Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1809 Part III NEXT-1810 Part I    
 
 
     
FitzGerald Edward
1810 - 1819
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810-1819
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part I
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Edict of Fontainebleau
First Republic of Venezuela
Mexican War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence
Colombian Declaration of Independence
Foolish Fatherland
Chilean War of Independence
Bolivian war of independence
Charles XIV John
Invasion of Guadeloupe
Cavour Camillo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1810 Part II
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Montalembert Charles
Musset Alfred
Scott: "The Lady of the Lake"
Goya: "The Disasters of War"
The Nazarenes
Beethoven: "Egmont"
Chopin Frederic
Chopin - Nocturne Op.9 No.2
Frederic Chopin
Nicolai Otto
Nicolai - The Merry Wives of Windsor - Overture
Otto Nicolai
Rossini: "La Cambiale di Matrimonio"
Schumann Robert
Schumann - Piano sonata n.1 op.11
Robert Schumann
Spurzheim Johann Gaspar
Hahnemann Samuel
Girard Philippe
Humboldt University of Berlin
Krupp Friedrich Carl
Barnum Phineas Taylor
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part I
George IV
Battle of the Danube
Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo
Napoleon Francois-Joseph Charles
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Paraguay independent of Spain
Venezuelan War of Independence
Peruvian War of Independence
San Martin Jose
Battle of Las Piedras
Artigas Jose Gervagio
Invasion of Java
Battle of Tippecanoe
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part II
Bottiger Karl August
Niebuhr Barthold Georg
University of Oslo
Jane Austen: "Sense and Sensibility"
Stowe Harriet Beecher
Friedrich de la Motte-Fouque: "Undine"
Gautier Theophile
Goethe: "Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit"
Gutzkow Karl
Thackeray William Makepeace
Dupre Jules
Jules Dupre
Ingres: "Jupiter and Thetis"
Thomas Lawrence: Portrait of Benjamin West
Thorvaldsen: "Procession of Alexander the Great"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1811 Part III
Liszt Franz
Franz Liszt - Liebestraum - Love Dream
Franz Liszt
Prague Conservatoire
Carl Maria von Weber: "Abu Hassan"
Avogadro Amedeo
Great Comet of 1811
Bunsen Robert
Poisson Simeon-Denis
Manning Thomas
Berblinger Albrecht Ludwig
"Luddites"
Jungfrau
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part I
French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino
Kutuzov Mikhail
Malet Claude-François
Louisiana
Perceval Spencer
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part II
War of 1812
Battle of Salamanca
Siege of Burgos
Battle of Tordesillas
Hegel: "Science of Logic"
Jewish emancipation
Browning Robert
Robert Browning 
"Dramatic Romances"
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin"
The Brothers Grimm: "Fairy Tales"
Lord Byron: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Dickens Charles
Charles Dickens
"Great Expectations"
Theatre Royal Drury Lane
Goncharov Ivan Aleksandrovich
Smiles Samuel
Krasinski Zygmunt
Kraszewski Joseph Ignatius
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1812 Part III
Elgin Marbles
Rousseau Theodore
Theodore Rousseau
Pforr Franz
Franz Pforr
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 7 (Op. 92)
Encounter between Beethoven and Goethe at Teplitz
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 8 (Op. 93)
Flotow Friedrich
Friedrich von Flotow: Piano Concerto No. 2
Friedrich von Flotow
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
Burckhardt Johann Ludwig
Krupp Alfred
Red River Settlement, Manitoba, Canada
Hampden Clubs
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part I
German Campaign 1813–1814
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Lutzen
Battle of the Katzbach
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of York
Battle of Fort George
Capture of USS Chesapeake
Battle of Crysler's Farm
Capture of Fort Niagara
Battle of Buffalo
Battle of Vitoria
Siege of San Sebastian
First Serbian Uprising
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1813 Part II
Herbart Johann Friedrich
Kierkegaard Soren
Schopenhauer: "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason"
Colby College, Maine
The Baptist Union of Great Britain
Jane Austen: "Pride and Prejudice"
Buchner Georg
Byron: "The Giaour"
Hebbel Friedrich
Ludwig Otto
Shelley: "Queen Mab"
Turner: "Frosty Morning"
London Philharmonic Society
Rossini: "L'ltaliana in Algeri"
Verdi Giuseppe
Anna Netrebko "Final Scene" La traviata
Giuseppe Verdi
Wagner Richard
Richard Wagner - Ride Of The Valkyries
Richard Wagner
Campbell John
Blaxland Gregory
Across the Blue Mountains
Lord Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part I
1814 campaign in France
Six Days Campaign
Battle of Champaubert
Battle of Montmirail
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Battle of Vauchamps
Battle of Orthez
Treaty of Chaumont
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
Battle of Paris
Battle of Toulouse
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty of Paris
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's exile to Elba
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part II
Christian VIII
Bakunin Mikhail
Battle of Chippawa
Burning of Washington
Battle of Plattsburgh
Treaty of Ghent
Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16
First Anglican bishop in Calcutta
Motley John Lothrop
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1814 Part III
Jane Austen: "Mansfield Park"
Byron: "The Corsair"
Edmund Kean's Shylock
Lermontov Mikhail
Mikhail Lermontov
"Death of the Poet"
"Mtsyri"
"The Demon
"
Walter Scott: "Waverley"
Williav Wordsworth: "The Excursion"
Adelbert von Chamisso: "Peter Schlemihl"
Goya: "The Second of May 1808"
Goya: "The Third of May 1808"
Ingres: "Grande Odalisque"
Millet Jean Francois
Jean Francois Millet
Orfila Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure
Industrial printing presses
Lord's Cricket Ground
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part I
Battle of New Orleans
Hundred Days
Neapolitan War
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's surrender
Second Peace of Paris
Ney Michel
NAPOLEON AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EUROPE, 1796-1815
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part II
Corn Law
Bismarck Otto
Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816
Basel Mission
Beranger Pierre
Byron: "Hebrew Melodies"
Geibel Emanuel
Hoffmann: "Die Elixiere des Teufels"
Scott: "Guy Mannering"
Trollope Anthony
Anthony Trollope 
"Barchester Towers"
Wordsworth: "White Doe of Rylstone"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1815 Part III
Goya: "La Tauromaquia"
Menzel Adolf
Adolf Menzel
Turner: "Crossing the Brook"
Franz Robert
Robert Franz - Oh Wert thou in the Cauld Blast
Robert Franz
Kjerulf Halfdan
Halfdan Kjerulf - Spring Song
Halfdan Kjerulf
Robert Volkmann - Cello Concerto in A minor
Robert Volkmann
Davy lamp
Fresnel Augustin-Jean
Prout William
Prout's hypothesis
Steam battery "Demologos", or "Fulton"
Nations in Arms
Warfare
Nations in Arms
(1763-1815)
Apothecaries Act
McAdam John Loudon
Robertson Allan
Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part I
Maria I, Queen of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine Declaration of Independence
Federal Convention
Indiana
American Bible Society
Gobineau Joseph Arthur
Karamzin Nikolai
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1816 Part II
Jane Austen: "Emma"
Bronte Charlotte
Charlotte Bronte
"Jane Eyre"
Byron: "The Siege of Corinth"
Freytag Gustav
Derzhavin Gavrila
Leigh Hunt: "The Story of Rimini"
Shelley: "Alastor"
Goya: "The Duke of Osuna"
Rossini: "Barbiere di Siviglia"
Spohr: "Faust"
Brewster David
Laennec Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe
Siemens Werner
Cobbett William
Froebel Friedrich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part I
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act
Blanketeers
Wartburg Festival
Second Serbian Uprising (1815-1817)
Mississippi
Third Anglo-Maratha War 1817-1818
Bockh August
Hegel: "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"
Llorente Juan Antonio
Mommsen Theodor
David Ricardo: "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"
Byron: "Manfred"
Thomas Moore: "Lalla Rookh"
Storm Theodor
Thoreau Henry David
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1817 Part II
Constable: "Flatford Mill"
Daubigny Charles
Charles Daubigny
Thorvaldsen: Ganymede Waters Zeus as an Eagle
Leech John
John Leech
Watts George Frederic
George Frederic Watts
Rossini: "La Gazza ladra"
Rossini: "Cenerentola"
Selenium
Lithium
Ritter Carl
Long Stephen Harriman
"Blackwood's Magazine"
"The Scotsman"
Waterloo Bridge
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part I
Chilean Declaration of Independence
Bavarian constitution proclaimed
Treaty of 1818
Illinois
Dobrovsky Josef
Froude James Anthony
Marx Karl
Karl Marx
"Manifesto of the Communist Party"
- Marxism
Friedrich Engels
First International
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part II
Byron: "Don Juan"
Keats: "Endymion"
Peacock: "Nightmare Abbey"
Walter Scott: "Heart of Midlothian"
Shelley Mary
Mary Shelley "Frankenstein"
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 
"Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus"
Turgenev Ivan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1818 Part III
Burckhardt Jakob
Fohr Carl Philipp
Karl Philipp Fohr
Donizetti: "Enrico, Conte di Borgogna"
Gounod Charles
Gounod - Ave Maria
Charles Gounod
"Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht"
Rossini: "Mose in Egitto"
Bessel Friedrich Wilhelm
Encke Johann Franz
Oxley John
British Admiralty Expeditions
Scoresby William
Phipps Constantine Henry
Buchan David
Parry William Edward
Ross James Clark
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Raiffeisen Friedrich Wilhelm
"Savannah"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part I
Founding of modern Singapore
Florida
Victoria
Queen Victoria
Victorian Era
Peterloo Massacre
Albert, Prince Consort
Alabama
Jakob Grimm: "German Grammar"
Hermes Georg
Schopenhauer: "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung"
Sismondi Jean
Wilson Horace Hayman
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part II
Byron: "Mazeppa"
Eliot George
George Eliot 
"Silas Marner"
Fontane Theodor
Howe Julia Ward
Keats: "Hyperion"
Keller Gottfried
Kotzebue August
Lowell James Russell
Shelley: "The Cenci"
Whitman Walt
Walt Whitman
"Leaves of Grass"
Washington Irving: "Rip van Winkle"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1819 Part III
Courbet Gustave
Gustave Courbet
Theodore Gericault: "The Raft of the Medusa"
Ruskin John
Thorvaldsen: "Lion of Lucerne"
Turner: "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Museo del Prado
Chasseriau Theodore
Theodore Chasseriau
Offenbach Jacques
Offenbach - Barcarole
Jacques Offenbach
Schumann Clara
Mitscherlich Eilhard
Oersted Hans Christian
Central Asia Exploration
Moorcroft William
First Sightings of the Antarctic Continent
Bransfield Edward
Weddell James
Bellingshausen Thaddeus
Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London
 
 
 

Georges Rouget, Marriage of Napoleon and Marie-Louise
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1810-1819  History at a Glance
 
 

 
 
1810
 
 

A mural by Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949) depicting Miguel Hidalgo,
whose anticolonial document sparked the Mexican War of Independence.
 
 
USING THE EXISTING POLITICAL CHAOS as an opportunity for reform, Spanish politicians called a congress, known as a Cortes, on September 24 in the port of Cadiz. Deputies numbered 104, with 30 representing the colonial territories, although more arrived later. The Cortes declared itself the source of national sovereignty and began to draw up a constitution, although Spaniards were divided as to the extent they wished the government to be restructured. There was also the question of how much political representation to allow overseas territories. The colonies represented a population far greater than Spain's, meaning they could, in theory, dominate the Cortes. The peninsular politicians wished to avoid this, yet needed the colonies' continued support.
 
 
1810 Priest Sparks Mexican War

On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo у Costilla, who had grown increasingly determined to improve his parishioners' economic well-being, rang the church bell and delivered his famous Grito de Dolores, which called for a revolution against the Spanish. His words moved the people, many of whom were Indians and mestizos, and took his call for independence further, lashing out against Mexico's social and economic issues and the upper class. Tens of thousands joined Hidalgo, establishing an army and capturing several cities near Mexico City. The movement went all the way to the capital, but Hidalgo hesitated against the Spanish army and withdrew. Hidalgo lost his momentum and soon his followers. Fleeing to the United States, Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811. Hidalgo is called the Mexican father of independence, and now Mexico celebrates its independence day on September 16.
 
 

Some members of the public in the colonies began taking matters into their own hands. In Dolores, Mexico, a parish priest named Miguel document calling for the end of Spanish rule, while advocating racial equality and land redistribution, an act known as the Grito de Dolores (Cry of Dolores). Thousands responded to his call and set off for Mexico City, where they were put down by loyalist troops the following year. But Hidalgo's actions had sparked the Mexican struggle for freedom.

 
 

In other Spanish colonies, similar upheavals took place. The viceroyalty of New Granada also declared its independence on July 20, and there had been uprisings in Quito and Buenos Aires.

 
 


Latin America on the eve of independence
Spain and Portugal still controlled the majority of Central and South America during the early days of the Peninsular War.

 
 

Meanwhile, on the Hawaiian islands in the Pacific Ocean, King Kamehameha I (1758-1819) became the first ruler of a united Hawaii, helping the islands withstand European incursions.

 
 
1810 Appert Invents Canning

The French government had offered a prize of 12,000 francs to the person who could find a way to preserve food for its Napoleon-led army. French chef Nicolas-Francois Appert received the cash prize in 1810 after publishing a paper on his method of heat-sealing food in glass jars. In 1812, he opened the first commercial cannery, known as House of Appert—the culmination of a 14-year quest for a mass food preservation technique. While he did not understand the science behind why his system worked, Appert is considered the father of canning.

FOOTNOTE Peter Durand, an English contermporary of Appert, devised a way to seal food inside metal containers —another step toward today's canning. He coated iron containers with a thin film of tin to prevent rusting.
 
 
 
1811
 
 
ON JULY 5, THE SOUTH AMERICAN TERRITORY of Venezuela joined New Granada and Mexico in declaring independence from Spain. One of the rebels involved in the deliberations for independence, Simon Bolivar, had recently returned from England, where he had tried to elicit British support for their cause, but he was unsuccessful.
 
 


A caricature compares the Luddites to mobs of the French Revolution.

 
 
Bolivar's trip was confined to London, but had he traveled farther north, he would have seen rebels of another kind: the group known as the Luddites, who were attacking textile mills in the industrial north of England. The Luddites aimed to destroy the new machinery in the mills. They feared the machines would eventually replace them, thereby forcing them into unemployment and poverty.
 
 
 
SIMON BOLIVAR

(1783-1830)

Simon Bolivar was born in Caracas to a wealthy family.

He was sent to Europe at 16, where he was inspired by the writings of Enlightenment thinkers on the issue of liberty.

Soon after returning to South America in 1807, he became involved in independence conspiracies.

Later known as El Libertador, he led much of northern South America to independence from Spain.

He also ruled Gran Colombia, but the political union ultimately failed.
 
 
 
1812
 
 

When Napoteon Bonaparte's troops arrived in Moscow, they found the city ablaze,
as portrayed by this painting by Jean-Charles Langlois (1789-1870).
 
 

RUSSIA, LIKE PORTUGAL, DECIDED to resist Napoleon's Continental System, measures intended to damage the economy of Britain. Russia had withdrawn from it in 1810, and Napoleon resolved to mount an invasion in retaliation. He sent more than 500,000 troops to Russia in June and won early victories at the battles of Smolensk on August 17 and Borodino on September 7, arriving with his forces in Moscow on September 14. There they found the city gutted, and its inhabitants gone. Russian troops held off any further advance, and as the brutal Russian winter set in, Napoleon's troops began to falter. The Grand Armee was running short on food and many soldiers, unaccustomed to such extreme cold, died. Napoleon had no other option but to make a humiliating retreat in December. Only around 30,000 French soldiers survived.

 


The fire of Moscow (September 1812)

 
 

In North America, merchants prospered in their trade with France, claiming to be a neutral party in the dispute between the British and the French. Britain refused to recognize this neutrality and began to seize American ships, often capturing the American sailors and pressing them into service with the British Royal Navy. This triggered the War of 1812 (to 1814), which also included battles on the mainland where Britain persuaded American Indians loyal to the Crown to attack settlements in the Northwest Territory.

 
 

In Spain, the Cortes had finally produced a constitution. It limited the power of the monarchy— although Ferdinand VII was still in exile—and did not provide any special representation in the Cortes for the nobility or the clergy. Its liberal ideas provoked an angry reaction among some supporters of the Crown and Church, and triggered a long-running fight between liberals and conservatives, which would continue for decades.

 
 

In Egypt, Muhammad Ali was ordered on a campaign to reestablish Ottoman rule in the holy city of Mecca, and drive out the Wahhabis, who had seized much of Arabia. His troops took Medina in 1812 , and Jeddah and Mecca the following year.

 
 
1812 Cuvier Proposes Catastrophism

In 1812, French zoologist Georges Cuvier published Inquiry Into Fossil Remains, putting forth the thought that over Earth's time there were great catastrophes that eliminated certain creatures while enabling the emergence of more modern creatures. This view was called catastrophism, the opposite of uniformitarianism, whereby biological, physical, and chemical changes were thought to occur with general uniformity over a great length of time. But Cuvier did not buy into evolutionary thinking; in fact, he believed that any change in a life-form would destroy its delicate balance. Nonetheless, Cuvier was dedicated to classifying fossils the same way scientists were classifying animals living on Earth. He is considered the founder of paleontology.
 
 
 
1812 Brothers Publish Fairy Tales

In 1812, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, known as the brothers Grimm, published the first of a two-volume collection of 200 stories generally known as Grimms Fairy Tales.

The work, taken mostly from oral sources, has been translated into more than 160 languages and is considered the basis for much of the children's stories and films enjoyed today.

Working in a library in Germany, Jacob Grimm found medieval manuscripts of stories that were disintegrating and on the verge of becoming lost.

The brothers invited storytellers into their homes, taking notes and then editing and rewriting the narrative.

The Grimms' aim was to accurately reproduce the storyteller's words, emphasizing the fantastic and retaining the beliefs of the time.

Their work was the first scientific collection of folktales.
 
 
 
 
1813
 
 

"THE BULLET THAT WILL KILL ME IS NOT YET CAST."

Napoleon Bonaparte, statement at Montereau, February 17, 1814

 
 

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, AFTER HIS HUMILIATING RETREAT IN Russia, began to experience the rapid decline of his military might. This was driven home by the decisive defeat at the Battle of Leipzig (also known as the Battle of the Nations) fought October 16-19. France had nearly 185,000 troops, but the allies outnumbered them with more than 300,000 soldiers from Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden. Even after this loss, Napoleon still refused to sign a peace deal that would put France's boundary back to the Rhine River and the Alps.

 
 

While Russia was caught up in the Napoleonic conflict, it was also entangled with territorial deals further east; Russia and Persia signed the Treaty of Gulistan, in which Russia was given a large area of Persian Caucasus territory. The deal brought to an end the Russo-Persian War (1804-13), which had been triggered by Russia's annexation of Georgia and the Karabakh (a region in present-day Azerbaijan). The territories, which had been a dominion of Persia, had appealed to Persia's shah for help in resisting Russia.

 
 

In Venezuela, Simon Bolivar had won an important victory against the Spanish and captured Caracas, though Spain's forces would later defeat him, forcing him into exile for two years. During this period he went to Jamaica and Haiti to regroup and enlist further support before returning to Venezuela in 1816.

 
 
 
1814
 
 

ALLIED TROOPS PURSUED Napoleon to Paris, where he was captured. He abdicated on April 6 and was exiled to the island of Elba, off the Tuscan coast of Italy. To replace him, Louis XVIII (1755-1824)-brotherofthe beheaded Louis XVI—was placed on the French throne. Afterward, the European powers convened the Congress of Vienna (September1814 to June 1815).

 
 

Part of the resulting settlement gave Prussia two-fifths of Saxony set up a German Confederation; and allowed Britain to retain France's Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius and the Seychelles, which it had captured.

 
 

An engraving of a palanquin (litter) being carried in Mauritius.
 
 
1814 Fraunhofer Shows Spectrometer

In 1814, German optician and physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer began plotting the more than 500 dark lines he observed in the spectrum of sunlight while working with prisms—work that would greatly affect the field of chemistry in years to come. Fraunhofer, who was manufacturing quality prisms and lenses, mapped the lines and gave them letters from A to K. He was not the first to discover the lines (noted in 1802 by a British physicist), but he was the first to document them. Nothing was done with his findings or his identification system until almost 50 years later, when scientists began to discover that each chemical element produced unique spectral lines. Once a matter like ore was heated to incandescence, it could be determined if a new element was present in it. The classification of spectra
quickly became an essential research tool for physicists and chemists and led to the discovery of many new elements.

FOOTMOTE Although Fraunhofer's discovery was to lead to greater understanding of the elements of Earth, he was a telescope maker, and his immediate interest was the variety of spectra emitted by the moon and planets.
 
 

Fraunhofer demonstrating the spectroscope.
 
 
 
1815
 
 
ALTHOUGH HE WAS EXILED FROM FRANCE, Napoleon rallied enough supporters to help him mount his return, and he entered Paris on March 20—just 11 months after his forced departure. Louis XVIII fled, and what became known as the "Hundred Days" began. Once he had an army assembled, Napoleon mounted attacks against his enemies, defeating Prussia at Ligny (in present-day Belgium) on June 16. He fared much worse two days later at the Battle of Waterloo, against British troops led by the Duke of Wellington, who had brought the Peninsular War to an the previous year. Napoleon had been on the verge of victory, but the arrival of Prussian reinforcements secured his defeat. Napoleon was forced to abdicate once again, but this time he was to be exiled much further away—the island of St. Helena, a British outpost in the South Atlantic, where he died in 1821.
 
 

Battle of Waterloo
This clash was the definitive defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, after which he was forced to abdicate and go into exile.
 
 
1815 Napoleon Loses at Waterloo

In 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, just south of Brussels in Belgium. The allied nations of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia had removed Napoleon from power the previous year, exiling him to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean, while Louis XVIII took the French throne. When the new king was not immediately favored by the French people, Napoleon mobilized another army, causing Louis to flee, and in March 1815 reclaimed his title as France's emperor. The allied nations were determined to oust Napoleon, but their armies were spread across Europe. Napoleon used this to his advantage and acted quickly. On June 18, 1815, 72,000 French troops battled 68,000 British, Dutch, Belgian, and German troops and 45,000 Prussians, but Napoleon would not prevail. The French suffered 25,000 casualties. Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo marked the end of 23 years of warfare between France and the other European powers.
 
 
Napoleon Bonaparte

MEMOIR BY LOUIS DE BOURRIENNE, 1815

Nothing could be more gloomy than Bonaparte's entrance into Paris. He arrived at night in the midst of a thick fog. The streets were almost deserted, and a vague feeling of terror prevailed almost generally in the capital.... The capital never presented so melancholy a picture as during those three months. No one felt any confidence in Napoleon's second reign, and it was said, without any sort of reserve, that Fouche, while serving the cause of usurpation, would secretly betray it. The future was viewed with alarm, and the present with dissatisfaction. The sight of the federates who paraded the faubourgs and the boulevards, vociferating, "The Republic for ever!" and "Death to the Royalists!" their sanguinary songs, the revolutionary airs played in our theatres, all tended to produce a fearful torpor in the public mind, and the issue of the impending events was anxiously awaited.

One of the circumstances which, at the commencement of the Hundred Days, most contributed to open the eyes of those who were yet dazzled by the past glory of Napoleon, was the assurance with which he declared that the Empress and his son would be restored to him, though nothing warranted that announcement. It was evident that he could not count on any ally; and in spite of the prodigious activity with which a new army was raised those persons must have been blind indeed who could imagine the possibility of his triumphing over Europe, again armed to oppose him.
 
 


Napoleon Bonaparte

 
 

At the same time, Britain's troops in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) had taken control of the kingdom of Kandy, which meant the entire island was under British rule.

 
 


A painting depicts the 17th-century Temple of Tooth, located in the
kingdom of Kandy, where one of Buddha's teeth is preserved.

 
 
1815 McAdam Builds Roads

In 1815, Scottish engineer John Loudon McAdam became surveyor-general of the Bristol roads and began a new technique of roadbuilding in Britain that represented a complete shift from earlier methods and is still used today. Frustrated with his country's road conditions, McAdam worked to solve road deterioration problems caused by poor drainage. His durable paving method, known as macadamization, allowed for construction of lasting roads linking cities and thus quickly spread to the rest of the world.
 
 
 
1816
 
 

A native inhabitant in Alaska, territory which Russia had claimed.
 
 

A RUSSIAN ORTHODOX PRIEST, Father Sokoloff, was sent to Sitka in the Alaska territory, to build a church in the town as part of Russia's bid to colonize the region Alaska had lingered as an outpost but settlements began to grow as trade in sea otter furs flourished.

 
 

In southern Africa, Shaka (c. 1787-1828], a fierce warrior, took over the rule of the Zulus. He reorganized the army, leading his tribe to military victory, and incorporated conquered tribes into the Zulu nation.

 
 
1816 San Martin Liberates Argentina

Holding true to his roots, Argentinian-born Gen. Jose de San Martin returned to his home country after fighting for Spain against Napoleon Bonaparte's army to win Argentina's independence in 1816. San Martin's parents moved from Argentina to their homeland in Spain when San Martin was a young boy, where he was educated and trained as an army officer. San Martin said he switched allegiance to fight the Spanish for Argentina as a calling of his native land. After his success in Argentina, San Martin perhaps took on his greatest physical battle. He led an army over a nearly 15,000-foot pass in the Andes to surprise the Spanish in the Battle of Chacabuco near Santiago, Chile, where he was victorious. A second battle a few months later won Chile's independence. Focused, San Martin pressed on toward Lima, Peru, where he would lead another revolution. Peru was eventually liberated by Simon Bolivar. San Martin was known for his military tactics, patience, and strong determination. He remains one of Argentina's greatest heroes.
 
 
 
1816 American Colonization Society

The American Colonization Society, primarily made up of influential white men and slave owners but also some abolitionists, was founded in 1816 in an effort to return freeborn African Americans and emancipated slaves back to Africa. Some believe the group's efforts provided African Americans the opportunity to return to Africa, while others saw them as a refusal to let free African Americans integrate into white society. The ACS established a settlement named Monrovia, and by 1867 more than 13,000 African-American emigrants were placed there. Monrovia eventually gained its independence as what is now Liberia.

FOOTNOTE American supporters of the colonization movement included Daniel Webster, Andrew Jackson, Francis Scott Key, and James Monroe —hence the name for the African center founded for the cause, Monrovia
.
 
 
 
1817
 
 

Argentine general Jose de San Martin with his horse and officers.
 
THE FIGHT AGAINST SPANISH rule took a decisive turn when Argentine-born General Jose de San Martin (1778-1850) led around 3,000 troops from Argentina into Chile through treacherous passages in the Andes mountains, and launched a surprise attack on royalist forces on February 12— the Battle of Chacabuco. He then moved on to take Santiago. He refused the offer of governorship of Chile, passing it instead to fellow soldier Bernardo O'Higgins (c. 1776-1842), who became the territory's "supreme director."
 
 

The Battle of Chacabuco between the Army of the Andes and Spanish forces in 1817. Chilean and Argentinean troops going to the Battle of Chacabuco (February 12, 1817) leaded by José de San Martín.
 
 
 

Serbia had also been fighting once more for independence, after being invaded by the Turks in 1813. The Second Serbian Uprising was successful, and most of their former rights were regained by 1817.

 
 
 
1818
 
 

"LET US BE FREE. THE REST MATTERS NOT!"

Jose de San Martin, revolutionary leader

 
 

THE BATTLE IN ARABIA, ongoing since 1811 between Egypt and the Wahhabi sect of Islam, drew to a close in 1818. Egyptian forces led by Muhammad Ali recaptured the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Wahhabi power had spread quickly, and from their Arabian base they had secured control of Mecca, Medina, and Jedda. Syria was under threat when Muhammad Ali received his orders to defeat the Wahhabi and return the cities to Ottoman rule. A final siege of the capital Diriyah (in present-day Saudi Arabia) put a temporary end to Wahhabi ambitions.

 
 

In South America, the effort led by Jose de San Martin at the Battle of Maipu on April 5 secured independence for Chile when loyalist troops suffered a crushing defeat. With a small naval fleet of seven ships under the command of British mercenary Lord Thomas Cochrane, the rebels also managed to break the Spanish hold on the coastline.

 
 

In Paris, German inventor Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun was impressing crowds with a display of his draisienne, a two-wheeled machine that was the precursor to the modern bicycle. Made of wood and propelled by pushing the feet along the ground, rather than by pedals, it was known in German as the Laufmaschine, or "running machine." While testing the design the previous year, he had managed to ride it 9 miles (14km). The idea was soon picked up and modified by other inventors, including Briton Denis Johnson (c. 1759-1833), a coachmaker by training, who designed a "pedestrian curricle," later known as a dandy horse.

 
 

Mary Shelley
The English novelist Mary Shelley published her first novel,
Frankenstein, in 1818, and it remains a literary classic today.
 
 

In England, Mary Shelley (1797-1851), the daughter of writer Mary Wollstonecraft and wife of poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), published the novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. The novel concerns a scientist who artificially creates another human being, and the consequences they both suffer. The work was an instant success, and is considered a classic work of Gothic literature as well as one of the earliest examples of science fiction.

 
 

Frankenstein has become an unmistakable pan of popular culture, an image of horror and sympathy.
 
 
1818 Frankenstein Published

English novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley anonymously published Frankenstein in 1818 and then published a revised version under her name in 1831. Shelley, who was the daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft, a women's advocate and author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, wrote Frankenstein as a Gothic novel, but it is also considered a philosophical work. Thought to be one of the first science-fiction novels, it tells the story of a scientist who creates a human being, a monster, which leads to horrifying consequences. The novel has been a source of philosophical and psychological discussion for nearly 200 years and has been made into classic horror films.
 
 
 
1819
 
 

A depiction of the Peterloo Massacre in which a peaceful political protest in Manchester,
England, was attacked by armed cavalrymen.
 

ON AUGUST 16, A POLITICAL RALLY of around 60,000 people on St. Peter's Field in Manchester, England, turned from a protest about high food prices and lack of popular suffrage into the Peterloo Massacre. Magistrates, concerned about the size of the crowd, ordered the Yeomanry (voluntary cavalry officers) to arrest the speakers, but they attacked the crowd when they refused to make way. A regiment, the 15th Hussars, was then sent in, and an estimated 15 people were killed and more than 500 injured.

 
 

Upon his return from exile, Venezuelan general Simon Bolivar had begun to make considerable headway against royalist forces. In 1819, he led his troops from Venezuela over the Andes to launch an attack. The Spanish were defeated at the Battle of Boyaca on August 7 and Bolivar marched south to Santa Fe de Bogota, which secured the independence of New Granada. Bolivar was named the president of the new Republic of Colombia.

 
 
1819 Bolivar Enters New Granada

South American soldier and revolutionary leader Simon Bolivar, known as the Liberator, led an army of 2,500 men over the treacherous Andes and through floodplains otherwise considered impassable on his way to an attack on New Granada in 1819. Bolivar surprised the Spanish and defeated them at the Battle of Boyaca. He liberated the territory of Columbia and was made president and dictator. This was a substantial feat for the man who was born in Caracas into a wealthy family, schooled in Europe and had his beginnings in the Venezuelan independence movement. In 1822 he secured Ecuador's independence, and he became dictator of Peru in 1824. Under General Antonio Jose de Sucre, Bolivar's men overtook the Spanish at Ayacucho in 1824. Upper Peru, now named Bolivia, became a state in 1825. This was effectively the end of Spain's power in South America. Bolivar wanted to unite the South American republics as a confederation, but after centuries of oppressive rule, the people were not ready There were various revolts, and Bolivar exiled himself in 1830. In all, Bolivar brought independence to six present-day nations. He is considered one of South America's greatest generals.
 
 

In a bid to challenge Dutch dominance of trade routes between China and India the British East India Company sought a new base in the Malay peninsula. Stamford Raffles arrived in Singapore, which was then part of the Riau-Johor empire. He negotiated a deal with the local ruler and founded a port.

 
 
 
THE EAST INDIA COMPANIES
The East India Companies monopolized trade between Europe and Southeast Asia, India, and the Far East from the early 17th century. However, the French Compagnie Francaise des Indes Orientales ceased trading at the time of the French Revolution. The charter for the Dutch Vereenigde Oost-lndische Compagnie was revoked in 1799 when the government took control of it. Sweden's Svenska Ostindiska Companiet folded in 1813, while Britain's East India Company (above) traded until 1874.
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1809 Part III NEXT-1810 Part I