having been a vigorous advocate of civil liberties, as evidenced in the essay “Civil Disobedience” (1849).


Thoreau in 1856
  Early life
Thoreau was born in 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts. Though his family moved the following year, they returned in 1823. Even when he grew ambivalent about the village after reaching manhood, it remained his world, for he never grew ambivalent about its lovely setting of woodlands, streams, and meadows. Little distinguished his family. He was the third child of a feckless small businessman named John Thoreau and his bustling, talkative wife, Cynthia Dunbar Thoreau. His parents sent him in 1828 to Concord Academy, where he impressed his teachers and so was permitted to prepare for college. Upon graduating from the academy, he entered Harvard University in 1833. There he was a good student, but he was indifferent to the rank system and preferred to use the school library for his own purposes. Graduating in the middle ranks of the class of 1837, Thoreau searched for a teaching job and secured one at his old grammar school in Concord. But he was no disciplinarian, and he resigned after two shaky weeks, after which he worked for his father in the family pencil-making business. In June 1838 he started a small school with the help of his brother John. Despite its progressive nature, it lasted for three years, until John fell ill.
A canoe trip that he and John took along the Concord and Merrimack rivers in 1839 confirmed in him the opinion that he ought to be not a schoolmaster but a poet of nature. As the 1840s began, Thoreau took up the profession of poet.
He struggled to stay in it and succeeded throughout the decade, only to falter in the 1850s.
Friendship with Emerson
Sheer chance made his entrance to writing easier, for he came under the benign influence of the essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, who had settled in Concord during Thoreau’s sophomore year at Harvard. By the autumn of 1837, they were becoming friends. Emerson sensed in Thoreau a true disciple—that is, one with so much Emersonian self-reliance that he would still be his own man. Thoreau saw in Emerson a guide, a father, and a friend.

With his magnetism Emerson attracted others to Concord. Out of their heady speculations and affirmatives came New England Transcendentalism. In retrospect it was one of the most significant literary movements of 19th-century America, with at least two authors of world stature, Thoreau and Emerson, to its credit. Essentially it combined romanticism with reform. It celebrated the individual rather than the masses, emotion rather than reason, nature rather than man. Transcendentalism conceded that there were two ways of knowing, through the senses and through intuition, but asserted that intuition transcended tuition. Similarly, the movement acknowledged that matter and spirit both existed. It claimed, however, that the reality of spirit transcended the reality of matter. Transcendentalism strove for reform yet insisted that reform begin with the individual, not the group or organization.

Literary career
In Emerson’s company Thoreau’s hope of becoming a poet looked not only proper but feasible. Late in 1837, at Emerson’s suggestion, he began keeping a journal that covered thousands of pages before he scrawled the final entry two months before his death. He soon polished some of his old college essays and composed new and better ones as well. He wrote some poems—a good many, in fact—for several years. Captained by Emerson, the Transcendentalists started a magazine, The Dial; the inaugural issue, dated July 1840, carried Thoreau’s poem “Sympathy” and his essay on the Roman poet Aulus Persius Flaccus.

The Dial published more of Thoreau’s poems and then, in July 1842, the first of his outdoor essays, “Natural History of Massachusetts.” Though disguised as a book review, it showed that a nature writer of distinction was in the making. Then followed more lyrics, and fine ones, such as “To the Maiden in the East,” and another nature essay, remarkably felicitous, “A Winter Walk.” The Dial ceased publication with the April 1844 issue, having published a richer variety of Thoreau’s writing than any other magazine ever would.

In 1840 Thoreau fell in love with and proposed marriage to an attractive visitor to Concord named Ellen Sewall. She accepted his proposal but then immediately broke off the engagement at the insistence of her parents. He remained a bachelor for life. During two periods, 1841–43 and 1847–48, he stayed mostly at the Emersons’ house. In spite of Emerson’s hospitality and friendship, however, Thoreau grew restless; his condition was accentuated by grief over the death in January 1842 of his brother John, who died of lockjaw after cutting his finger. Later that year he became a tutor in the Staten Island household of Emerson’s brother, William, while trying to cultivate the New York literary market. Thoreau’s literary activities went indifferently, however, and the effort to conquer New York failed. Confirmed in his distaste for city life and disappointed by his lack of success, he returned to Concord in late 1843.

  Move to Walden Pond
Back in Concord Thoreau rejoined his family’s business, making pencils and grinding graphite. By early 1845 he felt more restless than ever, until he decided to take up an idea of a Harvard classmate who had once built a waterside hut in which one could loaf or read. In the spring Thoreau picked a spot by Walden Pond, a small glacial lake located 2 miles (3 km) south of Concord on land Emerson owned.

Early in the spring of 1845, Thoreau, then 27 years old, began to chop down tall pines with which to build the foundations of his home on the shores of Walden Pond. From the outset the move gave him profound satisfaction. Once settled, he restricted his diet for the most part to the fruit and vegetables he found growing wild and the beans he planted. When not busy weeding his bean rows and trying to protect them from hungry woodchucks or occupied with fishing, swimming, or rowing, he spent long hours observing and recording the local flora and fauna, reading, and writing A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849). He also made entries in his journals, which he later polished and included in Walden. Much time, too, was spent in meditation.

Out of such activity and thought came Walden, a series of 18 essays describing Thoreau’s experiment in basic living and his effort to set his time free for leisure. Several of the essays provide his original perspective on the meaning of work and leisure and describe his experiment in living as simply and self-sufficiently as possible, while in others Thoreau describes the various realities of life at Walden Pond: his intimacy with the small animals he came in contact with; the sounds, smells, and look of woods and water at various seasons; the music of wind in telegraph wires—in short, the felicities of learning how to fulfill his desire to live as simply and self-sufficiently as possible. The physical act of living day by day at Walden Pond is what gives the book authority, while Thoreau’s command of a clear, straightforward but elegant style helped raise it to the level of a literary classic.

Thoreau stayed for two years at Walden Pond (1845–47). In the summer of 1847 Emerson invited him to stay with his wife and children again, while Emerson himself went to Europe. Thoreau accepted, and in September 1847 he left his cabin forever.

Midway in his Walden sojourn Thoreau had spent a night in jail. On an evening in July 1846 he encountered Sam Staples, the constable and tax gatherer. Staples asked him amiably to pay his poll tax, which Thoreau had omitted paying for several years. He declined, and Staples locked him up. The next morning a still-unidentified lady, perhaps his aunt, Maria, paid the tax. Thoreau reluctantly emerged, did an errand, and then went huckleberrying. A single night, he decided, was enough to make his point that he could not support a government that endorsed slavery and waged an imperialist war against Mexico. His defense of the private, individual conscience against the expediency of the majority found expression in his most famous essay, “Civil Disobedience,” which was first published in May 1849 under the title “Resistance to Civil Government.” The essay received little attention until the 20th century, when it found an eager audience. To many, its message still sounds timely: there is a higher law than the civil one, and the higher law must be followed even if a penalty ensues. So does its consequence: “Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.”


Henry David Thoreau, taken August 1861
at his second and final photographic sitting
  Later life and works
When Thoreau left Walden, he passed the peak of his career, and his life lost much of its illumination. Slowly his Transcendentalism drained away as he became a surveyor in order to support himself. He collected botanical specimens for himself and reptilian ones for Harvard, jotting down their descriptions in his journal. He established himself in his neighbourhood as a sound man with rod and transit, and he spent more of his time in the family business; after his father’s death he took it over entirely.

Thoreau made excursions to the Maine woods, to Cape Cod, and to Canada, using his experiences on the trips as raw material for three series of magazine articles: “Ktaadn [sic] and the Maine Woods,” in The Union Magazine (1848); “Excursion to Canada,” in Putnam’s Monthly (1853); and “Cape Cod,” in Putnam’s (1855).

These works present Thoreau’s zest for outdoor adventure and his appreciation of the natural environment that had for so long sustained his own spirit. As Thoreau became less of a Transcendentalist he became more of an activist—above all, a dedicated abolitionist.

As much as anyone in Concord, he helped to speed fleeing slaves north on the Underground Railroad. He lectured and wrote against slavery, with “Slavery in Massachusetts,” a lecture delivered in 1854, as his hardest indictment.
In the abolitionist John Brown he found a father figure beside whom Emerson paled; the fiery old fanatic became his ideal. By now Thoreau was in poor health, and when Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry failed and he was hanged, Thoreau suffered a psychic shock that probably hastened his own death. He died, apparently of tuberculosis, in 1862.
To all appearances, Thoreau lived a life of bleak failure. His neighbours viewed him with familiarity verging on contempt.

He had to pay for the printing of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers; when it sold a mere 220 copies, the publishers dumped the remaining 700 on his doorstep.

Walden (the second and last of his books published during his lifetime) fared better but still took five years to sell 2,000 copies. And yet Thoreau is now regarded as both a classic American writer and a cultural hero of his country. The present opinion of his greatness stems from the power of his principal ideas and the lucid, provocative writing with which he expressed them.

Thoreau’s two famous symbolic actions, his two years in the cabin at Walden Pond and his night in jail for civil disobedience, represent his personal enactment of the doctrines of New England Transcendentalism as expressed by his friend and associate Emerson, among others. In his writings Thoreau was concerned primarily with the possibilities for human culture provided by the American natural environment.

  He adapted ideas garnered from the then-current Romantic literatures in order to extend American libertarianism and individualism beyond the political and religious spheres to those of social and personal life. “The life which men praise and regard as successful is but one kind. Why,” Thoreau asked in Walden, where his example was the answer, “should we exaggerate any one kind at the expense of the others?” In a commercial, conservative, expedient society that was rapidly becoming urban and industrial, he upheld the right to self-culture, to an individual life shaped by inner principle. He demanded for all men the freedom to follow unique lifestyles, to make poems of their lives and living itself an art. In a restless, expanding society dedicated to practical action, he demonstrated the uses and values of leisure, contemplation, and a harmonious appreciation of and coexistence with nature. Thoreau established the tradition of nature writing later developed by the Americans John Burroughs and John Muir, and his pioneer study of the human uses of nature profoundly influenced such conservationists and regional planners as Benton MacKaye and Lewis Mumford. More important, Thoreau’s life, so fully expressed in his writing, has had a pervasive influence because it was an example of moral heroism and an example of the continuing search for a spiritual dimension in American life.
The most significant and enduring works by Thoreau are listed here in order of original publication; when he made substantial revisions, especially in the essays, the volumes in which the revised versions first appeared are likewise noted:

“Ktaadn and the Maine Woods” (1848; revised and expanded in The Maine Woods, 1864); A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849); “Resistance to Civil Government” (1849; republished as “Civil Disobedience” in A Yankee in Canada, 1866); Walden (1854); “The Last Days of John Brown” (1860; republished in A Yankee in Canada); “Walking” (1862; republished in Excursions, 1863); “Life Without Principle” (1863; republished in A Yankee in Canada); and Faith in a Seed: The Dispersion of Seeds and Other Late Natural History Writings (posthumously, 1993).

The Writings of Henry Thoreau, 20 vol. (1906, reprinted 1982), is the standard “Walden” edition of Thoreau’s books, essays, and journal. It is being replaced by the Princeton Edition of The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau (starting in 1971 with the publication of its version of Walden) which is producing books of high textual and editorial quality. Collected Poems, ed. by Carl Bode, enlarged ed. (1964, reissued 1970), brings together the many versions of the poetry he wrote, particularly in his younger days.

Encyclopædia Britannica

see also: Henry David Thoreau
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
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