Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1815 Part III NEXT-1816 Part II    
 
 
     
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810-1819
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
"Luddites"
Jungfrau
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Louisiana
Perceval Spencer
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"Mtsyri"
"The Demon
"
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
NAPOLEON AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EUROPE, 1796-1815
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Warfare
Nations in Arms
(1763-1815)
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
Indiana
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Blanketeers
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Mississippi
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Selenium
Lithium
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Illinois
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
"Savannah"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Florida
Victoria
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Alabama
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London
 
 
 

Allegory of the Declaration of Independence, by Luis de Servi.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1816 Part I
 
 
 
1816
 
 
Maria I, Queen of Portugal, d.; succeeded by her son, Dom John VI
 
 
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
 

Maria I, (born Dec. 17, 1734, Lisbon, Port.—died March 20, 1816, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), the first queen regnant of Portugal (1777–1816).

 

Dona Maria I, Queen of Portugal, 1808.
  Maria was the daughter of King Joseph. In 1760 she married her uncle who, as king consort after Maria’s accession (February 1777), became Peter III.

Maria attempted to correct the harshness of her father’s minister, the marquês de Pombal, freeing his political prisoners and banishing him to Pombal; but an inquiry ended in his pardon.

She abandoned some of his trading enterprises but developed small industries in Portugal and new crops in Brazil.

The deaths of Peter in 1786 and of Maria’s elder son Joseph in 1788, combined with news of the excesses of the French Revolution, so affected Maria that she suffered a mental collapse in January 1792.

She entrusted power to her second son, John (the future John VI), who assumed the title of prince regent in 1799, when her condition was deemed incurable.

Maria proved incapable of resuming her duties, and when Napoleon’s armies invaded Portugal in November 1807, she went with the rest of the royal family to Brazil, where she died.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
John VI of Portugal
 

John VI, (born May 13, 1767, Lisbon, Portugal—died March 10, 1826, Lisbon), prince regent of Portugal from 1799 to 1816 and king from 1816 to 1826, whose reign saw the revolutionary struggle in France, the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal (during which he established his court in Brazil), and the implantation of representative government in both Portugal and Brazil.

 

Retrato de D. Joao VI - Gregorius, Albertus Jacob Frans
  John was the younger son of Queen Maria I, becoming heir on the death of his elder brother and taking power in 1792 as a result of the mental illness of his mother. In 1799 her illness was declared incurable, and he assumed the title of prince regent, which he used until her death in March 1816. John married Carlota Joaquina, eldest daughter of Charles IV of Spain, and supported Spain against the French Republic. But Spain made peace at Basel in 1795 and served as a vehicle for French pressure on Portugal. In 1801 Spain finally invaded Portugal, though peace was made at Badajoz. In 1807, after his victories in central Europe, Napoleon proclaimed his European blockade, threatening to close the port of Lisbon. As French troops crossed Spain and approached Lisbon, the royal family retired to Brazil with the government (November 1807). Britain guaranteed the throne of the Braganças and in 1808 sent an army to Portugal under Arthur Wellesley (later duke of Wellington), which forced the surrender of the French. John gave full military support to Wellesley, and two French invasions were repelled. After Napoleon’s surrender in 1814, John was expected to return; but, on Napoleon’s escape from Elba, John returned to Brazil, which he made a united kingdom with Portugal. On March 20, 1816, his mother died, and he became king.

His annexation of Montevideo led to a conflict with Spain, and his stay in Brazil made the Portuguese impatient for reform. In 1820 the radical revolution in Spain spread to Portugal, and he finally agreed to leave Brazil and to sanction a liberal constitution, leaving his heir Peter (Pedro) in Rio de Janeiro.

 
 
He accepted radical reform limiting his powers, but the liberals precipitated the separation of Brazil, of which his son was declared emperor. When the French intervened to suppress radicalism in Spain (1823), the Portuguese radicals were discredited and overthrown. John VI was restored to his authority but promised a constitution. The absolutists supported his queen, Carlota Joaquina, and made their son Michael (Miguel) commander-in-chief. John attempted to steer a middle course, separating from his wife and sending Michael into exile.

John then negotiated with Peter in Brazil, using the services of a British diplomat, Sir Charles Stuart. He reluctantly accepted the political separation of Brazil in 1825, dying soon after. He supported his favourite daughter, Maria Isabel, as regent, pending the decision of Peter, who attempted to resolve the dynastic and political problem by abdicating the crown of Portugal in favour of his daughter, Maria II, and bestowing his own constitution on Portugal.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
1816
 
 
Argentina declared independent
 
 
Argentine War of Independence
 
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution.
 
Background
The territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy. Modern Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia were also part of the viceroyalty, and began their push for autonomy during the conflict, becoming independent states afterwards. The vast area of the territory and slow communications led most populated areas to become isolated from each other. The wealthiest regions of the viceroyalty were in Upper Peru, (modern-day Bolivia). Salta and Córdoba had closer ties with Upper Peru than with Buenos Aires. Similarly, Mendoza in the west had closer ties with the Captaincy General of Chile, although the Andes mountain range was a natural barrier. Buenos Aires and Montevideo, who had a local rivalry, located in the La Plata Basin, had naval communications allowing them to be more in contact with European ideas and economic advances than the inland populations. Paraguay was isolated from all other regions.

In the political structure most authoritative positions were filled by people designated by the Spanish monarchy, most of them Spanish people from Europe, without strong compromises for American problems or interests. This created a growing rivalry between the Criollos, people born in America, and the peninsulares, people arrived from Europe (the term "Criollo" is usually translated to English as "Creole", despite being unrelated to most other Creole peoples). Despite the fact that all of them were considered Spanish, and that there was no legal distinction between Criollos and Peninsulares, most Criollos thought that Peninsulares had undue weight in political matters. The ideas of the American and French Revolutions, and the Age of Enlightenment, promoted desires of social change among the criollos.

  The full prohibition imposed by Spain to trade with other nations was also seen as damaging to the viceroyalty's economy.

The population of Buenos Aires was highly militarized during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Buenos Aires was captured in 1806, and then liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. Fearing a counter-attack, all the population of Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms was arranged in military bodies, including slaves.

A new British attack in 1807 captured Montevideo, but was defeated in Buenos Aires, and forced to leave the viceroyalty. The viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was successfully deposed by the criollos during the conflict, and the Regiment of Patricians became a highly influential force in local politics, even after the end of the British threat.

The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil generated military concern. It was feared that the British would launch a third attack, this time allied with Portugal. However, no military conflict took place, as when the Peninsular War started Britain and Portugal became allies of Spain against France. When the Spanish king Ferdinand VII was captured, his sister Carlota Joaquina sought to rule in the Americas as regent, but nothing came out of it because of the lack of support from both the Spanish Americans and the British.

Javier de Elío created a Junta in Montevideo and Martín de Álzaga sought to make a similar move by organizing a mutiny in Buenos Aires, but the local military forces intervened and thwarted it. Spain appointed a new viceroy, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, and Liniers handed the government to him without resistance, despite the proposals of the military to reject him.

 
 


The May Revolution forced the viceroy to resign. He was replaced by a
government Junta, the Primera Junta.

 
 
The Revolution
The military conflict in Spain worsened by 1810. The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were already dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula. The Junta of Seville was disestablished, and several members fled to Cádiz, the last portion of Spain still resisting. They established a Council of Regency, with political tendencies closer to absolutism than the former Junta. This began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon as the news were known.

Several citizens thought that Cisneros, appointed by the disestablished Junta, did not have the right to rule anymore, and requested the convening of an open cabildo to discuss the fate of the local government. The military gave their support to the request, forcing Cisneros to accept. The discussion ruled the removal of viceroy Cisneros and his replacement with a government junta, but the cabildo attempted to keep Cisneros in power by appointing him president of such junta. Further demonstrations ensued, and the Junta was forced to resign immediately. It was replaced by a new one, the Primera Junta.

Buenos Aires requested the other cities in the viceroyalty to acknowledge the new Junta and send deputies. The precise purpose of these deputies, join the Junta or create a congress, was unclear at the time and generated political disputes later. The Junta was initially resisted by all the main locations around Buenos Aires: Córdoba, Montevideo, Paraguay and the Upper Peru. Santiago de Liniers came out of his retirement in Córdoba and organized an army to capture Buenos Aires, Montevideo had naval supremacy over the city, and Vicente Nieto organized the actions at the Upper Peru. Nieto proposed to José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru at the North, to annex the Upper Peru to it. He thought that the revolution could be easily contained in Buenos Aires, before launching a definitive attack.

Buenos Aires was declared a rogue city by the Council of Regency, which appointed Montevideo as capital of the viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, and Francisco Javier de Elío the new viceroy. However, the May Revolution was not initially separatist. Patriots supported the legitimacy of the Juntas in the Americas, whether royalists supported instead the Council of Regency; both ones acted on behalf of Ferdinand VII.

All of them believed that, according to the retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, in the absence of the rightful king sovereignty returned to the people, which would be capable to appoint their own leaders. They did not agree on who was that people, and which territorial extension had the sovereignty. Royalists thought that it applied to the people on European Spain, who had the right to rule over all the Spanish empire.

The leaders of the May Revolution thought that it applied to all the capitals of Spanish kingdoms. José Gervasio Artigas would lead later a third perspective: the retroversion applied to all regions, which should remain united under a confederative system. The three groups battled each others, but the disputes about the national organization of Argentina (either centralist or confederal) continued in Argentine Civil War, for many years after the end of the war of independence.

  Armed conflict
The Primera Junta sent military campaigns to the viceroyalty, in order to secure support to the new authorities and retain the authority held as the capital of the viceroyalty. The victories and defeats of the military conflict delimited the areas of influence of the new United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. With the non-aggression pact arranged with Paraguay early on, most of the initial conflict took place in the north, in Upper Peru, and in the east, in the Banda Oriental. In the second half of the decade, with the capture of Montevideo and the stalemate in Upper Peru, the conflict moved to the west, to Chile.

Initial campaigns
The first two military campaigns ordered by the revolutionary Junta in Buenos Aires were launched against Cordoba, where former Viceroy Santiago de Liniers organized a counter-revolution, and the Intendency of Paraguay, which did not recognize the outcome of events at the May Revolution.

However, the improvised army gathered by Liniers at Cordoba deserted him before battle, so the former Viceroy attemped to flee to the Upper Peru, expecting to join the royalist army sent from the Viceroyalty of Peru to suffocate the revolution at Buenos Aires. Colonel Francisco Ortiz de Ocampo, who led the patriot army, captured Liniers and the other leaders of the Cordoba counter-revolution on 6 August, 1810, but, instead of executing them as he was instructed, he sent them back to Buenos Aires as prisoners. As a result, Ocampo was demoted and Juan José Castelli was appointed as the political head of the army. On 26 August, Castelli executed the Cordoba prisoners and led the Army of the North towards the Upper Peru.

First Upper Peru campaign (1810-1811)
After securing the loyalty of the northwestern Provinces to the May Revolution through elections of representatives to the Junta in Buenos Aires, Castelli sent General Antonio González Balcarce into the Upper Peru, but he was defeated at the battle of Cotagaita. Castelli then sent him reinforcements, leading to the first patriotic victory at the battle of Suipacha, which gave Buenos Aires control over the Upper Peru. The royalist generals Vicente Nieto, Francisco de Paula Sanz and José de Córdoba y Rojas were captured and executed.

Castelli then proposed to the Buenos Aires Junta to cross the Desaguadero River, taking the offensive into the Viceroyalty of Peru domains, but his proposal was rejected. His army and Goyeneche's stationed near the frontier, while negotiating. Goyeneche advanced and defeated Castelli at the Battle of Huaqui, whose forces dispersed and left the provinces. The resistance of patriot republiqueta guerrillas of Upper Peru, however, kept the royalists at bay, preventing them from advancing south.

Paraguay campaign (1810-1811)
The other militia sent by Buenos Aires was commanded by Manuel Belgrano and made its way up the Paraná River towards the Intendency of Paraguay. A first battle was fought at Campichuelo, where the Patriots claimed victory. However, they were completely overwhelmed at the subsequent battles of Paraguarí and Tacuarí. Thus, this campaign ended in failure as well from a military point of view; however, some months later, inspired on the Argentine example, Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown by declaring itself an independent nation.

 
 
First Banda Oriental campaign (1811)

Renewed offensives

The undesired outcomes of the Paraguay and Upper Peru campaigns led the Junta to be replaced by an executive Triumvirate on September 1811. This new government decided to promote a new campaign to the Upper Peru with a reorganized Army of the North and appointed José de San Martín, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who had recently arrived from Spain, as Lieutenant Colonel. San Martín was ordered to create the professional and disciplined cavalry unit known as Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers (Spanish: Granaderos a caballo).
 
 
Second Upper Peru campaign (1812-1813)
General Manuel Belgrano was appointed as the new commander of the Army of the North. Facing the overwhelming invasion of a royalist army led by General Pío de Tristán, Belgrano turned to scorched-earth tactics and ordered the evacuation of the people of Jujuy and Salta, and the burning of anything else left behind to prevent enemy forces from getting supplies or taking prisoners from those cities. This action is known as the Jujuy Exodus.

Turning against the Triumvirate orders, however, Belgrano decided to fight the royalists at Tucumán, obtaining a great victory and then decisively defeating the royalist army at the Battle of Salta, in northwestern Argentina, forcing the bulk of the royalist army to surrender their weapons. Tristán (a former fellow student with Belgrano at Salamanca University) and his men were granted amnesty and released. Then again, the patriot army was defeated into the Upper Peru at the battles of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma and retrated to Jujuy.

Second Banda Oriental campaign (1812-1814)
In early 1812, the truce between Buenos Aires and Montevideo was over, and Manuel de Sarratea led an army to the Banda Oriental, but he was soon replaced by José Rondeau, who initiated a second siege of Montevideo. Although royalist Gaspar de Vigodet sought to break the siege, he was defeated at the Battle of Cerrito.

The Spanish navy then sought to evade the land blockade by raiding nearby populations on the west bank of the Uruguay river. On 31 January, 1813, Spanish troops from Montevideo landed near the town of San Lorenzo, Santa Fe Province, but it was absolutely defeated by the Granaderos unit led by San Martín on February 3. The Battle of San Lorenzo ended further Spanish raids on the west bank of the Paraná river and the Triumvirate awarded San Martín the rank of General.

The Granaderos unit was instrumental in the Revolution of October 8, 1812 which deposed the government and installed a new Triumvirate, considered to be more commited to the cause of Independence. In fact, this second Triumvirate convened a national assembly which was meant to declare Independence. The Assembly, however, first decided replace the Triumvirate with a new unipersonal Executive office, the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, and elected Gervasio Antonio de Posadas for that role.

One of the first actions of Posadas was to create a naval fleet from scratch, which was to be financed by Juan Larrea, and appointed William Brown as Lieutenant Colonel and Chief Commander of it, on March 1, 1814. Against all the odds, on 14 may 1814 the improvised patriot navy engaged the Spanish fleet and defeated it three days later. This action secured the port of Buenos Aires and allowed the fall of Montevideo, which could not stand the siege any more, on 20 June, 1814.

  The march towards Independence
The fall of Montevideo eliminated the royalist menace from the Banda Oriental and meant the actual end of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Soon afterwards, William Brown was awarded the rank of Admiral and Carlos María de Alvear, who was put in charge of the siege of Montevideo just a few days before the surrender of the city, succeeded his uncle Gervasio Posadas as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces, on January 11, 1815. Alvear, however, was resisted by the troops, so he was quickly replaced, on April 21, by Ignacio Álvarez Thomas through a mutiny. Álvarez Thomas then appointed Alvear as General of the Northern Army, in replacement of José Rondeau, but the officiality did not recognize this and remained loyal to Rondeau.

Third Alto Perú campaign (1815)
In 1815, he Northern Army, unofficially commanded by José Rondeau, started another offensive campaign in the Upper Perú, without the formal authorization of Supreme Director Álvarez Thomas. Lacking official support, however, the army was faced with anarchy. Moreover, soon after it would lose as well the aid of the Provincial Army of Salta, commanded by Martín Miguel de Güemes. After the defeats of Venta y Media (October 21) and Sipe-Sipe (November 28), the northern territories of the Upper Peru were effectively lost to the United Provinces. However, the Spanish Army could not advance further south as they were successfully stopped at Salta by the Güemes guerrillas from then on.

The unsuccessful outcome of the third Upper Peru campaign would spread rumors in Europe that the May Revolution was over. Furthermore, King Ferdinand VII was restored to the Spanish throne on 1815, so an urgent decision was needed regarding the political status of the United Provinces.

On July 9, 1816, an assembly of representatives of the Provinces (including three Upper Peru departments but excluding representatives from Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Corrientes and the Banda Oriental, united into the Federal League) met at the Congress of Tucumán and declared the Independence of the United Provinces in South America from the Spanish Crown, with provisions for a national Constitution.

Army of the Andes (1814-1818)
In 1814, General José de San Martín had taken command of the Army of the North to prepare a new invasion of the Upper Peru. However, he quickly resigned as he foresaw yet another defeat. Instead, he developed a new strategy to attack the Viceroyalty of Perú through the Captaincy of Chile, inspired on the writings of Sir Thomas Maitland, who was quoted as saying that the only way to defeat the Spanish at Quito and Lima was attacking Chile first.

San Martín asked to became the Governor of the Province of Cuyo, where he prepared the Chile campaign. Installed in the city of Mendoza, San Martín reorganized the Granaderos cavalry unit into the Army of the Andes, which he created out patriots from both the United Provinces and exiles from Chile.

 
 

In early 1817, San Martín led the crossing of the Andes into Chile, obtaining a decisive victory at the battle of Chacabuco on February 17, 1817, which allowed the exiled chilean leader Bernardo O'Higgins to enter Santiago de Chile unopposed and install a new independent government. In December 1817, a popular referendum was set up to decide about the Independence of Chile.

 
 
However, a Royalist resistance stood still in southern Chile, allied with the Mapuches. On April 4, Argentine Colonel Juan Gregorio de Las Heras had occupied Concepción, but the Royalists retreated to Talcahuano. In early 1818, Royalist reinforcements from the Viceroyalty of Peru arrived, commanded by general Mariano Osorio, and advanced towards the capital. San Martín then turned to scorched earth tactics and ordered the evacuation of Concepción, which he thought was impossible to defend. On 18 February 1818, the first anniversary of the battle of Chacabuco, Chile declared its independendence from the Spanish Crown.

On March 18, 1818, Osorio led a surprise attack on the joint Argentine-Chilean army, which had to retreat to Santiago, with heavy losses. In fact, among the confusion, Supreme Director O'Higgins was thought to be killed, and panic seized the patriot camp.
  Crippled after his defeat at Cancha Rayada, O'Higgins delegated the command of the troops entirely to San Martín in a meeting on the plains of Maipú. Then, on April 5, 1818, San Martín inflicted a decisive defeat on Osorio in the Battle of Maipú, after which the depleted royalists retreated to Concepcion, never again to launch a major offensive against Santiago.

The Chile campaign is generally considered to be the conclusion of the Argentine War of Independence, as the further actions of the United Army into Peru were carried on under the authority of the Chilean government, not the United Provinces.

However, defensive actions continued to be carried on in the northern frontier of the United Provinces until the 1825 Battle of Ayacucho, which ended the royalist threat from the Upper Peru.

 
 

Annual commemoration
The Día de la Revolución de Mayo (May Revolution Day) on May 25 is an annual holiday in Argentina to commemorate the First National Government (and the creation of the Primera Junta), one of the significant events in the history of Argentina. These and other events of the week leading to this day are referred to as the Semana de Mayo (May Week).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1816
 
 
Argentine Declaration of Independence
 

What today is commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress of Tucumán. In reality, the congressmen that were assembled in Tucumán declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America, which is still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic. The Federal League Provinces, at war with the United Provinces, were not allowed into the Congress. At the same time, several provinces from the Upper Peru that would later become part of present-day Bolivia, were represented at the Congress.

 
Causes
The 1810 May Revolution followed the deposition of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII by the Napoleonic French. The revolution ended the authority of the Viceroy Cisneros and replaced it with the Primera Junta. When the Spanish monarchy resumed its functions in 1819, Spain was determined to recover control over its colonies in the Americas. Moreover, the royalists from Peru had been victorious at the battles of Sipe-Sipe, Huaqui, Vilcapugio and Ayohuma, in Upper Peru, and seriously threatened the United Provinces from the north. On April 15, 1815, a revolution ended the mandate of Carlos María de Alvear as Supreme Director and demanded that a General Congress be summoned. Delegate deputies, each representing 14,000 inhabitants, were sent from all the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to the sessions, which started on March 24, 1816. However, the Federal League Provinces did not send delegates: the Argentine littoral Provinces (Santa Fé, Entre Ríos, Corrientes and Misiones), and the Eastern Province (modern-day Uruguay).

Development
The Congress was inaugurated in the city of Tucumán, with 33 deputies. The presidency of the Congress would be rotated monthly. Because the Congress had the freedom to choose topics to debate, endless discussions ensued.
The voting finally ended on July 9 with a declaration of independence. The Declaration pointed to the circumstances in Europe of the past six years—the removal of the King of Spain by the Napoleon and the subsequent refusal of Ferdinand VII to accept constitutional rule both in the Peninsula and overseas.

 
Declaration of Independence of the United Provinces of South America, in Spanish and Quechua
 
 
The Document claimed that Spanish America recovered its sovereignty from the Crown of Castile in 1808, when Ferdinand VII had been deposed, and therefore, any union between the overseas dominions of Spain and the Peninsula had been dissolved. This was a legal concept that was also invoked by the other Spanish American declarations of independence, such as Venezuela's (1811) and Mexico's (1810), which were responding to the same events. The president of the Congress at the time was Francisco Narciso de Laprida, delegate from San Juan Province. Subsequent discussions centered on what form of government the emerging state should adopt.
 
 

Allegory of the Declaration of Independence, by Luis de Servi.
 
 
The congress continued its work in Buenos Aires in 1817, but it dissolved in 1820 after the Battle of Cepeda, which deepened the differences between the Unitarian Party, who favored a strong central government, and the Federales, who favored a weak central government.

The house where the declaration was adopted has been rebuilt and is now a museum and monument: the House of Tucumán.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
     
 



World Countries



Argentina
     
 
 
 
1816
 
 
Metternich Klemens opens Diet of German Confederation at Frankfurt
 
 
Federal Convention
 

The Federal Convention (German: Bundesversammlung or Bundestag) was the only central institution of the German Confederation from 1815 until 1848, and from 1850 until 1866. The Federal Assembly had its seat in the palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt. It was organized as a permanent congress of envoys.

 
The German Confederation and its Federal Assembly came into existence as a result of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon. The original task was to create a new constitutional structure for Germany after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire eight years before.

The princes of the German states wanted to keep their sovereignty, therefore the German Confederation was created as a loose confederation of independent monarchist states, but included four free cities as well.
The founding act was the German Federal Act of June 8, 1815 (German: Deutsche Bundesakte), which was part of the treaty of the Congress of Vienna.

The Federal Assembly was created as a permanent congress of envoys of all member states, which replaced the former imperial central power of the Holy Roman Empire. The Federal Assembly took its seat at the palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt, where it met once a week after November 5, 1816.

The Federal Assembly was presided over by the Austrian delegate and consisted of two executive bodies: the inner council and the plenary session. Its members were not elected, neither by popular vote nor by state parliaments (which usually didn't exist in the member states of the German Confederation), but had been appointed by the state governments or by the state's prince.

The inner council consisted of 17 envoys (one seat each for the 11 larger states, 5 seats for the 23 smaller states and one seat for the four free cities).

  The inner council determined the legislative agenda and decided which issues should be discussed by the plenary session. Decisions of the inner circle required an absolute majority.
The plenary session had 69 seats, according roughly to the state's sizes. The plenary session was involved especially in decisions regarding constitutional changes, which required a majority of 2/3 of the plenary session.

The decisions of the Federal Assembly had been mandatory for the member states, but the execution of those decisions remained under the control of each member state. As well, the member states remained fully sovereign regarding customs, police and military.

Until the March Revolution of 1848 and again after 1850 the Federal Assembly of the German Confederation was the main instrument of the reactionary forces of Germany to suppress democracy, liberalism and nationalism. For example during 1835/36 the Federal Assembly decreeded rules for censorship, which marked the works of Heinrich Heine and other authors as illegal in all states of the German Confederation.

After the March Revolution of 1848 the Federal Assembly of the German Confederation became inactive and handed over its authority to the provisional central government and the National Assembly in Frankfurt, that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way.

After the failure of the revolution the German Confederation was restored between 1850 and 1851. The Federal Assembly was reestablished in September 1850 and was used to suppress all democratic and liberal achievements of the failed revolution.

 
 

Palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt was the seat of the Federal Convention of the German Confederation
 
 
The Federal Assembly was dissolved after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the Prussian annexation of the confederation's capital Frankfurt. The Federal Assembly was succeeded by the Federal Council of the North German Confederation and four years later by the Reichstag of the German Empire.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1816
 
 
Indiana becomes a state of the U.S.
 
 
Indiana
 

Indiana, constituent state of the United States of America. The state sits, as its motto claims, at “the crossroads of America.” It borders Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south, and Illinois to the west, making it an integral part of the American Midwest. Except for Hawaii, Indiana is the smallest state west of the Appalachian Mountains. With a name that is generally thought to mean “land of the Indians,” Indiana was admitted on Dec. 11, 1816, as the 19th state of the union. Its capital has been at Indianapolis since 1825.

 
Today Indiana’s economy is based primarily on services, manufacturing, and, to a much lesser extent, agriculture. Its northern areas lie in the mainstream of the industrial belt that extends from Pennsylvania and New York to Illinois. Agricultural activity is heaviest in the central region, which is situated in the Corn Belt, which stretches from Ohio to Nebraska.

Although Indiana is historically part of the North, many parts of the state display a character that is much like that of the South. This is largely a reflection of the early settlement of the region by migrants from the South, who brought with them a hearty distrust of the federal government. Many of Indiana’s people take pride in a self-image derived largely from 19th-century America that values hard work, is oriented to the small town and medium-sized city, and is interested in maintaining the prerogatives of local self-determination. It is not by coincidence that the Indianan’s nickname, Hoosier, remains a symbol in the country’s lore for a kind of homespun wisdom, wit, and folksiness that harks back to what is popularly regarded as a less-hurried and less-complicated period of history.

The cities near the state’s northwestern corner form an industrial, economic, and social continuum with neighbouring Chicago. Their significant African American and Hispanic populations and the political aspirations contrast strikingly with life in the smaller cities and towns near the state’s southern boundary. Thus, Indiana’s population is to some extent black and Hispanic in the urban north and mostly white in the less industrialized south. Though generally considered a conservative and Republican stronghold, Indiana has voted into both state and national office nearly as many Democrats as Republicans. Area 36,417 square miles (94,320 square km). Population (2010) 6,483,802; (2013 est.) 6,570,902.

  History
Prehistory and exploration

Archaeologists discovered the remains of some of Indiana’s earliest known inhabitants at Angel Mounds, an archaeological site on the Ohio River near Evansville. Historical records show that in the early 17th century the indigenous Algonquin peoples organized the tribes of the area into the Miami Confederation, which fought to protect the lands from the unfriendly Iroquois. The most powerful tribes in the confederation were the Miami (specifically the Wea and Piankashaw bands) and the Potawatomi. Later that century, the Delaware began to move into the White River region (in response to encroachment by European settlers and the Iroquois) from the Ohio country to the east.

In 1679 French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, sieur (lord) de La Salle, traveled by boat from Michigan down the St. Joseph River into what is now northern Indiana. To the south, traders from North Carolina, South Carolina, and Pennsylvania settled on the Ohio and the Wabash river shores. The southern settlements threatened the French traders, to whom these rivers and regions were a channel to the Mississippi—a means of connecting Canada and Louisiana. To protect their route to the Mississippi, the French built Fort-Miami (1704), near present-day Fort Wayne; Fort-Ouiatanon (1719), near what is now Lafayette; and Fort-Vincennes (1732), one of the first permanent white settlements west of the Appalachians, at Vincennes.

In 1763 the area was ceded to England, which forbade further white settlement. The prohibition was largely ignored, and in 1774 Parliament annexed the lands to Quebec. During the American Revolution (1775–83) Virginia, Connecticut, and Massachusetts made claims on the land, and in 1779 George Rogers Clark secured the area for the rebelling colonies by leading his troops on a surprise march from Kaskaskia to Vincennes.

 
 
Territorial period
In 1783 lands lying west of Pennsylvania, north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes were ceded to the United States by the Peace of Paris treaties, which ended the American Revolution. In 1784 the first U.S. settlement was established at Clarksville, on the northern bank of the Ohio River. Through the Ordinance of 1787 the ceded lands were amalgamated to create the Northwest Territory, which included present-day Indiana. The ordinance prohibited slavery in the region but did not abolish slavery already in existence. In 1800 the Northwest Territory had at least 175 slaves.

Warfare between the indigenous groups and the white settlers continued until 1794, when Gen. Anthony Wayne defeated the indigenous peoples in a battle near Fallen Timbers, near the present-day Ohio-Indiana line, and forced them to make land concessions. Increasing numbers of white immigrants from Southern states entered the area after 1800, leading to renewed native resistance. In 1811 the last major encounter, the Battle of Tippecanoe, was fought near Lafayette, with Gen. William Henry Harrison the victor. With the end of indigenous resistance came rapid settlement and in 1816 statehood. The territorial capital, Corydon, became the first capital of Indiana. Over the next 25 years or so, the major tribes abandoned the area.

 
 
Statehood
The patterns of rural life and local autonomy were established in the first half of the 19th century as settlement progressed from south to north. The utopian community of New Harmony, on the Wabash River in the southwest, was settled by George Rapp in 1815 and taken over by Robert Owen in 1825. In 1801 the first college was founded in Vincennes, and in 1820 Indiana University was chartered. A single-car, horse-drawn railroad arrived in Shelbyville in 1834.

The constitution of 1851, which remains the framework of state government, made it nearly impossible for the state to go into debt, reinforced the powers of local government, and created a tax-supported public school system. Article XIII prohibited the entrance of black people into the state, but this was struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1866 as being in conflict with the federal Civil Rights Act of that year.

Agricultural expansion in the mid-to-late19th century was quickly overshadowed by growth in industry, which was propelled largely by the American Civil War, and by the turn of the 20th century the northern part of the state had emerged as a major industrial sector. With the founding in 1906 of the steelmaking city of Gary—midway between the iron ore deposits of the Mesabi Range of Minnesota, the coal deposits of the central Appalachians, and the limestone resources of southern Indiana and Illinois—and the subsequent development of automobile manufacturing in South Bend, Indiana completed its shift from an agricultural to an industrial base.

 
 
 
The isolation, independence, and spirit of grassroots democracy that underlay the constitution of 1851, however, continued to leave their mark upon the state. For example, the document was written at a time when towns and villages were days rather than minutes or hours apart, and, consequently, meetings of the legislature were held only biennially. Despite vast improvements in infrastructure and transportation, it was not until 1970 that annual meetings of the legislature were approved. Widespread attachment to an ideology of localism has been one of the roots of Hoosiers’ ongoing resistance to such constitutional change.

In the late 1980s, Indiana entered a period of rapid political and economic development that continued into the 21st century. Dan Quayle, a Hoosier member of the Republican Party, was elected vice president of the United States as George Bush’s running mate in 1988. The governorship, however, simultaneously shifted to the Democratic Party, where it remained for 16 years, before a Republican was returned to office in 2005. Meanwhile, economic growth continued throughout the state, with Indiana retaining its lead in the production of steel. Sales of Indianan products to foreign markets—mainly Canadian and Mexican—increased steadily. The economic upsurge was accompanied by an explosion of new subdivisions around the major urban areas of the state, principally Indianapolis. Urban renewal and revitalization dramatically changed the central business district of the capital, with the construction of new shopping complexes, office buildings, sports centres, university facilities, and hotels; a major professional sports stadium in the city was demolished (to make room for an expanding convention centre complex), and a new stadium opened in 2008.

William Vincent D’Antonio
Robert L. Beck

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
     
 



World Countries



United States of America
     
 
 
 
1816
 
 
American Bible Society
 

American Bible Society (ABS) is an interconfessional, non-denominational, nonprofit Protestant organization, founded on May 11 in 1816 in New York City, which publishes, distributes and translates the Bible and provides study aids and other tools to help people engage with the Bible.

 
Hillerbrand states that after 1816, it "rapidly evolved into one of the world's largest scripture production, distribution, and translation agencies.

It worked tirelessly to promote pandenominational Protestant unity, served historically as a focal point for American missionary efforts, and developed innovative programs that sought to bring the Bible to a wider audience."

In collaboration with Barna, American Bible Society conducts annual research about The State of the Bible in America.
Findings include statistics about:

-Americans’ beliefs about the Bible,
-The Bible’s role in society,
-The Bible’s presence in U.S. homes,
-Number of Bibles per household,
-Translation preferences,
-And more…

  American Bible Society is probably best known for its Good News Translation of the Bible, with its contemporary vernacular and unique line drawings of Bible events with a snippet of text interspersed throughout the book. The line drawings were done by Annie Vallotton, a Swiss religious artist. They also publish the Contemporary English Version.

The stated mission of American Bible Society is to make the Bible available to every person in a language and format each can understand and afford, so all people may experience its life-changing message.

ABS is headquartered in New York City. Its headquarters building at 1865 Broadway houses an extensive museum of religious art and a 45,000 volume collection of Scriptures, making it the largest Bible museum in the western hemisphere and second largest in the world behind the Vatican.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1816
 
 
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
 

Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (14 July 1816 – 13 October 1882) was a French aristocrat, novelist and man of letters who became famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–1855). De Gobineau is credited as being the father of modern racial demography, and his works are today considered very early examples of scientific racism.

 

Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau
  Life and theories
Gobineau's father was a government official and staunch royalist, and his mother, Anne-Louise Magdeleine de Gercy, was the daughter of a royal tax official. He was not, however, a nobleman, having added the 'count' to his name himself. In the later years of the July Monarchy, Gobineau made his living writing serialized fiction (romans-feuilletons) and contributing to reactionary periodicals. He struck up a friendship and had voluminous correspondence with Alexis de Tocqueville, who brought him into the foreign ministry while he was foreign minister during the Second Republic. Gobineau was a successful diplomat for the Second French Empire. Initially he was posted to Persia, before working in Brazil and other countries. He came to believe that race created culture, arguing that distinctions between the three races - "black", "white", and "yellow" - were natural barriers, and that "race-mixing" breaks those barriers and leads to chaos. He classified Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa as racially mixed. Gobineau also questioned the belief that the black and yellow races belong to the same human family as the white race and share a common ancestor. Trained neither as a theologian nor a naturalist and writing before the popular spread of evolutionary theory, Gobineau took the Bible to be a true telling of human history and accepted in An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races the day's prevailing Christian doctrine that all human beings shared the common ancestors Adam and Eve (monogenism as opposed to polygenism).
 
 
Nonetheless, he suggested that but for the Church's teaching there was nothing else to suggest that the coloured races were foreborn, like the white race, from Adam, since "... nothing proves that at the first redaction of the Adamite genealogies the colored races were considered as forming part of the species".

Gobineau believed the white race was superior to the other races in the creation of civilized culture and maintaining ordered government. However, he also thought that the development of civilization in other periods was different from in his own and speculated that other races might have superior qualities in those civilization periods than in his own. Nonetheless, he believed European civilization represented the best of what remained of ancient civilizations and held the most superior attributes capable for continued survival. His primary thesis in regard to this theory was that European civilizational flowering from Greece to Rome and Germanic to contemporary sprang from, and corresponded to, the ancient Indo-European culture, also known as "Aryan" which included for example the Celts, Slavs and the Germans.
 
 
However, Gobineau later came to use and reserve the term Aryan only for the "German race" and described the Aryans as 'la race germanique'. By doing so he presented a racist theory in which Aryans—that is Germans—were all that was positive Gobineau originally wrote that, given the past trajectory of civilization in Europe, white race miscegenation was inevitable and would result in growing chaos. He attributed much of the economic turmoil in France to pollution of races. Later on in his life, with the spread of British and American civilization and the growth of Germany, he altered his opinion to believe that the white race could be saved.

Paradoxically, although Gobineau saw hope in the expansion of European power, he did not support the creation of commercial empires with their attendant multicultural milieu, concluding that the development of empires was ultimately destructive to the "superior races" that created them, since they led to the mixing of distinct races. Instead, he saw the later period of the 19th century imperialism as a degenerative process in European civilization. To support his conclusion, he continually referred to past empires in Europe and their attendant movement of non-white peoples into European homelands in explaining the ethnography of the nations of Europe.

According to his theories, the mixed populations of Spain, most of France and Italy, most of Southern Germany, most of Switzerland and Austria, and parts of Britain derived from the historical development of the Roman, Greek, and Ottoman Empires which had opened up Europe to the non-Aryan peoples of Africa and the Mediterranean cultures. Also according to him, southern and western Iran, southern Spain and Italy consisted of a degenerative race arising from miscegenation, and the whole of north India consisted of a yellow race.

  Nazism
Adolf Hitler and Nazism borrowed much of Gobineau's ideology, though Gobineau himself was not antisemitic, and may even be characterised as philosemitic. Gobineau wrote positively about the Jews, including the long eulogy to them in his Essai sur l'inégalité des races, describing them as "a free, strong, and intelligent people" who succeeded despite the natural disadvantages of the Land of Israel. When the Nazis adopted Gobineau's theories, they were forced to edit his work extensively to make it conform to their views, much as they did in the case of Nietzsche.

Gobineau visited Bayreuth, the home of Richard Wagner, shortly before his death.

Writing
Though in no way espousing his beliefs, Bahá'ís know Gobineau as the person who obtained the only complete manuscript of the early history of the Bábí religious movement of Persia, written by Hajji Mirzâ Jân of Kashan, who was put to death by the Persian authorities in c.1852. The manuscript now is in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. He is also known to students of Babism for having written the first and most influential account of the movement, displaying a fairly accurate knowledge of its history in Religions et philosophies dans l'Asie centrale. An addendum to that work is a bad translation of the Bab's Bayan al-'Arabi, the first Babi text to be translated into a European language.

Gobineau wrote novels in addition to his works on race, notably Les Pléiades (1874). His study La Renaissance (1877) also was admired in his day. Both of these works strongly expressed his reactionary aristocratic politics, and his hatred of democratic mass culture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1816
 
 
Nikolai Karamzin: "History of the Russian Empire"
 
 
Karamzin Nikolai
 

Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (Russian: Никола́й Миха́йлович Карамзи́н; 12 December [O.S. 1 December] 1766 – 3 June [O.S. 22 May] 1826) was a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic. He is best remembered for his History of the Russian State, a 12-volume national history.

 
Early life
Karamzin was born in the village of Mikhailovka, in the government of Orenburg on 1 December (old style) 1766. His father was an officer in the Russian army. He was sent to Moscow to study under Swiss-German teacher Johann Matthias Schaden; he later moved to St Petersburg, where he made the acquaintance of Ivan Dmitriev, a Russian poet of some merit, and occupied himself with translating essays by foreign writers into his native language. After residing for some time in St Petersburg he went to Simbirsk, where he lived in retirement until induced to revisit Moscow. There, finding himself in the midst of the society of learned men, he again took to literary work.

In 1789, he resolved to travel, visiting Germany, France, Switzerland and England. On his return he published his Letters of a Russian Traveller, which met with great success. These letters, modelled after Irish-born Poet, Laurence Sterne's Sentimental Journey, were first printed in the Moscow Journal, which he edited, but were later collected and issued in six volumes (1797–1801).

In the same periodical, Karamzin also published translations from French and some original stories, including Poor Liza and Natalia the Boyar's Daughter (both 1792). These stories introduced Russian readers to sentimentalism, and Karamzin was hailed as "a Russian Sterne".

 
 

Portrait of Karamzin by Vasily Tropinin, 1818
  Karamzin as a writer
In 1794, Karamzin abandoned his literary journal and published a miscellany in two volumes entitled Aglaia, in which appeared, among other stories, The Island of Bornholm and Ilya Muromets, the latter a story based on the adventures of the well-known hero of many a Russian legend. From 1797 to 1799, he issued another miscellany or poetical almanac, The Aonides, in conjunction with Derzhavin and Dmitriev. In 1798 he compiled The Pantheon, a collection of pieces from the works of the most celebrated authors ancient and modern, translated into Russian. Many of his lighter productions were subsequently printed by him in a volume entitled My Trifles. Admired by Alexander Pushkin and Vladimir Nabokov, the style of his writings is elegant and flowing, modelled on the easy sentences of the French prose writers rather than the long periodical paragraphs of the old Slavonic school. In 1802 and 1803, Karamzin edited the journal the Envoy of Europe (Vestnik Evropy). It was not until after the publication of this work that he realized where his strength lay, and commenced his 12 volume History of the Russian State. In order to accomplish the task, he secluded himself for two years at Simbirsk.
When Emperor Alexander learned the cause of his retirement, Karamzin was invited to Tver, where he read to the emperor the first eight volumes of his history. He was a strong supporter of the anti-Polish policies of the Russian Empire, and expressed hope that there would be no Poland under any shape or name In 1816, he removed to St Petersburg, where he spent the happiest days of his life, enjoying the favour of Alexander I and submitting to him the sheets of his great work, which the emperor read over with him in the gardens of the palace of Tsarskoye Selo.
 
 
He did not, however, live to carry his work further than the eleventh volume, terminating it at the accession of Michael Romanov in 1613. He died on 22 May (old style) 1826, in the Tauride Palace. A monument was erected to his memory at Simbirsk in 1845.
 
 
Karamzin as a linguist and philologist
Karamzin is credited for having introduced the letter Ë/ë into the Russian alphabet some time after 1735, replacing the obsolete form that had been patterned after the extant letter Ю/ю. Ironically, the use of that form is generally deprecated, typically appearing merely as E/e in books other than dictionaries and Russian schoolchildren's primers.
 
 
Karamzin as a historian
Karamzin is well-regarded as a historian. Until the appearance of his work, little had been done in this direction in Russia. The preceding attempt of Vasily Tatishchev was merely a rough sketch, inelegant in style, and without the true spirit of criticism.
Karamzin was most industrious in accumulating materials, and the notes to his volumes are mines of interesting information. Perhaps Karamzin may justly be criticized for the false gloss and romantic air thrown over the early Russian annals; in this respect his work is reminiscent of that of Sir Walter Scott, whose writings were at that time creating a great sensation throughout Europe and probably influenced Karamzin.

Karamzin wrote openly as the panegyrist of the autocracy; indeed, his work has been styled the Epic of Despotism and considered Ivan III as the architect of Russian greatness, a glory that he had earlier (perhaps while more under the influence of Western ideas) assigned to Peter the Great.

  (The deeds of Ivan the Terrible are described with disgust, though.)

In the battle pieces, he demonstrates considerable powers of description, and the characters of many of the chief personages in the Russian annals are drawn in firm and bold lines. As a critic Karamzin was of great service to his country; in fact he may be regarded as the founder of the review and essay (in the Western style) among the Russians.

Also, Karamzin is sometimes considered a founding father of Russian conservatism. Upon appointing him a state historian, Alexander I greatly valued Karamzin's advice on political matters. His conservative views were clearly expounded in The Memoir on Old and New Russia, written for Alexander I in 1812. This scathing attack on reforms proposed by Mikhail Speransky was to become a cornerstone of official ideology of imperial Russia for years to come.

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