Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1813 Part II NEXT-1814 Part II    
 
 
     
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810-1819
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
"Luddites"
Jungfrau
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Louisiana
Perceval Spencer
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"Mtsyri"
"The Demon
"
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
NAPOLEON AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EUROPE, 1796-1815
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Warfare
Nations in Arms
(1763-1815)
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
Indiana
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Blanketeers
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Mississippi
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Selenium
Lithium
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Illinois
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
"Savannah"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Florida
Victoria
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Alabama
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London
 
 
 

Adieux de Napoléon à la Garde impériale dans la cour du Cheval-Blanc du château de Fontainebleau [Napoleon's farewell to the Imperial Guard in the White Horse courtyard of the Palace of Fontainebleau] – on 20 April 1814; by Antoine Alphonse Montfort, Palace of Versailles national museum
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1814 Part I
 
 
 
1814
 
 
1814 campaign in France
 

The 1814 campaign in northern France involved Coalition armies fighting a series of battles against Napoleon Bonaparte on French territory after his defeat at the 1813 Battle of Leipzig. At the campaign's conclusion, the Coalition captured Paris and exiled Napoleon to Elba.

 

1814 campaign in France by Meissonier
 
 
The Coalition crossed the Rhine with a three-part force, aiming to take Paris:

- The Army of Bohemia or the Grand Army, with 210,000 Austrian soldiers under Schwarzenberg, passed through Swiss territory and crossed the Rhine between Basel and Schafhausen on 20 December 1813.

- The Army of Silesia, with 75,000 Prussians and Russians under Blücher, crossed the Rhine between Rastadt and Koblenz on 1 January 1814.

- The Army of the North, with Prussian and Russian corps under the command of Wintzingerode and Bülow, and Dutch troops under Bernadotte, "quickly followed".

Napoleon attempted to counter the incursion of the Army of Silesia shortly after their crossing but arrived too late. Engaging in pursuit, he met the force at Brienne on 29 January 1814. Blücher and Schwarzenberg's forces combined three days later to engage Napoleon in the Battle of La-Rothière.
Napoleon retreated and the Coalition continued their three-part advance towards Paris. On 10 February Napoleon won a victory in the Battle of Champaubert. He thus took a central position between divisions of the Army of Silesia, winning further victories in the battles of Montmirail and Vauchamps to complete his Six Days' Campaign.

However, by this time the Grand Army was forcing a retreat of Napoleon's troops southeast of Paris. Napoleon arrived to fight the Battle of Montereau on 18 February 1814.

  Blücher led another advance towards Paris on 24 February before being forced to withdraw on 2 March under pursuit by Napoleon. Napoleon tried to march towards Laon but was confronted by Blücher's forces in the Battle of Craonne, where he lost over 6000 men. On 9 March the Battle of Laon began; Napoleon's forces were severely outnumbered in this fight, and many of his marshals were defeated in conflicts elsewhere around Paris. Nevertheless, he gained a quick victory in a skirmish near Reims on 13/14 March and began pursuing Schwarzenberg's forces. Napoleon won a very narrow victory against the Grand Army in the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, but withdrew. A letter outlining his plan to move on the Marne was intercepted by the Coalition, which prepared to attack Paris in his absence.

On 2 April, the Sénat passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur ("Emperor's Demise Act"), which declared Napoleon deposed. Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris had surrendered. When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his marshals decided to mutiny. On 4 April, Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie-Louise as regent. However, the Coalition refused to accept this. Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later and sign the Treaty of Fontainebleau. Napoleon was sent into exile on the island of Elba, from which he would escape the following year for his Hundred Days, and Louis XVIII became king. The Treaty of Paris formally ended the War of the Sixth Coalition on 30 May 1814, returning France to its 1792 boundaries in advance of the Congress of Vienna.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Six Days Campaign
 

The Six Days Campaign (10–14 February 1814) was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.

 
With an army of only 70,000, the Emperor was faced with at least half a million Allied troops advancing in several main armies commanded by Field Marshal Prince von Blücher and Field Marshal Prince zu Schwarzenberg amongst others.

The Six Days Campaign was fought from 10 February to 15 February during which time he inflicted four major defeats on Blücher's army in the Battle of Champaubert, the Battle of Montmirail, the Battle of Château-Thierry, and the Battle of Vauchamps. Napoleon managed to inflict 17,750 casualties on Blücher's force of 120,000 with his 30,000-man army.

However, the Emperor's victories were not significant enough to make any changes to the overall strategic picture, and Schwarzenberg's larger army still threatened Paris, which eventually fell in late March.

Battles of the Campaign

Battle of Champaubert (10 February 1814) - 4,000 Russian casualties and Russian General Olsufiev taken prisoner, to approximately 200 French casualties.

Battle of Montmirail (11 February 1814) – 4,000 Allied casualties, to 2,000 French casualties.

Battle of Château-Thierry (12 February 1814) – 1,250 Prussian, 1,500 Russian casualties and nine cannons lost, to approximately 600 French casualties.

Battle of Vauchamps (14 February 1814) – 7,000 Prussian casualties and 16 cannons lost, to approximately 600 French casualties.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Champaubert
 

The Battle of Champaubert (now Giffaumont-Champaubert) was the opening engagement of the Six Days Campaign. It was fought on February 10, 1814 by a French force under Napoleon I against Russians and Prussians under General Olssufiev. The battle was a French victory.

 

Battle of Champaubert
 
 
The battle of Champaubert was one of the few times during the War of the Sixth Coalition that France was able to take to the field with a considerable numerical advantage. Napoleon moved against an over-extended Prussian army in the hope of whittling it down by a series of battles. On 10 February, he caught General Olssufiev's IX Corps of five thousand Russians just south of Champaubert, a town located in the valley of the Marne, east of Paris.

French strength consisted of 30,000 hungry and tired men, including many raw conscripts, and 120 cannons. The French, nonetheless, enjoyed a six-to-one advantage. They were commanded in the field by the marshal, Auguste Marmont, under the direction of the Emperor himself.

Badly outnumbered, Olssufiev decided to fight rather than retreat. His decision was based on the mistaken hope that he would get reinforcements from Field Marshal Blücher in time to prevent a disaster. He was wrong, and Marmont crushed him.

  After five hours of fighting, the Russians were surrounded by French cavalry. They suffered three thousand killed, wounded, and captured. One of the prisoners was Olsufiev himself, who dined that very evening with Napoleon.

The French lost about three hundred men, among whom was General Joseph Lagrange, wounded.

Historian Digby Smith wrote that the French lost 600 killed and wounded out of the 13,300 infantry and 1,700 cavalry that were engaged in the action.

The Russians lost 2,400 men and nine guns out of the 3,700 soldiers and 24 guns that were present. Captured were General-Leutnant Olssufiev and General-major Poltaratzky, who led a brigade.

The second brigade under General-major Kornieloff fought its way out.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Montmirail
 

The Battle of Montmirail was a battle fought near Montmirail, France, during the Six Days Campaign of the Napoleonic Wars. It was fought on 11 February 1814 and resulted in the victory of the French under Emperor Napoleon I over the Russians under General Fabian Wilhelm von Osten-Sacken and the Prussians under General Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg.

 

Battle of Montmirail
 
 
 Osten-Sacken's and Yorck's corps each numbered about 18,000, while Napoleon’s had 10,500 (later brought up to 20,000 by arrival of reinforcements) and 36 cannons.

Striking rapidly from the south at Champaubert, Napoleon tore into the center of Blücher’s strung out column as it was pushing west to Paris in pursuit of French Marshal MacDonald. From the central position, the French then drove west with the only available troops, the Old Guard and a division of the "Marie Louise" (young conscripts from the classes of 1814 and 1815, called up in anticipation the previous year), in hopes of smashing Blucher’s leading elements (Sacken and Yorck) in isolation and with their backs to the French held bridges over the Marne. Sacken turned in response to the French maneuver, seeing so few French behind him, and sought to cut his way back to Blücher through Montmirail while Yorck advocated fleeing north through Chateau Thierry. Seeing that he could not dissuade the Russian from his aggression, Yorck marched to his aid. The Allies suffered 4,000 casualties, while the French suffered 2,000 casualties.

Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein participated in the battle as a volunteer Jäger.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
 

The Battle of Château-Thierry occurred on 12 February 1814 between a Prussian army under Marshal von Blücher and the French under Emperor Napoleon I.

 
After winning a series of impressive tactical victories (during what would become known as the Six Days Campaign), Napoleon sought to deal what he hoped would be a final blow to the Prussians and end their participation in the Sixth Coalition against him. He caught the Prussian rearguard under General Yorck on the Marne River near Château-Thierry. Sending Marshal Ney to lead the attack, the French broke into Blücher's ranks, inflicting heavy losses. Their attack was only stopped by some fortuitously placed Prussian batteries, allowing Yorck to withdraw in good order without suffering a rout. The Prussians had 1,250 casualties, the Russians 1,500, and the French 600. The French also captured nine cannons and much baggage and transport.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Vauchamps
 

The Battle of Vauchamps, the final major engagement of the Six Days Campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition, was fought on 14 February 1814. It resulted in a part of the Grande Armée under Napoleon I defeating a superior Prussian and Russian force of the "Army of Silesia", under Field-marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.

 
At the beginning of 1814, the armies of the French Empire, under the direct command of Emperor Napoleon I, were scrambling to defend Eastern France against the invading Coalition Armies. Despite fighting against vastly superior forces, Napoleon managed to score a few significant victories and, between 10 and 13 February repeatedly beat Blücher’s “Army of Silesia”. On 13 February, reeling from his successive defeats, Blücher looked to disengage from Napoleon and instead manoeuvre with a part of his forces to fall upon the isolated Corps of Marshal Auguste de Marmont, who was defending Napoleon’s rear.
 
 
The Prussian commander attacked and pushed back Marmont, late on 13 February. Nevertheless, the Emperor had read into his enemy’s intentions and directed powerful forces to support Marmont.

On the morning of 14 February, Blücher, commanding a Prussian Corps and elements of two Russian Corps, resumed his attack against Marmont. The latter continued to fall back until he was reinforced. Napoleon arrived on the battlefield with strong combined-arms forces, which allowed the French to launch a determined counterattack and drive back the leading elements of the “Army of Silesia”.

Blücher realized that he was facing the Emperor in person and decided to pull back and avoid another battle against Napoleon. In practice, Blücher's attempt to disengage proved extremely difficult to execute, as the Coalition force was by now in an advanced position, had virtually no cavalry present to cover its retreat and was facing an enemy who was ready to commit its numerous cavalry.

While the actual pitched battle was short, the French infantry, under Marshal Marmont, and most of all the cavalry, under General Emmanuel de Grouchy, launched a relentless pursuit that rode down the enemy. Retreating in slow-moving square formations in broad daylight and along some excellent cavalry terrain, the Coalition forces suffered very heavy losses, with several squares broken by the French cavalry. At nightfall, combat ceased and Blücher opted for an exhausting night march in order to take his remaining forces to safety.

  Context
On 13 February, having fought three successful actions in three days against the Prussian and Russian army at Champaubert, Montmirail and Château-Thierry, Napoleon was pursuing the defeated enemy. After his consecutive defeats, Field-marshal Blücher decided to disengage from Napoleon and move a significant force against the isolated French Army Corps of Marshal Marmont, at Étoges. Blücher knew that Marmont's Corps was weak and his plan was to destroy it and thus fall upon the rear of Napoleon's main force.

Still in pursuit of the debris of the enemy force, late on 13 February, Napoleon received reports that Marmont's Corps had been attacked and pushed out of his position at Étoges. The Emperor deduced that the enemy force before him would have to be a much reduced one and promptly decided to go to Marmont's aid. The Emperor left Château-Thierry on 14 February, towards 3 o'clock in the morning, leaving a small portion of his forces with Marshal Mortier, with orders to continue the pursuit of the enemy. Taking with him the cavalry of the Guard and Grouchy's Cavalry Reserve, Napoleon headed for the village of Vauchamps.

Meanwhile, late on 13 February, having successfully regrouped what forces he could muster at Bergères-lès-Vertus, Blücher had launched an attack against Marmont's single division, pushing him out of Étoges and advancing as planned towards Champaubert and Fromentières, in the rear of Napoleon's force. However, having read Blücher's intentions, Napoleon had given orders for a concentration of French forces in that very sector.

 
 

Battle of Vauchamps by Reville
 
 
Opposing forces
Army of Silesia

During the battle of Vauchamps on 14 February, Prussian Field-Marshal Blücher, commander of combined Prussian and Russian "Army of Silesia" could count on 20,000 to 21,500 men, from three Army Corps:

IInd (Prussian) Corps, commanded by General Kleist:
10th brigade under Pirch I,
11th brigade under Zieten,
12th brigade under Prince Augustus of Prussia,
cavalry brigade under von Hacke,
cavalry brigade under von Röder,
reserve artillery under Braun.
IXth (Russian) Corps of General Olsufiev:
9th division under Udom II.
Xth (Russian) Corps under General Kapsevitch:
8th division under Prince Urusov (or Orosov),
22nd division under Turchaninov.

  Grande Armée
Napoleon had sent orders for a major concentration of forces, which resulted in a force of some 25,000 men being assembled in this sector. However, of these men, only 19,000 soldiers only got to the battlefield in time, with no more than 10,000 men engaged in the actual fighting:

VI Corps, commanded by Marshal of the Empire Auguste de Marmont:

3rd division under Lagrange
8th division under Ricard
Reinforcements temporarily attached: 7th division under Leval

Cavalry, commanded by General Emmanuel de Grouchy:
division Saint-Germain,
division Doumerc,
division Bordesoulle.

 
 

Guard cavalry, commanded by General Étienne de Nansouty:

2nd division under Lefebvre-Desnouettes,
3rd division under Laferrière-Levesque.
Guard artillery, commanded by General Antoine Drouot.

Guard infantry, under Marshal, Prince of the Moskowa Michel Ney (Reinforcements not engaged):

1st (Old Guard) division under Friant,
2nd (Young Guard) division under Curial.

 

French cuirassiers (troopers of the 3rd regiment) during a charge. General of Division Marquis de Grouchy led his heavy cavalry brilliantly at Vauchamps, breaking and routing a number of enemy infantry squares.
 
 
Battle
Having begun to push back the feeble French forces from Marmont's VI's Corps the day before, Blücher occupied Champaubert early on 14 February, sending his vanguard forward, as far as the village of Fromentières and then Vauchamps. Marmont, commanding only the Lagrange division and 800 men from the Ricard division, had cautiously pulled his men back towards Montmirail, where he began to receive reinforcements. Towards 9 o'clock in the morning, Blücher set Zieten's brigade and some cavalry in motion from Vauchamps towards Montmirail. To their surprise, Marmont's men didn't give ground this time and vigorously counterattacked, pushing Zieten's advance guard back into the village of Vauchamps. The accompanying Prussian cavalry was dispersed by a violent French cannonade. With now both brigades of Ricard's division available, Marmont launched these men against the Prussian position at Vauchamps, with the 1st brigade on his right, advancing under the cover of the Beaumont forest, south of the Montmirail-Vauchamps road and the 2nd brigade on his left, north of the road, advancing frontally towards the position. Marmont also had with him his own escort cavalry squadron and four élite Imperial Guard duty squadrons from the Emperor's own escort, under general Lion. Marmont's leftmost brigade entered Vauchamps, but, with the village heavily invested with Zieten's Prussian defenders, the Frenchmen were soon repulsed, with the enemy in pursuit. Marshal Marmont then launched his five squadrons to the rescue and the cavalry promptly forced the Prussians back to the village, with one of their battalions taken prisoner, after taking refuge in an isolated farm.

Zieten then decided to pull back his forces towards the village of Fromentières. There, Zieten was joined by Generals Kleist and Kapsevitch, who, having heard the sound of the guns, had begun to move their respective Army Corps in that direction, coming from Champaubert. The French also moved forward, with Marmont's two divisions (Lagrange and Ricard) in pursuit of Zieten, along the road to Fromentières. Marmont was now supported on his left by General Grouchy, who had just arrived on the field of battle with the divisions of Saint-Germain and Doumerc, moving past the village of Janvilliers, in order to cut off Zieten's retreat. Further French reinforcements were now available, this time on Marmont's righ: the division of Leval, who had been steadily moving up the valley of the Petit Morin river, in a bid to outflank the Prussians. With the French Imperial Guard artillery now also deployed and firing at them, Zieten's Prussians drew back in good order, formed in squares to fend off Grouchy's cavalry. Towards 2 o'clock in the afternoon, after assessing the situation, Blücher realised that he was facing Napoleon himself and thus decided to immediately withdraw. He ordered all of his forces to retreat through Champaubert and directed a part of his artillery to safety, towards Étoges.

  Pursuit
With the Coalition forces now in full retreat, Marmont received orders to aggressively pursue the enemy, knowing that he could count on his two infantry divisions, plus that of Leval, as well as on the support of General Drouot's Guard artillery, on Nansouty's Guard cavalry on his right and on Grouchy's two cavalry divisions on his left. Following Marmont at a short distance were further reinforcements, two Guard infantry divisions (Friant and Curial) under the command of Marshal Ney and with them was Napoleon himself. Napoleon was followed by an additional "Young Guard" division, under General Meunier, which the Emperor had taken with him when he left Château-Thierry early that morning.

The French cavalry had been hindered in its movements by the broken terrain and thus far unable to really bother Zieten's infantry squares. Consequently, Blücher was able to lead an exemplary retreat up to Fromentières and Janvilliers. However, once past these villages, the terrain became flat and even, proper for cavalry action, and now, with the increasingly aggressive action of the enemy cavalry against his flank and rear, Zieten and his brigade became increasingly isolated. Grouchy, with the divisions of Doumerc and Saint-Germain was now boldly menacing Zieten's right, while on his left, the Prussian general saw Nansouty's Guard cavalry (Laferrière-Levesque's division, plus the four service squadrons, under Lefebvre-Desnouettes). Zieten's brigade was finally cut off from the rest of the army and charged violently by Grouchy's cuirassiers, who broke the infantry squares and took no less than 2,000 prisoners, with the rest of the brigade routed.

Abandoning his position at Fromentières, where Marmont's infantry had just begun to irrupt, Blücher ordered the continuation of the retreat towards Champaubert and Étoges, with Kleist's Corps on the left, south of the road and Kapsevitch's Corps on the right, north of the road. Again taking advantage from the flat terrain, Grouchy was able to advance rapidly and fall onto the rear of the Coalition infantry squares, which were now slowly withdrawing in echelon and efficiently using the terrain to take shelter from the artillery bombardment. With night approaching and their retreat towards Étoges now barred by enemy cavalry, the Prussian squares began to lose cohesion. Spotting this weakness, Grouchy, who had been reinforced by Bordesoulle's division, energetically launched his three divisions against the Coalition squares, dispersing a number of them, with these men disorderly fleeing to take refuge in the Étoges forest. The old Blücher, who had been bravely exposing himself to great danger, in order to boost the morale his men, was almost taken prisoner, together with his Chief of Staff, Gneisenau, Generals Kleist, Kapsevitch and Prince Augustus of Prussia.

 
 
Only just escaping capture, Blücher crossed the forest of Vertus and took up positions at Étoges with Prince Urusov's division, which had been left there in reserve. Russian General Udom, with 1,800 men and 15 cannon, was instructed to cover the position, by occupying the park at Étoges. Udom's men were exhausted after the long retreat and fighting and, seeing that night had fallen, thought themselves in safety. However, Doumerc's cuirassiers, formed unseen in the night, surprised these men and a single charge was enough to send the panicked men fleeing. Prince Urusov, 600 men and eight artillery pieces were captured during this action, with the French sailors' regiment from Lagrange's division subsequently entering the village of Étoges. Blücher abandoned this position too and made a hasty retreat towards Vertus and Bergères. He then opted for a speedy night march and the next day he managed to bring his remaining men to Châlons, where he was joined by the Corps of York and Sacken.
 
 
Result
The battle was actually no more than a very long cavalry pursuit and was a very costly defeat for Blücher's "Army of Silesia", which lost as much as 10,000 men, during this day. French author Jean-Pierre Mir states that the Prussian Corps of Kleist had 3,500 men out of action (killed, wounded and missing), as well as 2,000 prisoners.

According to this author, the Russian Corps had around 3,500 men, killed, wounded or missing and also lost 15 cannons and 10 flags. Historian Alain Pigeard places overall losses of the Army of Silesia throughout this day between 9,000 and 10,000 men but the detail of these losses seems to suggest lighter casualties.

Pigeard speaks of only 1,250 men killed, wounded or missing and 2,000 prisoners for the Prussians, and of 2,000 men lost for the Russians.
  Since Pigeard asserts that these casualties occurred during the pursuit, it is possible that these figures do not take into account the casualties incurred during the initial actions of this battle (one battalion of Zieten's brigade captured, plus the 2,000 prisoners taken during Grouchy's and Nansouty's joint action against Zieten). According to Pigeard, the French registered very light casualties of around 600 men.

Military Historian Jacques Garnier, analysing the battle in Jean Tulard's Dictionnaire Napoléon, notes that only the muddy, sodden ground, hampering an efficient deployment of the French artillery and infantry, prevented a much more emphatic victory. He also notes that after Vauchamps, Napoleon was able to safely turn south and fall upon the "Army of Bohemia", commanded by Prince of Schwarzenberg.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Orthez
 

The Battle of Orthez (February 27, 1814) saw the Anglo-Portuguese Army under Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington defeat a French army led by Marshal Nicolas Soult in southern France near the end of the Peninsular War.

 
Preliminaries
After failing to defeat Wellington in the Battle of the Nive, Soult tried to confine the Anglo-Allied army in the extreme southwest corner of France. On the north side of the allied-occupied area, the French marshal kept a strong garrison in the fortress of Bayonne and held the line of the Adour River to Port-de-Lanne with three divisions. On the east side, Soult strung out four divisions behind the Joyeuse River, with his cavalry forming a cordon as far south as the fortress of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port in the Pyrenees.

From December 1813 through January 1814, heavy rains brought operations to a standstill. Finally, on February 14, Wellington launched his offensive. On the right flank, Lieutenant General Rowland Hill quickly breached the line of the Joyeuse. The following day, Hill's forces crossed the Bidouze River after winning the Battle of Garris. By now, Wellington's left flank corps, under William Beresford was in motion. Sending the division of Louis Abbé to help defend Bayonne, Soult assembled his remaining six divisions and his reserve behind the Gave d'Oloron River. The weather broke again on February 18, causing another pause in operations.

On February 24, John Hope's corps crossed the Adour to isolate the city of Bayonne on the Bay of Biscay. That day, Wellington quickly manoeuvred the French army out of its position on the Gave d'Oloron. Soult pulled back to Orthez on the Gave de Pau River.

  Dispositions
At Orthez, the Gave de Pau runs from southeast to the northwest. About two miles north of the Gave de Pau, there is a ridge running roughly parallel to the stream.

Soult held Orthez with the 5,100 men of Jean Harispe's 8th Division. The 2,700 cavalry under his brother, Pierre Soult watched the river line upstream (east) from the town. Holding the ridge, from west to east were Eloi Taupin's 4th (5,500), Claude Rouget's 5th (3,700), Jean Darmagnac's 2nd (5,000), Maximilien Foy's 1st (3,800) and Eugene-Casimir Villatte's 6th (4,600) Divisions. The 1st Division was north of Orthez. Paris's brigade from the 8th Division was attached to Taupin's command. Jean-Pierre Travot's conscripts (7,300) waited in reserve.

Honoré Reille commanded the units under Taupin, Paris and Rouget on the right flank. Jean Baptiste Drouet d'Erlon led D'Armagnac and Foy in the centre. Bertrand Clausel supervised Harispe and Villatte on the left flank. Soult had 36,000 men and 48 artillery pieces.

William Beresford's Corps had already crossed to the north side of the Gave de Pau. Wellington planned to send Lowry Cole's 4th (6,000) and George Townshend Walker's 7th (5,600) Divisions to attack the western end of the ridge, under the direction of Beresford. Thomas Picton would lead his own 3rd (6,600) and Henry Clinton's 6th (5,600) Divisions in pinning the French centre. Charles Alten's Light Division (3,500) stayed in reserve.

 
 
Wellington ordered Rowland Hill to lead William Stewart's 2nd (7,800) and Francisco Le Cor's Portuguese (4,500) Divisions across the Gave de Pau above Orthez and turn the French left.

Wellington also had three cavalry brigades under the overall direction of Stapleton Cotton. There were 1,600 mounted men under Lord Edward Somerset (7th, 10th and 15th Hussars), 1,000 horsemen led by Hussey Vivian (18th and 1st KGL Hussars) and 800 troopers under Henry Fane (13th and 14th Light Dragoons). All told, Wellington commanded 44,000 men, including 17,600 Portuguese, and 54 cannons.

 
 

The Final Charge of the British Cavalry at the Battle of Orthez by Denis Dighton
 
 
Battle
To open the battle, Beresford's divisions attacked Taupin's and Paris's men near the church and village of St-Boes. They captured the church but were unable to force their way into St-Boes. The French right-wing commander, Reille launched a counterattack that drove the British out of the church as well.

Watching this reverse from his command post near an ancient Roman camp, Wellington changed his plans. His holding attack with the 3rd and 6th Division would be converted into a head on assault. Meanwhile, he committed the Light Division between Beresford's effort against the French right and Picton's attack against the French center. Led by the 1/52nd Foot, the Light Division advanced up the narrow spur from the Roman camp. This move drove a wedge between Reille's right wing and D'Erlon's two center divisions. Hill's men crossed the river and started to envelop the French left. Picton's force fought his way onto the ridge in the centre.

  At his command post, Wellington was unhorsed and badly bruised when a canister shot hit his sword hilt. Soult, seeing his defences compromised, ordered a retreat. This was conducted in good order at first, though menaced by the British cavalry. With the terrain too rough for most mounted operations, only the 7th Hussars made an effective charge, capturing 200 Frenchmen. That evening, the French escaped across the Luy de Béarn River at Sault-de-Navailles in some disorder, blowing up the bridge behind them.

Results
Soult lost 6 cannons and 3,985 men including 542 killed, 2,077 wounded and 1,366 prisoners. Foy was wounded. The Anglo-Portuguese lost 367 killed, 1,727 wounded and 80 captured for a total of 2,174. Walker was wounded and sent back to England. Soult continued his retreat. The next battle would be fought at Toulouse.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Treaty of Chaumont
 

The Treaty of Chaumont (March 1, 1814) was a rejected cease-fire offered by the Allies of the Sixth Coalition to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814.

 
Napoleon rejected it and it never took effect. However, the key terms reaffirmed decisions that had been made already.

These decisions were again ratified and put into effect by the Congress of Vienna of 1814–1815. The terms were largely written by Lord Castlereagh, the British foreign minister, who offered cash subsidies to keep the other armies in the field against Napoleon.

Key terms included the establishment of a confederated Germany, the division into independent states, the restoration of the Bourbon kings of Spain, and the enlargement of Holland to include what in 1830 became modern Belgium.
The treaty of Chaumont became the cornerstone of the European Alliance which formed the balance of power for decades.
  Drafting the treaty
Following discussions in late February 1814, representatives of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain reconvened a meeting at Chaumont, Haute-Marne on 1 March 1814. The resulting Treaty of Chaumont was signed on 9 or 19 March 1814, (although dated 1 March), by Emperor Alexander I, Emperor Francis II (with Metternich), King Frederick William III, and British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh. The Treaty called for Napoleon to give up all conquests, thus reverting France back to her 1791 (Pre-French Revolutionary Wars) borders, in exchange for a cease-fire. If Napoleon rejected the treaty, the Allies pledged to continue the war. The following day Napoleon rejected the treaty, ending his last chance of a negotiated settlement.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
 

The Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (20–21 March 1814) was Napoleon’s penultimate battle before his abdication and exile to Elba (the last was the Battle of Saint-Dizier). Encountering Field Marshal Schwarzenberg's larger Austrian force, Napoleon Bonaparte withdrew his French army after confused fighting.

 
Background
Faced with converging Allied Armies, Napoleon decided to attack Field Marshal Schwarzenberg's Austrian troops before attacking General Blücher’s lines of communications on the upper Marne.
 
 

Map of the battle
 
 
Battle
Early on 20 March Napoleon set out for Arcis-sur-Aube (believed to be weakly held by the Austrians) in order to break out towards the Marne. By 11:00 a.m. on 20 March, Marshal Ney and General Sébastiani with 20,000 troops had forced Field Marshal Wrede’s 43,000 troops out of the Town of Arcis in bitter fighting. By 1:00 p.m. Napoleon arrived along the northern bank of the Aube River and crossed the bridge. A bitter cavalry action developed in the late afternoon and into the night. On one occasion the Emperor, protected only by a single company of the Polish 1st Light Cavalry Regiment of the Imperial Guard barely avoided being taken prisoner. During the night Schwarzenberg brought up and deployed 80,000 troops to face the French.
  Napoleon received reinforcements during the night, including units of the Imperial Guard, two cavalry formations, and one division from VIIth Corps commanded by Marshal Oudinot, giving 28,000 total troops. Schwarzenberg, suspecting a trap and yet unaware of his numerical advantage, did not attack until 3:00 p.m. on 21 March, by which time Napoleon realized he was not facing a small Allied force, broke contact with the enemy and ordered most French troops to recross the Aube River. A French rear guard commanded by Marshal Oudinot, bitterly held off the Austrians until 6:00 p.m., before falling back in good order and blowing the bridge over the Aube River behind them. The Austrians made no effort to pursue the retreating French, overnight the French were able to link up near Ormes with other French forces.
 
 
Conclusion
The battle cost the French 3,000 casualties and the Austrians 4,000 casualties.[5] On 25 March the Allies defeated Marshal Marmont and Marshal Mortier at the Battle of Fère-Champenoise, and three days later linked up with Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at Meaux. The Allies ignored Napoleon’s attempts to attack their lines of communications, and marched on Paris, which the Allies occupied on 31 March.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Paris
 

The Battle of Paris was fought on March 30–31, 1814 between the Sixth Coalition - consisting of Russia, Austria, and Prussia - and the French Empire. After a day of fighting in the suburbs of Paris, the French surrendered on March 31, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition and forcing Emperor Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile.

 

Battle of Paris 1814
 
 
Background
In 1813, Napoleon was retreating from his failed invasion of Russia. Coalition armies were joined together and defeated the French at the Battle of Leipzig. Austrian emperor Francis I was interested in seeking peace with the French, but both Tsar Alexander I of Russia and King Frederick William III of Prussia wished to invade France. Just as Napoleon had entered Moscow a year earlier, Alexander wished to enter Paris. Until this battle no foreign army had entered Paris in nearly 400 years.
 
 

Defense of Clichy during the battle of Paris
 
 
Forces
The Austrian, Prussian and Russian armies were joined together and put under the command of Field Marshal Count Barclay de Tolly who would also be responsible for the taking of the city, but the driving force behind the army was the Tsar of Russia and the King of Prussia, moving with the army. The Coalition army totaled about 150,000 troops. Napoleon had left his brother Joseph Bonaparte in defense of Paris with about 20,000 regular troops under Marshal Auguste Marmont along with an additional 6,000 National Guards and a small force of the Imperial Guard under Marshals Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey and Édouard Mortier.
 
 

The Russian army enters Paris in 1814.
 
 
Battle
The Coalition army arrived outside Paris in late March. Nearing the city, Russian troops broke rank and ran forward to get their first glimpse of Paris. Camping outside the city on the 29th, the Coalition forces were to assault next morning. Early in the morning of March 30 the Coalition attack began when the Russians attacked and drove back the Young Guard near Romainville in the center of the French lines. A few hours later the Prussians, under Blücher, attacked north of the city and carried the French position around Aubervilliers, but did not press their attack.

The Württemberg troops seized the positions at Saint-Maur to the southwest. The Russians attempted to press their attack but became caught up by trenches and artillery before falling back before a counterattack of the Imperial Guard. The Imperial Guard continued to hold back the Russians in the center until the Prussian forces appeared to their rear.

The Russian forces then assailed the Montmartre Heights, where Joseph's headquarters had been at the beginning of the battle. Control of the heights was severely contested, and Joseph fled the city. Marmont contacted the Coalition and reached a secret agreement with them. Shortly afterwards, he marched his soldiers to a position, where they were quickly surrounded by Coalition troops; Marmont then surrendered, as had been agreed.

  Surrender
Alexander sent an envoy to meet with the French to hasten the surrender. He offered generous terms to the French and, although willing to avenge Moscow more than a year earlier, declared himself to be bringing peace to France rather than its destruction.

On March 31 Talleyrand gave the key of the city to the Tsar. Later that day the Coalition armies entered the city with the Tsar at the head of the army followed by the King of Prussia and Prince Schwarzenberg.

On April 2, the Senate passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur, which declared Napoleon deposed.

Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he heard that Paris had surrendered. Outraged, he wanted to march on the capital, but his marshals would not fight for him and repeatedly urged him to surrender. He abdicated in favour of his son on 4 April.

The Allies rejected this out of hand, forcing Napoleon to abdicate unconditionally on April 6. The terms of his abdication, which included his exile to the Isle of Elba, were settled in the Treaty of Fontainebleau on April 11.

A reluctant Napoleon ratified it two days later. The War of the Sixth Coalition was over.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Battle of Toulouse
 

The Battle of Toulouse (10 April 1814) was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. Having pushed the demoralised and disintegrating French Imperial armies out of Spain in a difficult campaign the previous autumn, the Allied British-Portuguese and Spanish army under the Marquess of Wellington pursued the war into southern France in the spring of 1814.

 
Toulouse, the regional capital, proved stoutly defended by Marshal Soult. One British and two Spanish divisions were badly mauled in bloody fighting on 10 April, with Allied losses exceeding French casualties by 1,400. As Wellington pulled back to reorganize his shattered units, Soult held the city for an additional day before orchestrating an escape from the town with his entire army.

Wellington's entry on the morning of 12 April was acclaimed by a great number of French Royalists, validating Soult's earlier fears of potential fifth column elements within the city. That afternoon, the official word of Napoleon's abdication and the end of the war reached Wellington. Soult agreed to an armistice on 17 April.

 
 
Prelude
Following their successful invasion of France earlier in the year, an allied army of the Sixth Coalition, composed of British, Portuguese and Spanish troops under the supreme command of the Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington, laid siege to the city of Toulouse, one of the few remaining urban centres in France still loyal to Napoleon.

The city of Toulouse was garrisoned by around 42,000 French troops, under the command of Marshal Soult, Duke of Dalmatia. Imperial forces across southern France were greatly demoralised by fighting the Anglo-Allied forces in their own country, and were further shaken by news of repeated Coalition victories in northern and eastern France. Allied campaigning had gradually pushed French forces out of Spain during 1813, after endless guerrilla wars which had resulted in more than 300,000 French casualties between 1808 and late 1813. The French suffered greater losses in manpower in southern France, as Napoleon diverted many southern forces to bolster his troops facing the Coalition armies invading northern and eastern France after an allied victory at Leipzig in October, 1813.

With the surrender, French resistance in the south collapsed and the defeated Napoleon, who had already surrendered, was exiled to the island of Elba. The city was briefly placed under Coalition control during the summer of 1814, with the withdrawal of allied troops in September 1814.

  Preliminary operations

Orthez

After Soult's defeat by Wellington at the Battle of Orthez in late February 1814, the French Marshal retreated north behind the Adour River to Saint-Sever.

Soult was on the horns of a dilemma. He could defend Bordeaux to the northwest or Toulouse to the east, but he could not protect both. The French army would have difficulty obtaining food near Bordeaux and it would place the Garonne River in their rear. Therefore, Soult elected to base himself on Toulouse.

Bordeaux
With Soult moving east, Wellington sent Beresford and two divisions to seize Bordeaux, the third-largest city of France. To make up for this subtraction of strength, the British general called up 8000 Spanish infantry and the British heavy cavalry as reinforcements.

Fearful that the Spanish would plunder the French countryside and incite a guerrilla war, Wellington put his allies on the British payroll and supply system. Meanwhile, the British-Portuguese-Spanish army pushed the French out of Aire-sur-l'Adour on 2 March in a skirmish.

Soult pulled back to Plaisance and Maubourget, facing west. A ten day lull followed, during which time Wellington's reinforcements began to arrive.

 
 
Allied Offensive
On 12 March, Beresford captured Bordeaux without resistance. Leaving the 7th Division as a garrison, he rushed back to join Wellington with the 4th Division. Meanwhile, on 17–18 March, in a raid with 100 French cavalrymen, Captain Dauma circled the Allied army's south flank and attacked Saint-Sever where he captured 100 men. At the same time, Wellington launched his offensive, hoping to ensnare Soult's army. By rapidly marching east to Saint-Gaudens and northeast to Toulouse, the French avoided the British flanking columns. Reaching Toulouse, Soult placed his soldiers behind the city's walls and fortifications.
 
 

Map of the battle
 
 
Battle

Forces

The Toulouse 1814 Order of Battle lists the Allied and French units and organisations that were present at the battle.

Geography
Toulouse lies on the Garonne, which runs into the city from the southwest, then turns and exits to the northwest. Just east of the Garonne, the smaller Ers River runs past the city from the southeast to the northeast, forming a narrow corridor.

To attack the city from the north, Wellington's main force would have to cross to the east bank of the Garonne, then drive southeast down the corridor between the two rivers.

Initial moves
On 4 April, Wellington's engineers threw a pontoon bridge across the flooding Garonne north of the French city. After 19,000 Anglo-Allies crossed, the bridge gave way, trapping the men for three days. But Soult failed to take advantage of his opportunity to defeat Wellington's army in detail.

On 8 April, in a fine charge, the British 18th Hussars seized the bridge at Croix d'Orade on the Hers. Meanwhile, on 7 April at midnight, the official couriers left Paris with news that Napoleon had abdicated and that the war was over.

French defences
West of the Garonne lies the fortified suburb of St-Cyprien. To the north, Soult's outer defence line rested on the Languedoc Canal. Three bridges crossed the canal, at Pont Jumeaux to the northwest, Pont des Minimes to the north and Pont de Matablau to the northeast. Each crossing was commanded by a powerful redoubt.

The Heights of Calvinet (Mont Rave) rose east of the city and west of the Hers River. The Heights were crowned with several redoubts.

Soult held St-Cyprien with one division and the canal line with another division. Jean-Pierre Travot's conscripts lined the city walls. Jean Darmagnac's division stood between the Heights and the canal.

The divisions of Jean Isidore Harispe and Eugene-Casimir Villatte defended the Heights with Eloi Taupin's division in reserve. Pierre Soult's cavalry screened to the east and south. Note that the battlefield is now within the modern city of Toulouse.

  British plan
Wellington began his attack on Easter Sunday, 10 April. Hoping to divert some of Soult's forces, the British general sent Hill with the 12,600 men of the 2nd Division and Portuguese Division to attack St-Cyprien. The rest of the Anglo-Allied army (36,000) operated east of the Garonne and north of the city. The 3rd Division faced the northwest canal line with the Light Division to the east. Wellington planned to make his major effort against the Heights of Calvinet. Beresford would take the 4th and 6th Divisions and the Hussar brigades down the west bank of the Hers. Once he reached a point east of the city, Beresford would veer west and attack the Heights with the Hussars protecting his south flank. At the same time, Manuel Freire would assault the northern end of the Heights with his two Spanish divisions. Two heavy dragoon brigades waited in reserve.

Initial attacks
To the west, Hill drove in the French outposts but the fighting was not serious. His forces suffered about 80 casualties. Exceeding his orders, Thomas Picton mounted a full scale attack on the Pont Jumeaux with his 3rd Division and was repulsed with 400 casualties. Meanwhile, Beresford's men encountered muddy fields and fell behind schedule. Unable to move his artillery, he ordered the cannons to take a position near the northern end of the Heights and open fire. Freire, thinking this was the signal for the combined attack, sent his men to assault the Heights. The Spanish infantry forged uphill and gained a momentary foothold in a road cut, but they were counterattacked by a cloud of French skirmishers and soon sent fleeing. Covered by the Light Division, the Spanish foot soldiers rallied, then attacked and were defeated a second time.

Taking the heights
At last, Beresford's two Anglo-Portuguese divisions reached their jumping off positions, with the 6th Division leading. A French division counterattacked, but was easily driven uphill, and the Allied divisions began to advance up the slope. They fought their way to the top of the Heights despite bitter resistance, then paused to drag up some cannon. Swinging to the north, they began rolling up the French defences. Beresford's men captured two redoubts, lost them to a counterattack and finally seized them again after bringing the 4th Division forward. The heights being lost, Soult withdrew his soldiers behind the city's fortifications.

Soult held Toulouse during the day of 11 April but decided to pull out of the city upon detecting allied cavalry moving up the Toulouse-Carcassonne road. At 9 pm that evening, the French withdrew out of Toulouse by the Carcassonne road.

 
 
Armistice
On the morning of 12 April a delegation of city officials handed over the city to the Allied army. That afternoon, Wellington got news via Bordeaux from Frederick Ponsonby of Napoleon's abdication. A few hours later, this was confirmed when the official couriers arrived from Paris. On 17 April, Soult finally agreed to an armistice. In the meantime, there was one more pointless bloodletting at the Battle of Bayonne, caused by the French commander Thouvenot's refusal to accept that the war was lost with the abdication of Napoleon.
 
 

British infantry exchanging fire with the French during the battle of Toulouse in 1814.
Print after Henri Dupray.
 
 
Casualties
The Allied army suffered 4,558 casualties, including 1,900 from Freire's divisions and 1,500 from the 6th Division. Brigade commanders Denis Pack, James Douglas, and Thomas Brisbane were wounded. French casualties numbered 231 officers and 3,005 men, including Taupin killed.

Commentary
Both British and French historians claimed victory for their respective nations. The French claimed victory because Wellington failed to accomplish his aims of entrapping the French army, whilst Soult never intended to hold this position but to merely dispute it, intending to unite with Marshal Suchet before attacking Wellington's army: the taking of Toulouse amounted to very little, whilst the French lost one of their positions but their army was not defeated, causing Wellington to waste supplies and suffer heavy casualties. The British claimed victory because Toulouse ended up in their hands and the French were forced to give up ground.

However, the battle had only just begun when it was abruptly cut short by the news of Napoleon's abdication. Soult recognised that because the war had ended there was no point in fighting. He and Wellington agreed on a ceasefire and the allies occupied Toulouse.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Treaty of Fontainebleau
 

The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814, between Napoleon I and representatives from the Austrian Empire, Russia, and Prussia. The treaty was signed at Paris on 11 April, by the plenipotentiaries of both sides, and ratified by Napoleon on 13 April. With this treaty, the allies ended Napoleon's rule as emperor of France and sent him into exile on Elba.

 
Prelude
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814), a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and a number of German states, drove Napoleon out of Germany in 1813. In 1814, while the United Kingdom, Spain and Portugal invaded France across the Pyrenees, the Russians, Austrians and their allies invaded France across the Rhine and, after the Battle of Paris, entered into negotiations with members of the French government for the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte.
 
 


Napoleon's abdication

 

On 31 March, the Coalition powers issued a declaration to the French nation:

The allied powers having occupied Paris, they are ready to receive the declaration of the French nation. They declare, that if it was indispensable that the conditions of peace should contain stronger guarantees when it was necessary to enchain the ambition of Napoleon, they would become more favourable when, by a return to a wiser government, France itself offers the assurance of repose. The allied sovereigns declare, in consequence, that they will no longer treat with Napoleon nor with any of his family; that they respect the integrity of old France, as it existed under its legitimate kings—they may even go further, for they always profess the principle, that for the happiness of Europe it is necessary that France should be great and powerful; that they recognise and will guarantee such a constitution as the French nation may give itself. They invite, consequently, the senate to appoint a provisional government, which may provide for the necessities of administration, and establish such a constitution as may be fitting for the French people. The intentions which I have just expressed are common to me with all the allied powers.

Alexander, Paris, 31st March 1814 : Three P.M.

On 1 April, the Russian Emperor Alexander I addressed the French Senate in person and laid out similar terms as were in the previous day's declaration, and as a gesture of good will announced that 150,000 French prisoners of war who had been held by the Russians since the French invasion of Russia two years earlier (in 1812), would be released immediately. The next day the French Senate agreed to the Coalition's terms and passed a resolution deposing Napoleon. They also passed a decree dated 5 April, justifying their actions, and ending:

...the senate declares and decrees as follows :—1. Napoleon Buonaparte is cast down from the throne, and the right of succession in his family is abolished. 2. The French people and army are absolved from their oath of fidelity to him. 3. The present decree shall be transmitted to the departments and armies, and proclaimed immediately in all the quarters of the capital."

—Moniteur, 5th April 1814

During 3 April 1814, word reached Napoleon who was at the Palace of Fontainebleau that the French Senate had dethroned him. As the Coalition forces had made public their position that their quarrel was with Napoleon and not the French people, Napoleon called their bluff and abdicated in favour of his son, with the Empress Marie-Louise as regent.

Three plenipotentiaries took this conditional abdication to the Coalition sovereigns:

The allied powers having proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon is the sole obstacle to the re-establishment of peace in Europe, — the Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he is ready to descend from the throne, to quit France, and even life itself, for the good of the country, which is inseparable from the rights of his son, of the regency of the Empress, and of the maintenance of the laws of the empire.

—Napoleon: Fontainebleau, 4 April 1814


While the plenipotentiaries were travelling to deliver their message, Napoleon heard that Auguste Marmont had placed his corps in a hopeless position and that their surrender was inevitable. The Coalition sovereigns were in no mood to compromise and rejected Napoleon's offer:

A regency with the Empress and her son, sounds well, I admit; but Napoleon remains – there is the difficulty. In vain will he promise to remain quiet in the retreat which will be assigned to him. You know even better than I his devouring activity, his ambition. Some fine morning he will put himself at the head of the regency, or in its place: then the war will recommence, and all Europe will be on fire. The very dread of such an occurrence will oblige the Allies to keep their armies on foot, and thus frustrate all their intentions in making peace.

—Emperor Alexander


With the rejection of his conditional abdication, and with no military option left to him, Napoleon bowed to the inevitable:

The allied powers having declared that the Emperor Napoleon is the sole obstacle to the re-establishment of a general peace in Europe, the Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs the throne of France and Italy; and that there is no personal sacrifice, not even that of life itself, which he is not willing to make for the interests of France."

—Napoleon: Fontainebleau, 6 April 1814

 
Over the next few days with his reign over France now at an end, the formal treaty was negotiated and signed by the plenipotentiaries in Paris on 11 April, and ratified by Napoleon on 13 April.
 
 

"The Rise and Fall of Napoleon", cartoon drawn by Johann Michael Voltz following the Treaty of Fontainebleau – on the lower side is seen the map of Elba.
 
 
Terms
The agreement contained a total of twenty-one articles. Based on the most significant terms of the accord, Napoleon was stripped of his powers as ruler of the French Empire, but both Napoleon and Marie-Louise of Austria were permitted to preserve their respective titles as emperor and empress. Moreover, all of Napoleon's successors and family members were prohibited from attaining power in France.

The treaty also established the island of Elba as a separate principality to be ruled by Napoleon. Elba's sovereignty and flag were guaranteed recognition by foreign powers in the accord, but only France was allowed to assimilate the island.

In another tenet of the agreement, the Duchy of Parma, the Duchy of Placentia, and the Duchy of Guastalla were ceded to Empress Marie-Louise. Moreover, a direct male descendant of Empress Marie-Louise would be known as the Prince of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla. In other parts of the treaty, Empress Josephine's annual income was reduced to 1,000,000 francs and Napoleon had to surrender all of his estates in France to the French crown, and submit all crown jewels to France. He was permitted to take with him 400 men to serve as his personal guard.

The signatories were Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza, Marshal MacDonald, Duke of Tarentum, Marshal Ney, Duke of Elchingen, Prince Metternich, Count Nesselrode, and Baron Hardenberg.

  Britain's position
The British position was that the French nation was in a state of rebellion and that Napoleon Bonaparte was a usurper. Lord Castlereagh explained that he would not sign on behalf of the king of the United Kingdom because to do so would recognise the legitimacy of Napoleon as emperor of the French and that to exile him to an island over which he had sovereignty, that was only a short distance from France and Italy, both of which had strong Jacobin factions, could easily lead to further conflict.

Theft
In 2005, two Americans, former history professor John William Rooney (age 74) and Marshall Lawrence Pierce (age 44), were charged by a French court for stealing a copy of the Treaty of Fontainebleau from the French National Archives between 1974 and 1988. The theft came to light in 1996 when a curator of the French National Archives discovered that Pierce had put the document up for sale at Sotheby's.
Rooney and Pierce pleaded guilty in the United States and were fined (a $1,000 fine for Rooney and a $10,000 fine for Pierce). However, they were not extradited to France to stand trial there. The copy of the treaty, along with a number of other documents (including letters from King Louis XVIII of France) that were checked out from the French National Archives by Rooney and Pierce were returned to France by the U.S. in 2002.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Treaty of Paris
 

The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 May between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies. It established peace between France and the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, who in March had defined their common war aim in Chaumont, and was also signed by Portugal and Sweden. Spain signed later in July. Peace talks had started on 9 May between Talleyrand, who negotiated for the exiled Bourbon king Louis XVIII of France, and the allies of Chaumont, who had agreed to reduce France to her 1792 borders and restore the independence of her neighbors after Napoleon Bonaparte's defeat. The allied parties did not sign a common document, but instead concluded separate treaties with France allowing for specific amendments.

 

A map of the Eastern boundary of France to illustrate Article III in The First Peace of Paris 30th May 1814.
 
 
In addition to the cessation of hostilities, the treaty provided a rough draft of a final settlement, which according to article 32 was to be concluded within the next two months at a congress involving all belligerents of the Napoleonic Wars. This provision resulted in the Congress of Vienna, held between September 1814 and June 1815. The preliminary conditions already agreed on in Paris were moderate for France to not disturb the re-enthronement of the returned Bourbon king: France's borders of 1 June 1792 were confirmed, and in addition, she was allowed to retain Saarbrücken, Saarlouis, Landau, the County of Montbéliard, part of Savoy with Annecy and Chambéry, also Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin as well as artifacts acquired during the war, while on the other hand she had to cede several colonies.

To distinguish this agreement from a second treaty of Paris, concluded on 20 November 1815 as one of the treaties amending Vienna the treaty of 30 May 1814 is sometimes referred to as the First Peace of Paris.

 
 

South-east frontier of France after the Treaty of Paris, 1814.
 
 
Terms of the Treaty
The treaty reapportioned several territories amongst various countries. Most notably, France retained all of the territory which it possessed as of 1 January 1792, and also was returned many of the territories lost to Britain during the war.

This included Guadeloupe, which had been ceded to Sweden by Britain when she entered the coalition. In return, Sweden was compensated 24 million francs and this money gave rise to the Guadeloupe Fund. The only exceptions to this were Tobago, St. Lucia, Seychelles and Mauritius. Great Britain kept sovereignty over the island of Malta.

The treaty returned to Spain the territory of San Domingo that had been transferred to France by the Treaty of Basle in 1804. This implicitly recognised French sovereignty over Saint-Domingue, which Dessalines had proclaimed independent under the name of Haiti. France only recognised the independence of Haiti in 1838.
  The treaty also reinstated the Bourbon monarchy in France, in the person of Louis XVIII.

The treaty also aimed to abolish the French slave trade, but not slavery, over a five-year period, and formally recognized the independence of Switzerland.

Effect and aftermath

Several powers, despite the peaceful intentions of the treaty, still feared a reassertion of French power. With this in mind, the territories strengthened themselves for protection. The House of Orange, which united Belgium and the Netherlands, was created to strengthen the two aforementioned countries in case of a French attack. Many German states had been consolidated by Napoleon, and they retained this status, while Prussia gained territory in western Germany, near the border with France. In Italy, several different political entities were recognized, and the independence of Switzerland was formally recognized.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Congress of Vienna
 

Congress of Vienna, assembly in 1814–15 that reorganized Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. Having begun in September 1814, five months after Napoleon’s first abdication, it completed its “Final Act” in June 1815, shortly before the Waterloo campaign and the final defeat of Napoleon. The settlement was the most comprehensive treaty that Europe had ever seen.

 

Congress of Vienna by Jean Godefroy
 

1. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 2. Joaquim Lobo Silveira, 7th Count of Oriola 3. António de Saldanha da Gama, Count of Porto Santo 4. Count Carl Löwenhielm 5. Jean-Louis-Paul-François, 5th Duke of Noailles 6. Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich 7. André Dupin 8. Count Karl Robert Nesselrode 9. Pedro de Sousa Holstein, 1st Count of Palmela 10. Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
 

11. Emmerich Joseph, Duke of Dalberg 12. Baron Johann von Wessenberg 13. Prince Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky 14. Charles Stewart, 1st Baron Stewart 15. Pedro Gómez Labrador, Marquis of Labrador 16. Richard Le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty 17. Wacken (Recorder) 18. Friedrich von Gentz (Congress Secretary) 19. Baron Wilhelm von Humboldt 20. William Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart 21. Prince Karl August von Hardenberg 22. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord 23. Count Gustav Ernst von Stackelberg
 
 
Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain, the four powers chiefly instrumental in the overthrow of Napoleon, had concluded a special alliance among themselves with the Treaty of Chaumont, on March 9, 1814, a month before Napoleon’s first abdication. The subsequent treaties of peace with France, signed on May 30 not only by the “four” but also by Sweden and Portugal and on July 20 by Spain, stipulated that all former belligerents should send plenipotentiaries to a congress in Vienna. Nevertheless, the “four” still intended to reserve the real making of decisions to themselves. Two months after the sessions began, however, Bourbon France was admitted to the “four.” The “four” thus became the “five,” and it was the committee of the “five” that was the real Congress of Vienna.

Representatives began to arrive in Vienna toward the end of September 1814. Klemens, prince von Metternich, principal minister of Austria, represented his emperor, Francis II. Tsar Alexander I of Russia directed his own diplomacy. King Frederick William III of Prussia had Karl, prince von Hardenberg, as his principal minister. Great Britain was represented by its foreign minister, Viscount Castlereagh. When Castlereagh had to return to his parliamentary duties, the Duke of Wellington replaced him, and Lord Clancarty was principal representative after the duke’s departure.

The restored Louis XVIII of France sent Talleyrand. Spain, Portugal, and Sweden had only men of moderate ability to represent them. Many of the rulers of the minor states of Europe put in an appearance. With them came a host of courtiers, secretaries, and ladies to enjoy the magnificent social life of the Austrian court.

The major points of friction occurred over the disposition of Poland and Saxony, the conflicting claims of Sweden, Denmark, and Russia, and the adjustment of the borders of the German states.
In general, Russia and Prussia were opposed by Austria, France, and England, which at one point (Jan. 3, 1815) went so far as to conclude a secret treaty of defensive alliance.
The major final agreements were as follows.

  For Poland, Alexander gave back Galicia to Austria and gave Thorn and a region around it to Prussia; Kraków was made a free town. The rest of the duchy of Warsaw was incorporated as a separate kingdom under the Russian emperor’s sovereignty. Prussia got two-fifths of Saxony and was compensated by extensive additions in Westphalia and on the left bank of the Rhine. It was Castlereagh who insisted on Prussian acceptance of this latter territory, with which it had been suggested the king of Saxony should be compensated.

Castlereagh wanted Prussia to guard the Rhine against France and act as a buttress to the new Kingdom of the Netherlands, which comprised both the former United Provinces and Belgium. Austria was compensated by Lombardy and Venice and also got back most of Tirol. Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden on the whole did well. Hanover was also enlarged. The outline of a constitution, a loose confederation, was drawn up for Germany—a triumph for Metternich. Denmark lost Norway to Sweden but got Lauenburg, while Swedish Pomerania went to Prussia. Switzerland was given a new constitution.

In Italy, Piedmont absorbed Genoa; Tuscany and Modena went to an Austrian archduke; Parma was given to Marie-Louise, consort of the deposed Napoleon. The Papal States were restored to the pope, Naples to the Sicilian Bourbons.

Valuable articles were agreed to on the free navigation of international rivers and diplomatic precedence. Castlereagh’s great efforts for the abolition of the slave trade were rewarded only by a pious declaration.

The Final Act of the Congress of Vienna comprised all these agreements in one great instrument. It was signed on June 9, 1815, by the “eight” (except Spain, who refused as a protest against the Italian settlement). All the other powers subsequently acceded to it.

As a result, the lines laid down by the Congress of Vienna lasted, except for one or two changes, for more than 40 years.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1814
 
 
Napoleon's exile to Elba
 

Napoleon abdicates and is banished to Elba Apr. 11 1814

 
The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to do in the interests of France.
Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April 1814.

—Act of abdication of Napoleon

 
 

Adieux de Napoléon à la Garde impériale dans la cour du Cheval-Blanc du château de Fontainebleau [Napoleon's farewell to the Imperial Guard in the White Horse courtyard of the Palace of Fontainebleau] – on 20 April 1814; by Antoine Alphonse Montfort, Palace of Versailles national museum
 
 
In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the victors exiled him to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km (12 mi) off the Tuscan coast. They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain his title of emperor. Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried since a near-capture by Russians on the retreat from Moscow. Its potency had weakened with age, and he survived to be exiled while his wife and son took refuge in Austria.[124] In the first few months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, and issued decrees on modern agricultural methods.
 
 

British etching from 1814 in celebration of Napoleon's first exile to Elba at the close of the War of the Sixth Coalition. Cartoon of Napoleon sitting back to front on a donkey with a broken sword and two soldiers in the background drumming
 
 
     
 
Napoleon I

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
     
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1813 Part II NEXT-1814 Part II