Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

Loading
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
     
     
 
1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1811 Part I NEXT-1811 Part III    
 
 
     
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810-1819
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
"Luddites"
Jungfrau
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Louisiana
Perceval Spencer
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"Mtsyri"
"The Demon
"
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
NAPOLEON AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EUROPE, 1796-1815
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Warfare
Nations in Arms
(1763-1815)
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
Indiana
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Blanketeers
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Mississippi
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Selenium
Lithium
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Illinois
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
"Savannah"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Florida
Victoria
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Alabama
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London
 
 
 

Jupiter and Thetis, 1811, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1811 Part II
 
 
 
1811
 
 
K. A. Bottiger: "Kunstmythologie"
 
 
Bottiger Karl August
 

Karl August Bottiger (June 8, 1760 – November 17, 1835) was a German archaeologist and classicist, and a prominent member of the literary and artistic circles in Weimar and Jena.

 

Karl Bottiger. Painted by Gerhard von Kügelgen, ca 1812, Tartu University Library.
  Biography
Böttiger was born in Reichenbach, in the kingdom of Saxony, and educated at Schulpforta and Leipzig. Under the influence of Johann Gottfried Herder, he was for 13 years headmaster at the gymnasium and consistorial councillor in Weimar, from 1790 to 1804. For the remaining 31 years of his life, he resided at Dresden as director of the Museum of Antiquities, and was active as a journalist and public lecturer. As a schoolmaster, he had published a considerable number of pedagogic and philological programs. In 1810, Böttiger with Swiss painter Heinrich Meyer released a monograph on the painting in the Vatican known as the "Aldobrandini marriage".
His archaeological works, mainly produced at Dresden, fall into three groups:

The first of these is private antiquities, best represented by his Sabina, or morning scenes in the dressing room of a wealthy Roman lady (German: Sabina, oder Morgenszenen im Putzzimmer einer reichen Römerin; 1803, 2 vols.; 2nd ed., 1806), which was translated into French and served as a model for Wilhelm Adolf Becker's Gallus and Charicles. The second, the Greek theatre, which Böttiger had been interested in since his time as a drama critic in Weimar; his unfavorable review of August Wilhelm Schlegel's Ion was withdrawn at the request of Goethe. It was mainly as a schoolmaster in Weimar that he wrote his papers on the distribution of the parts, on the masks and dresses, and on the machinery of the ancient stage, as well as a dissertation on the masks of the Furies in 1801.

 
 
Thirdly, he worked in the domain of ancient art and mythology; his work in this area was popular but, according to some 20th-century critics, superficial.
His accomplishments in Dresden led him to be noticed by the court of the Kingdom of Saxony, and he was the Aulic councilor of the kings of Saxony. Böttiger supplied the descriptive letter-press to the 1797 German edition of Tischbein's reproductions from William Hamilton's second collection of Greek vases, and thus introduced the study of Greek vase-painting into Germany. He published lectures on the history of ancient sculpture in 1806, and painting in 1811, and edited the three volumes of an archaeological periodical called Amalthea from 1820 to 1825, which included contributions from the most eminent classical archaeologists of the day.

In 1832 Böttiger was elected a member of the French Institute. He died in Dresden. His pupil, who edited many of Böttiger's works after his death, was the German classicist Karl Julius Sillig.

His son, Karl Wilhelm Böttiger (August 15, 1790 - November 26, 1862; not to be confused with the Swedish writer Carl Wilhelm Böttiger), was a historian and biographer of his father. He wrote Karl August Böttiger. Eine biographische Skizze, a biographical sketch (Leipzig, 1837). From his father's papers, he edited the posthumous work Litterarische Zustände und Zeitgenossen (Literary circumstances and contemporaries, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1838). Karl Wilhelm Böttiger contributed the history of Saxony to Heeren and Ukert's Europäische Staatengeschichte, and his Allgemeine Geschichte für Schule und Haus (Universal history for school and home) and Deutsche Geschichte für Schule und Haus (German history for school and home) passed through many editions. From 1821 until his death he was professor of history in Erlangen.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1811
 
 
Civil Code introduced in Austria
 
 
see also: Code Napoleon
 
 
 
1811
 
 
"Great Schism" of Welsh Protestants; two thirds leave Anglican Church
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Barthold G. Niebuhr: "Roman History"
 
 
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
 

Barthold Georg Niebuhr, (born Aug. 27, 1776, Copenhagen, Denmark—died Jan. 31, 1831, Bonn, Prussia [Germany]), German historian who started a new era in historical studies by his method of source criticism; all subsequent historians are in some sense indebted to him.

 

Barthold Georg Niebuhr
  Niebuhr was the only son of the Danish explorer Carsten Niebuhr. Up to his matriculation at the University of Kiel he had a solitary education that perhaps intensified his leaning toward a life of scholarship. But on his father’s advice he spent over a year in England and Scotland and then embarked on a career in state service, becoming private secretary to Count Schimmelmann, the Danish minister of finance, and in 1804 director of the national bank.

In 1806, at the request of Baron von Stein, the Prussian chief minister, he took up a similar post in Prussia. Two years after Stein’s fall (1808), however, disapproving of Prince von Hardenberg’s policy, he resigned and became state historiographer. At the same time he became a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and was thereby empowered to lecture at the newly founded University of Berlin.
In 1810 he began the series of lectures on Roman history that were the basis of his great book. In 1816 he went as Prussian ambassador to the Vatican, retiring to Bonn in 1823.

Niebuhr’s Römische Geschichte, 3 vol. (1811–32; History of Rome) marked an era in the study of its special subject and had a momentous influence on the general conception of history. Although Niebuhr made particular contributions of value to learning (e.g., his study of social and agrarian problems), some of his theories were extravagant and his conclusions mistaken. His permanent contribution to scholarship was his method. The failings of classical sources were already recognized, but it was Niebuhr who evolved what Johann Wolfgang von Goethe called tätige Skepsis—the “constructive skepticism” which is the root of a scientific method of criticism.

 
 
It was Niebuhr who showed how to analyze the strata in a source, particularly poetical and mythical tradition, and how to discard the worthless and thereby lay bare the material from which the historical facts could be reconstructed. He thus laid the foundation for the great period of German historical scholarship.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1811
 
 
University of Oslo
 

The University of Oslo (Norwegian: Universitetet i Oslo), formerly The Royal Frederick University (Norwegian: Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest and largest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. The university is recognized as one of Northern Europe's most prestigious universities. The Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 67th best university in the world.

 

Central campus of the university, where today only the faculty of law is located. These buildings were inspired by the famous buildings of Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in Berlin.
 
 
The university has approximately 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include (Lutheran) Theology (Norway's state religion since 1536), Law, Medicine, Humanities, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, Dentistry, and Education. The university's original neoclassical campus is located in the centre of Oslo; it is currently occupied by the Faculty of Law. Most of the university's other faculties are located at the newer Blindern campus in the suburban West End. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area.

The university was founded in 1811 and was modelled after the University of Copenhagen and the recently established University of Berlin. It was originally named for King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway, and received its current name in 1939. The university is informally also known as Universitetet ("the university"), having been the only university in Norway until 1946, and was commonly referred to as "The Royal Frederick's" (Det Kgl. Frederiks) prior to the name change.

The University of Oslo is home to five Nobel Prize winners. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the university's Atrium from 1947 to 1989. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium.

 
 
 
1811
 
 
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
 

Sense and Sensibility is a novel by Austen Jane, and was her first published work when it appeared in 1811 under the pseudonym "A Lady". A work of romantic fiction, better known as a comedy of manners, Sense and Sensibility is set in southwest England, London and Kent between 1792 and 1797, and portrays the life and loves of the Dashwood sisters, Elinor and Marianne. The novel follows the young ladies to their new home, a meagre cottage on a distant relative's property, where they experience love, romance and heartbreak. The philosophical resolution of the novel is ambiguous: the reader must decide whether sense and sensibility have truly merged.

 
Title
Jane Austen wrote the first draft of the novel in the form of a novel-in-letters (epistolary form) sometime around 1795 when she was about 19 years old, and gave it the title Elinor and Marianne. She later changed the form to a narrative and the title to Sense and Sensibility. By changing the title, Austen added "philosophical depth" to what began as a sketch of two characters. The title of the book, and that of her next published novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), may be suggestive of political conflicts of the 1790s.
 
 
Plot discussion
Philosophical Resolution

Austen biographer Claire Tomalin argues that Sense and Sensibility has a "wobble in its approach," which developed because Austen, in the course of writing the novel, gradually became less certain about whether sense or sensibility should triumph. Austen characterises Marianne as a sweet lady with attractive qualities: intelligence, musical talent, frankness, and the capacity to love deeply. She also acknowledges that Willoughby, with all his faults, continues to love and, in some measure, appreciate Marianne. For these reasons, some readers find Marianne's ultimate marriage to Colonel Brandon an unsatisfactory ending. Other interpretations, however, have argued that Austen's intention was not to debate the superior value of either sense or sensibility in good judgment, but rather to demonstrate that both are equally as important but must be applied with good balance to one another.

Plot summary
When Mr. Dashwood dies, his house, Norland Park, passes directly to his only son John, the child of his first wife. His second wife, Mrs. Dashwood, and their daughters, Elinor, Marianne and Margaret, are left only a small income. On his deathbed, Mr. Dashwood extracts a promise from his son, that he will take care of his half-sisters; however, John's selfish and greedy wife, Fanny, soon persuades him to renege. John and Fanny immediately take up their place as the new owners of Norland, while the Dashwood women are reduced to the position of unwelcome guests. Mrs. Dashwood begins looking for somewhere else to live.

In the meantime, Fanny's brother, Edward Ferrars, a pleasant, unassuming, intelligent but reserved young man, visits Norland and soon forms an attachment with Elinor.

 
Title page from the first edition of Jane Austen's novel Sense and Sensibility
 
 
Fanny disapproves the match and offends Mrs. Dashwood with the implication that Elinor is motivated by money rather than love. Mrs. Dashwood indignantly speeds her search for a new home.

Mrs. Dashwood moves her family to Barton Cottage in Devonshire, near the home of her cousin, Sir John Middleton. Their new home lacks many of the conveniences that they have been used to; however, they are warmly received by Sir John, and welcomed into the local society—meeting his wife, Lady Middleton, his mother-in-law, Mrs. Jennings and his friend, the grave, quiet and gentlemanly Colonel Brandon. It soon becomes apparent that Colonel Brandon is attracted to Marianne, and Mrs. Jennings teases them about it. Marianne is not pleased as she considers Colonel Brandon, at thirty-five, to be an old bachelor incapable of falling in love, or inspiring love in anyone else.

 
 
Marianne, out for a walk, gets caught in the rain, slips and sprains her ankle. The dashing, handsome John Willoughby sees the accident and assists her. Marianne quickly comes to admire his good looks and outspoken views on poetry, music, art and love. Mr. Willoughby's attentions are so overt that Elinor and Mrs. Dashwood begin to suspect that the couple are secretly engaged. Elinor cautions Marianne against her unguarded conduct, but Marianne refuses to check her emotions, believing this to be a falsehood. Unexpectedly one day, Mr. Willoughby informs the Dashwoods that his aunt is sending him to London on business, indefinitely. Marianne is distraught and abandons herself to her sorrow.

Edward Ferrars then pays a short visit to Barton Cottage but seems unhappy and out of sorts. Elinor fears that he no longer has feelings for her, but feels compelled, by a sense of duty, to protect her family from knowing her heartache. Soon after Edward departs, Anne and Lucy Steele, the vulgar and uneducated cousins of Lady Middleton, come to stay at Barton Park. Lucy informs Elinor of her secret four-year engagement to Edward Ferrars, displaying proofs of her veracity. Elinor comes to understand the inconsistencies of Edward's behaviour to her and acquits him of blame. She is charitable enough to pity Edward for being held to a loveless engagement by his gentlemanly honour.

As winter approaches, Elinor and Marianne accompany Mrs. Jennings to London.

 
A 19th century illustration by Hugh Thomson showing Willoughby cutting a lock of Marianne's hair
 
 
Upon arriving, Marianne rashly writes a series of personal letters to Willoughby which go unanswered. When they finally meet, Mr. Willoughby greets Marianne reluctantly and coldly, to her extreme distress. Soon Marianne receives a curt letter enclosing their former correspondence and love tokens, including a lock of her hair and informing her of his engagement to a young lady of large fortune. Marianne is devastated, and admits to Elinor that she and Willoughby were never engaged, but she loved him and he led her to believe he loved her. In sympathy for Marianne, and to illuminate Willoughby's true character, Colonel Brandon reveals to Elinor that Willoughby had seduced Brandon's fifteen-year-old ward, Miss Williams, then abandoned her when she became pregnant.

Brandon had been in love with her mother, who was his father's ward and forced into an unhappy marriage to his brother; Marianne strongly reminds him of her.
 
 
In the meantime, the Steele sisters have come to London as guests of John and Fanny Dashwood. Lucy sees her invitation to the Dashwoods' as a personal compliment, rather than what it is, a slight to Elinor. In the false confidence of their popularity, Anne Steele betrays Lucy's secret.
As a result the Misses Steele are turned out of the house, and Edward is entreated to break the engagement on pain of disinheritance. Edward, honourably, refuses to comply and is immediately disinherited in favour of his brother, gaining widespread respect for his gentlemanly conduct, and sympathy from Elinor and Marianne who understand how much he has sacrificed. Colonel Brandon shows this admiration by offering him the living of Delaford parsonage.

Mrs. Jennings takes Elinor and Marianne to the country to visit her second daughter who has just given birth to her first child. In her misery over Willoughby's marriage, Marianne neglects her health and becomes dangerously ill. Traumatised by rumours of her impending death, Willoughby arrives to repent and reveals to Elinor that his love for Marianne was genuine. When his aunt learned of his behaviour towards Miss Williams and disinherited him, he felt he had to marry for money rather than love.
But he elicits Elinor's pity because his choice has made him unhappy.

  When Marianne is recovered, Elinor tells her of Willoughby's visit. Marianne comes to assess what has passed with sense rather than emotion, and sees that she could never have been happy with Willoughby's immoral and expensive nature. She comes to value Elinor's conduct in a similar situation and resolves to model herself after Elinor's courage and good sense.

Upon learning that Lucy has married Mr. Ferrars, Elinor is grieved, until Edward himself arrives to reveal that after his disinheritance Lucy jilted him in favour of his now wealthy brother, Robert Ferrars. Edward and Elinor are soon married and in a very few years Marianne marries Colonel Brandon, having gradually fallen deeply in love with him.

Publication

In 1811, Thomas Egerton of the Military Library publishing house in London accepted the manuscript for publication, in three volumes. Austen paid for the book to be published and paid the publisher a commission on sales. The cost of publication was more than a third of Austen's annual household income of £460 (about £15,000 in 2008 currency).[8] She made a profit of £140 (almost £5,000 in 2008 currency)[9] on the first edition, which sold all 750 printed copies by July 1813. A second edition was advertised in October 1813.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
  Jane Austen 

"Pride and Prejudice"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Stowe Harriet Beecher
 

Harriet Beecher Stowe, née Harriet Elizabeth Beecher (born June 14, 1811, Litchfield, Connecticut, U.S.—died July 1, 1896, Hartford, Connecticut), American writer and philanthropist, the author of the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which contributed so much to popular feeling against slavery that it is cited among the causes of the American Civil War.

 

Portrait of Stowe by Alanson Fisher, 1853 (National Portrait Gallery)
  Harriet Beecher was a member of one of the 19th century’s most remarkable families. The daughter of the prominent Congregationalist minister Lyman Beecher and the sister of Catharine, Henry Ward, and Edward, she grew up in an atmosphere of learning and moral earnestness. She attended her sister Catharine’s school in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1824–27, thereafter teaching at the school. In 1832 she accompanied Catharine and their father to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he became president of Lane Theological Seminary and she taught at another school founded by her sister.

In Cincinnati she took an active part in the literary and school life, contributing stories and sketches to local journals and compiling a school geography, until the school closed in 1836. That same year she married Calvin Ellis Stowe, a clergyman and seminary professor, who encouraged her literary activity and was himself an eminent biblical scholar. She wrote continually and in 1843 published The Mayflower; or, Sketches of Scenes and Characters Among the Descendants of the Pilgrims.

Stowe lived for 18 years in Cincinnati, separated only by the Ohio River from a slave-holding community; she came in contact with fugitive slaves and learned about life in the South from friends and from her own visits there. In 1850 her husband became professor at Bowdoin College and the family moved to Brunswick, Maine.

 
 
There Harriet Stowe began to write a long tale of slavery, based on her reading of abolitionist literature and on her personal observations in Ohio and Kentucky. Her tale was published serially (1851–52) in the National Era, an antislavery paper of Washington, D.C.; in 1852 it appeared in book form as Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly. The book was an immediate sensation and was taken up eagerly by abolitionists while, along with its author, it was vehemently denounced in the South, where reading or possessing the book became an extremely dangerous enterprise. With sales of 300,000 in the first year, the book exerted an influence equaled by few other novels in history, helping to solidify both pro- and antislavery sentiment. The book was translated widely and several times dramatized (the first time, in 1852, without Stowe’s permission), where it played to capacity audiences.
 
 

Harriet Beecher Stowe circa 1852
   Stowe was enthusiastically received on a visit to England in 1853, and there she formed friendships with many leading literary figures. In that same year she published A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a compilation of documents and testimonies in support of disputed details of her indictment of slavery.

In 1856 she published Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, in which she depicted the deterioration of a society resting on a slave basis. When The Atlantic Monthly was established the following year, she found a ready vehicle for her writings; she also found outlets in the Independent of New York City and later the Christian Union, of which papers her brother Henry Ward Beecher was editor.

She thereafter led the life of a woman of letters, writing novels, of which The Minister’s Wooing (1859) is best known, many studies of social life in both fiction and essay, and a small volume of religious poems. An article she published in The Atlantic in 1869, in which she alleged that Lord Byron had had an incestuous affair with his half-sister, created an uproar in England and cost her much of her popularity there, but she remained a leading author and lyceum lecturer in the United States. Late in her life she assisted her son Charles E. Stowe on a biography of her, which appeared in 1889. Stowe had moved to Hartford in 1864, and she largely remained there until her death.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
see also: Harriet Beecher Stowe
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
 

Undine is a fairy-tale novella (Erzählung) by Motte Friedrich Heinrich Karl  in which Undine, a water spirit, marries a knight named Huldebrand in order to gain a soul. It is an early German romance, which has been translated into English and other languages.

 
Success and influence
During the nineteenth century the book was very popular and was, according to The Times in 1843, "a book which, of all others, if you ask for it at a foreign library, you are sure to find engaged". The story is descended from Melusine, the French folk-tale of a water-sprite who marries a knight on condition that he shall never see her on Saturdays, when she resumes her mermaid shape. It was also inspired by works by the occultist Paracelsus. An unabridged English translation of the story by William Leonard Courtney and illustrated by Arthur Rackham was published in 1909. George Macdonald thought Undine "the most beautiful" of all fairy stories,  while Lafcadio Hearn referred to Undine as a "fine German story" in his essay "The Value of the Supernatural in Fiction". The references to Undine in such works as Charlotte Yonge's The Daisy Chain and Louisa Alcott's Little Women show that it was one of the best loved of all books for many 19th-century children.

The first adaptation of Undine was E.T.A. Hoffmann's opera in 1814. It was a collaboration between E.T.A. Hoffman, who composed the score, and Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué who adapted his own work into a libretto. The opera proved highly successful, and Carl Maria von Weber admired it in his review as the kind of composition which the German desires: 'an art work complete in itself, in which partial contributions of the related and collaborating arts blend together, disappear, and, in disappearing, somehow form a new world'.
 
Undine by John William Waterhouse, 1872.
 
 
In the 1830s, the novella was translated into Russian dactylic hexameter verse by the Romantic poet Vasily Zhukovsky. This verse translation became a classic in its own right and later provided the basis for the libretto to Tchaikovsky's operatic adaptation. The novella has since inspired numerous similar adaptions in various genres and traditions.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Gautier Theophile
 

Théophile Gautier, byname le bon Théo (born August 31, 1811, Tarbes, France—died October 23, 1872, Neuilly-sur-Seine), poet, novelist, critic, and journalist whose influence was strongly felt in the period of changing sensibilities in French literature—from the early Romantic period to the aestheticism and naturalism of the end of the 19th century.

 

Théophile Gautier photographed by Nadar
  Gautier lived most of his life in Paris. At the Collège de Charlemagne he met Gérard de Nerval and began a lasting friendship. He studied painting but soon decided that his true vocation was poetry. Sympathetic to the Romantic movement, he took part in the cultural battle that ensued when Victor Hugo’s play Hernani was first performed in Paris in 1830. He humorously recalled this period in Histoire du romantisme (1874; “History of Romanticism”) and in Portraits contemporains (1874; “Contemporary Portraits”), in which he gave an excellent description of his friend Honoré de Balzac. Gautier satirized his own extravagances, as well as those of other Romanticists, in Les Jeunes-France (1833; “Young France”). Les Grotesques (1834–36) is about more obscure earlier writers whose individualism anticipated that of the Romantics.

Gautier’s first poems appeared in 1830. Albertus, a long narrative about a young painter who falls into the hands of a sorcerer, was published in 1832. At this time he turned from the doctrines of Romanticism and became an advocate of art for art’s sake. The preface to Albertus and the novel Mademoiselle de Maupin (1835) express his views, which caused a considerable stir in literary circles by their disregard of conventional morality and insistence on the sovereignty of the beautiful. His pessimism and fear of death were expressed in the narrative poem La Comédie de la mort (1838; “The Comedy of Death”).

 
 
In 1840 Gautier visited Spain. The colour of the land and people inspired some of his best poetry, in España (1845), and prose, in Voyage en Espagne (1845). After that trip he found traveling to be a welcome escape from the constant pressures of his journalistic work, which he pursued to support himself, two mistresses, and his three children, as well as his two sisters. From 1836 to 1855 he was a weekly contributor to La Presse and Le Moniteur Universel; in 1851, editor of Revue de Paris; and in 1856, editor of L’Artiste. Besides this work he contributed to many other periodicals and papers. Gautier often bemoaned the conditions of his existence; he felt that journalism was draining off the creative energy that should have been reserved for poetry.
Traveling, especially in Greece, strengthened his theory of art and his admiration of Classical forms. He felt that art should be impersonal, free from the obligation of teaching moral lessons, and that the aim of the artist is to concentrate on achieving perfection of form.
 
 

Portrait of Théophile Gautier, in L'Illustration, after a photograph by M. Bertall, 1869.
  He developed a technique in poetry that he called transposition d’art (“transposing art”), recording his exact impressions when experiencing a painting or other work of art. These poems, published in Émaux et camées (1852; “Enamels and Cameos”), are among his finest, and the book was a point of departure for the writers Théodore de Banville and Leconte de Lisle. Charles Baudelaire paid tribute to Gautier in the dedication of his verse collection Les Fleurs du mal.

Gautier’s poetic and fantastic imagination is seen to advantage in his short fiction—e.g., the vampire tale La Morte amoureuse (1836; “The Dead Lover”) and the evocations of ancient Pompeii in Arria Marcella (1852).

His literary output was prodigious, but his art and dramatic criticism alone—partly reprinted in Les Beaux-Arts en Europe (1855) and in Histoire de l’art dramatique en France depuis vingt-cinq ans, 6 vol. (1858–59; “History of Drama in France for Twenty-five Years”)—would ensure his reputation. As a ballet critic, he remains unrivaled. He also wrote plays and, in collaboration with Vernoy de Saint-Georges, the popular ballet Giselle.

Gautier was held in esteem by many of his contemporaries who were also prominent literary figures: Gustave Flaubert, Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve, the Goncourt brothers, Banville, and Baudelaire. In his last years he became the friend of the French princess Mathilde, who gave him a sinecure post as a librarian to ease his financial strain.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
see also: Theophile Gautier
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
 

Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From my Life: Poetry and Truth; 1811–1833) is an autobiography by Goethe Johann Wolfgang  that comprises the time from the poet's childhood to the days in 1775, when he was about to leave for Weimar.

 
Structure
The book is divided into four parts, the first three of which were written and published between 1811–14, while the fourth was written mainly in 1830-31 and published in 1833. Each part contains five books. The whole covers the first 26 years of its author's life. Goethe held that “the most important period of an individual is that of his development.”

History

Goethe dictated schemes and drafts for Dichtung und Wahrheit, after he had finished his Theory of Colours, in summer 1810 in Carlsbad. He first worked on the autobiography parallelly to his work on Wilhelm Meister's Journeyman Years; since January 1811, the autobiography became the main subject of his endeavor. Goethe asked Bettina von Arnim to send him the notes that she had written down about his youth on the basis of meetings she had had with his mother out of a related interest. When Bettina had complied with this wish, the poet mainly used her notes for a depiction of his mother, Aristeia der Mutter, which he did not include into the autobiography. He also asked Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich von Trebra, Karl Ludwig von Knebel, and Johann Friedrich Heinrich Schlosser for help.

Goethe's intentions
Goethe wrote Dichtung und Wahrheit from the point of view of the scientist, the historian and the artist. As a scientist, he desired to picture his life as developing stage by stage “according to those laws which we observe in the metamorphosis of the plants.”

 
First print
 
 
As a historian, he portrayed the general conditions of the times and revealed the relations between them and the individual. As an artist, he did not feel tied down to facts for their own sake, but selects those that were of significance and moulded them so that they might become parts of a work of art.
 
 
As far as art is concerned, the word Dichtung (both poetry and fiction in English) was chosen to indicate through an ingenious ambiguity that the author had, in a considerably systematic way, selected those events which he counted worthwhile to be mentioned. Goethe has also, namely regarding Friederike Brion, created a partially fictitious image of some figures and events that necessarily would show the related figures and events more clearly than any attempt to describe them as exactly as possible, in an outward sense, could have done.
Germanists have even doubted that the figure of Gretchen, that first appears as a barmaid, had at all really existed, though she reappears as the central female character Margarete resp. Gretchen in Goethe's drama Faust.
  Contents
The material in the first three parts is distributed in such a way that Goethe's childhood is narrated from book one to the middle of book six, the account of his student days begins with the latter half of the sixth book and continues through the 11th book, books 12-15 are given to the consideration of his early manhood, when his first great successes as an author were realized. In spite of important experiences, part four does not open a new phase in Goethe's development, but it does bring the outer course of his life to its most decisive turning point — his departure from Weimar.

Goethe depicts his happy childhood in Frankfurt, his relationship with his sister Cornelia, and his infatuation with Gretchen.

 
 
Gretchen is described as "unbelievably beautiful", but Goethe also mentions that she had appeared superficial to him, when he heard she had referred to him as to a child, in the course of criminal investigations. Goethe moreover depicts his love-affairs with Anna Katharina Schönkopf during his time as a student in Leipzig, with Friederike Brion during his time in Strasburg, and with the Frankfurt banker's daughter Lili Schönemann. Dichtung und Wahrheit also mirrors Goethe's development as a poet and partly expounds the changes in the author's thinking that were brought about by the Seven Years' War and the French occupation, while other experiences throughout are presented and colored.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

"Faust"

Illustrations by Eugene Delacroix and Harry Clarke
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Gutzkow Karl
 
Karl Gutzkow, (born March 17, 1811, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]—died Dec. 16, 1878, Sachsenhausen, Frankfurt am Main), novelist and dramatist who was a pioneer of the modern social novel in Germany.
 

Karl Gutzkow
  Gutzkow began his career as a journalist and first attracted attention with the publication of Maha Guru, Geschichte eines Gottes (1833; “Maha Guru, Story of a God”), a fantastic satirical romance. In 1835 he published Wally, die Zweiflerin (“Wally, the Doubter”), an attack on marriage, coloured by religious skepticism, that marked the beginning of the revolt of the Young Germany movement against Romanticism. The book excited virulent discussion, and the federal Diet condemned Gutzkow to three months’ imprisonment and ordered the suppression of all his works. After his release he produced the tragedy Richard Savage (1839), the first in a series of well-constructed and effective plays. His domestic tragedy Werner oder Herz und Welt (1840; “Werner or Heart and World”) long remained in the repertory of the German theatres. Gutzkow also wrote Das Urbild des Tartüffe (1844; “The Model for Tartuffe”), a clever and topical satirical comedy; and Uriel Acosta (1846), which uses the story of the martyrdom of that forerunner of Spinoza to make a plea for religious freedom. By this time he had published the novel Blasedow und seine Söhne (1838; “Blasedow and His Sons”), a humorous satire on the educational theories of the time. In 1847 Gutzkow went to Dresden, where he succeeded the Romantic writer and drama theorist Ludwig Tieck as literary adviser to the court theatre. In 1850 there appeared the first of the nine volumes of Die Ritter vom Geiste (“The Knights of the Spirit”), now considered the starting point of the modern German social novel; it also anticipated the Naturalist movement.

His final well-known work, Der Zauberer von Rom (1858–61; “The Magician of Rome”), is a powerful study of Roman Catholic life in southern Germany.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
see also: Karl Gutzkow
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Heinrich von Kleist (Kleist Heinrich) d. (b. 1777)
 
 

Heinrich von Kleist
 
 
see also: Heinrich von Kleist
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Thackeray William Makepeace
 

William Makepeace Thackeray, (born July 18, 1811, Calcutta, India—died Dec. 24, 1863, London, Eng.), English novelist whose reputation rests chiefly on Vanity Fair (1847–48), a novel of the Napoleonic period in England, and The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. (1852), set in the early 18th century.

 

Photograph of William Makepeace Thackeray
  Life
Thackeray was the only son of Richmond Thackeray, an administrator in the East India Company. His father died in 1815, and in 1816 Thackeray was sent home to England. His mother joined him in 1820, having married (1817) an engineering officer with whom she had been in love before she met Richmond Thackeray. After attending several grammar schools Thackeray went in 1822 to Charterhouse, the London public (private) school, where he led a rather lonely and miserable existence.

He was happier while studying at Trinity College, Cambridge (1828–30). In 1830 he left Cambridge without taking a degree, and during 1831–33 he studied law at the Middle Temple, London. He then considered painting as a profession; his artistic gifts are seen in his letters and many of his early writings, which are amusingly and energetically illustrated. All his efforts at this time have a dilettante air, understandable in a young man who, on coming of age in 1832, had inherited £20,000 from his father. He soon lost his fortune, however, through gambling and unlucky speculations and investments. In 1836, while studying art in Paris, he married a penniless Irish girl, and his stepfather bought a newspaper so that he could remain there as its correspondent. After the paper’s failure (1837) he took his wife back to Bloomsbury, London, and became a hardworking and prolific professional journalist.

 
 
Of Thackeray’s three daughters, one died in infancy (1839); and in 1840, after her last confinement, Mrs. Thackeray became insane. She never recovered and long survived her husband, living with friends in the country. Thackeray was, in effect, a widower, relying much on club life and gradually giving more and more attention to his daughters, for whom he established a home in London in 1846. The serial publication in 1847–48 of his novel Vanity Fair brought Thackeray both fame and prosperity, and from then on he was an established author on the English scene.

Thackeray’s one serious romantic attachment in his later life, to Jane Brookfield, can be traced in his letters. She was the wife of a friend of his Cambridge days, and during Thackeray’s “widowerhood,” when his life lacked an emotional centre, he found one in the Brookfield home. Henry Brookfield’s insistence in 1851 that his wife’s passionate but platonic friendship with Thackeray should end was a grief greater than any the author had known since his wife’s descent into insanity.

Thackeray tried to find consolation in travel, lecturing in the United States on The English Humorists of the 18th Century (1852–53; published 1853) and on The Four Georges (1855–56; published 1860). But after 1856 he settled in London. He stood unsuccessfully for Parliament in 1857, quarreled with Dickens, formerly a friendly rival, in the so-called “Garrick Club Affair” (1858), and in 1860 founded The Cornhill Magazine, becoming its editor. After he died in 1863, a commemorative bust of him was placed in Westminster Abbey.

 
 

Thackeray portrayed by Eyre Crowe, 1845
  Early writings
The 19th century was the age of the magazine, which had been developed to meet the demand for family reading among the growing middle class. In the late 1830s Thackeray became a notable contributor of articles on varied topics to Fraser’s Magazine, The New Monthly Magazine, and, later, to Punch. His work was unsigned or written under such pen names as Mr. Michael Angelo Titmarsh, Fitz-Boodle, The Fat Contributor, or Ikey Solomons. He collected the best of these early writings in Miscellanies, 4 vol. (1855–57). These include The Yellowplush Correspondence, the memoirs and diary of a young cockney footman written in his own vocabulary and style; Major Gahagan (1838–39), a fantasy of soldiering in India; Catherine (1839–40), a burlesque of the popular “Newgate novels” of romanticized crime and low life, and itself a good realistic crime story; The History of Samuel Titmarsh and the Great Hoggarty Diamond (1841), which was an earlier version of the young married life described in Philip; and The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844; revised as The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, 1856), which is a historical novel and his first full-length work. Barry Lyndon is an excellent, speedy, satirical narrative until the final sadistic scenes and was a trial run for the great historical novels, especially Vanity Fair.
 
 
The Book of Snobs (1848) is a collection of articles that had appeared successfully in Punch (as “The Snobs of England, by One of Themselves,” 1846–47). It consists of sketches of London characters and displays Thackeray’s virtuosity in quick character-drawing. The Rose and the Ring, Thackeray’s Christmas book for 1855, remains excellent entertainment, as do some of his verses; like many good prose writers, he had a facility in writing light verse and ballads.
 
 
Mature writings
With Vanity Fair (1847–48), the first work published under his own name, Thackeray adopted the system of publishing a novel serially in monthly parts that had been so successfully used by Dickens. Set in the second decade of the 19th century, the period of the Regency, the novel deals mainly with the interwoven fortunes of two contrasting women, Amelia Sedley and Becky Sharp. The latter, an unprincipled adventuress, is the leading personage and is perhaps the most memorable character Thackeray created. Subtitled “A Novel Without a Hero,” the novel is deliberately antiheroic: Thackeray states that in this novel his object is to “indicate . . . that we are for the most part . . . foolish and selfish people . . . all eager after vanities.”

The wealthy, wellborn, passive Amelia Sedley and the ambitious, energetic, scheming, provocative, and essentially amoral Becky Sharp, daughter of a poor drawing master, are contrasted in their fortunes and reactions to life, but the contrast of their characters is not the simple one between moral good and evil—both are presented with dispassionate sympathy. Becky is the character around whom all the men play their parts in an upper middle-class and aristocratic background. Amelia marries George Osborne, but George, just before he is killed at the Battle of Waterloo, is ready to desert his young wife for Becky, who has fought her way up through society to marriage with Rawdon Crawley, a young officer of good family. Crawley, disillusioned, finally leaves Becky, and in the end virtue apparently triumphs, Amelia marries her lifelong admirer, Colonel Dobbin, and Becky settles down to genteel living and charitable works.

The rich movement and colour of this panorama of early 19th-century society make Vanity Fair Thackeray’s greatest achievement; the narrative skill, subtle characterization, and descriptive power make it one of the outstanding novels of its period. But Vanity Fair is more than a portrayal and imaginative analysis of a particular society.
Throughout we are made subtly aware of the ambivalence of human motives, and so are prepared for Thackeray’s conclusion: “Ah! Vanitas Vanitatum! Which of us is happy in this world? Which of us has his desire, or having it, is satisfied?” It is its tragic irony that makes Vanity Fair a lasting and insightful evaluation of human ambition and experience.

  Successful and famous, Thackeray went on to exploit two lines of development opened up in Vanity Fair: a gift for evoking the London scene and for writing historical novels that demonstrate the connections between past and present. He began with the first, writing The History of Pendennis (1848–50), which is partly fictionalized autobiography. In it, Thackeray traces the youthful career of Arthur Pendennis—his first love affair, his experiences at “Oxbridge University,” his working as a London journalist, and so on—achieving a convincing portrait of a much-tempted young man.

Turning to the historical novel, Thackeray chose the reign of Queen Anne for the period of The History of Henry Esmond, Esq., 3 vol. (1852). Some critics had thought that Pendennis was a formless, rambling book. In response, Thackeray constructed Henry Esmond with great care, giving it a much more formal plot structure. The story, narrated by Esmond, begins when he is 12, in 1691, and ends in 1718. Its complexity of incident is given unity by Beatrix and Esmond, who stand out against a background of London society and the political life of the time. Beatrix dominates the book. Seen first as a charming child, she develops beauty combined with a power that is fatal to the men she loves. One of Thackeray’s great creations, she is a heroine of a new type, emotionally complex and compelling, but not a pattern of virtue. Esmond, a sensitive, brave, aristocratic soldier, falls in love with her but is finally disillusioned. Befriended as an orphan by Beatrix’ parents, Lord and Lady Castlewood, Henry initially adores Lady Castlewood as a mother and eventually, in his maturity, marries her.

Written in a pastiche of 18th-century prose, the novel is one of the best evocations in English of the atmosphere of a past age. It was not well received, however—Esmond’s marriage to Lady Castlewood was criticized. George Eliot called it “the most uncomfortable book you can imagine.” But it has come to be accepted as a notable English historical novel.

Thackeray returned to the contemporary scene in his novel The Newcomes (1853–55). This work is essentially a detailed study of prosperous middle-class society and is centred upon the family of the title. Col. Thomas Newcome returns to London from India to be with his son Clive. The unheroic but attractive Clive falls in love with his cousin Ethel, but the love Clive and Ethel have for each other is fated to be unhappily thwarted for years because of worldly considerations.

 
 
Clive marries Rose Mackenzie; the selfish, greedy, cold-hearted Barnes Newcome, Ethel’s father and head of the family, intrigues against Clive and the Colonel; and the Colonel invests his fortune imprudently and ends as a pensioner in an almshouse. Rose dies in childbirth, and the narrative ends with the Colonel’s death. This deathbed scene, described with deep feeling that avoids sentimentality, is one of the most famous in Victorian fiction. In a short epilogue Thackeray tells us that Clive and Ethel eventually marry—but this, he says, is a fable.

The Virginians (1857–59), Thackeray’s next novel, is set partly in America and partly in England in the latter half of the 18th century and is concerned mostly with the vicissitudes in the lives of two brothers, George and Henry Warrington, who are the grandsons of Henry Esmond, the hero of his earlier novel. Thackeray wrote two other serial novels, Lovel the Widower (1860) and The Adventures of Philip (1861–62). He died after having begun writing the novel Denis Duval.

 
 

Caricature of Thackeray by Thackeray
  Assessment
In his own time Thackeray was regarded as the only possible rival to Dickens. His pictures of contemporary life were obviously real and were accepted as such by the middle classes. A great professional, he provided novels, stories, essays, and verses for his audience, and he toured as a nationally known lecturer. He wrote to be read aloud in the long Victorian family evenings, and his prose has the lucidity, spontaneity, and pace of good reading material. Throughout his works, Thackeray analyzed and deplored snobbery and frequently gave his opinions on human behaviour and the shortcomings of society, though usually prompted by his narrative to do so. He examined such subjects as hypocrisy, secret emotions, the sorrows sometimes attendant on love, remembrance of things past, and the vanity of much of life—such moralizing being, in his opinion, an important function of the novelist. He had little time for such favourite devices of Victorian novelists as exaggerated characterization and melodramatic plots, preferring in his own work to be more true to life, subtly depicting various moods and plunging the reader into a stream of entertaining narrative, description, dialogue, and comment.

Thackeray’s high reputation as a novelist continued unchallenged to the end of the 19th century but then began to decline. Vanity Fair is still his most interesting and readable work and has retained its place among the great historical novels in the English language.

Laurence Brander

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
see also: William Makepeace Thackeray
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Dupre Jules
 

Jules Dupre, (born April 5, 1811, Nantes, Fr.—died Oct. 6, 1889, L’Isle-Adam), French artist who was one of the leaders of the Barbizon group of landscape painters.

 

Jules Dupre. Self-portrait. 1853
  The son of a porcelain manufacturer, Dupré started his career in his father’s works, after which he painted porcelain at his uncle’s china factory at Sèvres.

He first exhibited paintings in 1831 and in 1834 was awarded a second-class medal at the Salon.

Visiting England in the same year, he learned, from the landscapes of John Constable, how to express movement in nature. The districts of Southampton and Plymouth, with their wide expanses of water, sky, and ground, provided his subjects.

Late in life, he joined the artists’ colony at Barbizon on the edge of the forest of Fontainebleau, where his style evolved, gaining in breadth, or largeness of treatment, and exhibiting greater simplicity in colour harmony.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

Jules Dupre. Forest Landscape
 
 
 
     
 
Jules Dupre
 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
 

Jupiter and Thetis is an 1811 painting by the French neoclassical painter Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (Ingres Jean-Auguste-Dominique ), in the Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence, France. Painted when the artist was yet 31, the work severely and pointedly contrasts the grandeur and might of a cloud-born Olympian male deity against that of a diminutive and half nude nymph. Ingres' subject matter is borrowed from an episode in Homer's Iliad when the sea nymph Thetis begs Jupiter to intervene and guide the fate of her son Achilles; who was at the time embroiled in the Trojan War.

 

Jupiter and Thetis, 1811, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
Oil on canvas, 136⅝ × 101¼ inches. Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence, France.

"She sank to the ground beside him, put her left arm round his knees, raised her right hand to touch his chin, and so made her petition to the Royal Son of Cronos", Iliad 1.500–502
 
 
The painting is steeped in the traditions of both classical and neoclassical art, most notably in its grand scale of 136⅝ × 101¼ inches. Ingres creates many visual contrasts between the God and the slithering nymph: Jupiter is shown facing the viewer frontally with both his arms and legs spread broadly across the canvas, while the color of his dress and flesh echos that of the marble at his feet.
 
 

Thetis and the Nereids mourning Achilles, Corinthian black-figure hydria,
560–550 BC; note the Gorgon shield - Louvre
 
 
In contrast, Thetis is rendered in sensuous curves and portrayed in supplication to the mercy of a cruel God who holds the fate of her son in his hands. Thetis' right hand falls on Jupiter's hip with a suggestion of erotic caress, while the dark green of her dress accents the dread and foreboding of the bare landscape behind. Her clothing is drawn up against her lower hip, and seems about to fall off. The focal point of the work is Thetis' left hand extended vertically upright as she attempts to stroke the beard of the God.
 
 
Jupiter's pose is closely based on that of the famous chryselephantine sculpture, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia (Zeus being Jupiter's Greek equivalent), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. This was made by the Greek sculptor of the Classical period, Phidias, circa 432 BC and destroyed in Antiquity, but its pose is known from coins and small replicas. Here the pose is reversed right to left, and the arm to the viewer's right is higher than in the original, which held out a statue of Nike.

Jupiter and Thetis was painted to meet the artist's obligations to the French Academy in Rome, and although its overhand tone correctly reflected the patriarchal bias of Napoleon's regime in its contrast between male power and female subservience, it is generally regarded as a rejection of such values.

 
"Juipter and Thetis", a 1793 engraving by John Flaxman treats the subject matter in a similar tone.
 
 
Ingres highly regarded the painting, and in a manner it marries the great motifs of his career: the voluptuousness of the female character and the authoritative austerity on the male deity.

Ingres kept Jupiter and Thetis in his studio until 1834, when it was purchased by the state. In 1848, he made a single pencil copy. The painting was first exhibited at the 1811 Paris Salon, at a time when Ingres' attention to line coupled with his disregard for anatomical reality was yet to find favour among critics.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
     
 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
 
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
 
 

Lawrence Thomas. Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence. 1811
 
 
 
     
 
Sir Thomas Lawrence
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1811
 
 
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
 
 

Thorvaldsen Bertel. Procession of Alexander the Great
 
 
 
     
 
Bertel Thorvaldsen
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1811 Part I NEXT-1811 Part III