Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
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FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1808 Part III


Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier, in full Honoré-Victorin Daumier (born Feb. 20/26, 1808, Marseille—died Feb. 11, 1879, Valmondois, France), prolific French caricaturist, painter, and sculptor especially renowned for his cartoons and drawings satirizing 19th-century French politics and society. His paintings, though hardly known during his lifetime, helped introduce techniques of Impressionism into modern art.

Honore Daumier
  Background and early life
Traits of Daumier’s ancestry—a violent temperament, a generous and rather fanciful turn of mind, and an easily aroused capacity for pity—all form part of his character. His mother’s family was from a village in which samples of unique ancient sculptured reliefs—fierce primitive human heads—had been found. His grandfather and father both worked in Marseille as “glaziers”—that is to say, dealers in frames (or passe-partout pictures) and decorative tableaux that they painted themselves.

His godfather was a painter. When Daumier was seven, his father abandoned his business in order to go to Paris and, like so many Provençals, seek his fortune as a poet. He was presented to the king, Louis XVIII; but his swift fall from favour—he was famous only for a fortnight—unbalanced him mentally. After apparently being confined for many years, he died in the Charenton asylum.

Daumier received a typical lower middleclass education, but he wanted to draw, and his studies did not interest him. His family therefore placed him with an old and fairly well-known artist, Alexandre Lenoir. Lenoir, a student and friend of Jacques-Louis David, a leading classicist painter, was more an aesthetician than a painter. He had a pronounced taste for Rubens, one of whose works he kept in his collection.
A connoisseur of sculpture, he had saved the most beautiful medieval and contemporary sculptures from the Revolutionaries, which inspired a lasting interest in Daumier.

Daumier was then not at all the uncultured, self-taught genius that most art historians of the late 19th and early 20th centuries have depicted. He did not rise from an artistic void—he was the child of artists, however modest and unsuccessful they had been in making a name. Added to the advantage of this ancestry, he also benefitted from a more interesting artistic education than his contemporaries.
At the age of 13 his father’s breakdown forced Daumier to seek paying work. He first became a messenger boy for a bailiff and, from this experience, acquired his familiarity with the world of the lawcourts. He worked next as a bookseller’s clerk at the Palais-Royal. The Palais-Royal, with its arcades surrounding the garden, was one of the busiest spots in Paris, and there Daumier saw, parading before his employer’s window, all the characters of the Comédie humaine, about whom he would later talk with his friend Balzac: not only men and women of fashion, intellectuals, and artists but also “captains of industry,” or swindlers, as they were commonly called—all of whom lent themselves to caricature.

Daumier’s development was thus complete at that moment when, about 1825–28, he decided to give up everything to embark on the artistic career of which he had dreamed so long.
He was a young man of about 18 or 20, from a family of painters, who had had an opportunity to admire Rubens, had learned to analyze sculpture, and had been able to observe the appearance and behaviour of different classes of society.

  Physically he was ugly, at least according to the taste of his time. Heavyset like Balzac, although probably smaller, he had small but lively eyes and a large nose. He always kept a pipe in his mouth, in order to mask his Provençal accent and the frequent lisp of his native region.

Daumier could not, of course, live from painting or from sculpture as he had set out to do. He therefore accepted commissions for lithographs—portraits and, at a very early age, cartoons of morals and manners (caricatures de moeurs), the first of these dating from 1822, when he was scarcely 15 years old and was just beginning to produce lithographs.
Although some of his first works were signed, many others were not: they were portraits of celebrities that were signed by another native of Marseille, Zéphirin Belliard, Daumier’s elder by 10 years and the author of a lavish Iconographie des contemporains. For the most part these portraits were mediocre, modelled on another artist’s style, but they constituted an excellent apprenticeship for someone interested in the human physiognomy.

His life, devoted entirely to his work, was to be divided into two parts: from 1830 to 1847 he was a lithographer, cartoonist, and sculptor; and, beginning in 1848 and lasting until 1871, he was an Impressionist painter whose art was reflected in the lithographs he continued to produce. Constant work was not a burden to him; while producing 4,000 lithographs and 4,000 illustrative drawings, he sang sentimental songs whose foolishness made him laugh, and, “unconcerned with his works, he was always out drinking cheap wine with barge captains.”

Honore Daumier
  Satirical lithographs
In 1830 Daumier began his satirical work: his busts lampooning certain contemporary types and his many lithographs. He enjoyed the company of grandiloquent men and mainly associated with men of the left. It was at this time that Charles Philipon, a liberal journalist who had founded the opposition journal La Caricature, invited him to become a contributor.

King Louis-Philippe generally tolerated jokes at his expense, but, when unduly provoked, rather than bring suit against a paper, he preferred to seize it, a procedure that meant ruin for its staff and financial backers. Only once during his reign did he deal severely with an offender—with Daumier in 1832, and then only after the second of the artist’s most violent attacks. Sentenced to six months in prison, Daumier spent two of them in the state prison and four in a mental hospital, the king apparently wanting to show that one had to be mad to oppose and caricature him.
After his release in February 1833, Daumier was never again indicted, even though in his cartoons he continued to attack a regime, a form of society, and a concept of life that he scorned, while at the same time creating unforgettable characters. Daumier’s types were universal: businessmen, lawyers, doctors, professors, and petits bourgeois. His treatment of his lithographs was sculptural, leading Balzac to say about him that he had a bit of Michelangelo under his skin.

Daumier’s sculptures have still not been sufficiently studied. The 15 or so small busts that he modelled in clay for the window of the satirical journal for which he worked and that remained there some 30 years occupy an important place in the history of sculpture. Scarcely differing from official busts, but with the accentuation of a detail that made them caricatures, they constitute an unforgettable gallery of the politicians of the July monarchy. The complete series has not been preserved: it included a Louis-Philippe, which Daumier hid, and other pieces that were broken in moving. A few copies of the busts were cast in bronze in the 20th century, and their originality is the more striking when they are compared with similar pieces of that period.

Daumier’s only close friends were sculptors, all of them romantic, poor, and ardent left-wingers. Although intimate with these few friends, Daumier did not form part of any of the many artistic or literary coteries of the time. He was not inclined to frequent salons, or even saloons. When he went to a café, it was with his neighbours on the Île Saint-Louis, where he lived between 1833 and approximately 1850 in a studio on the quay d’Anjou. This old studio still exists, at the top of a house overlooking a world of roofs and open windows, behind which his models lived. Nor did his wife, to whom he was very attached, his dear “Didine” (Léopoldine), mix in artistic circles; she was a dressmaker.

In 1848 Daumier believed the era of social justice for which he had militantly fought for 20 years had arrived, and he took part in the official competition for the representation of the republic that was to replace the portrait of the king in all the municipal buildings of France. His rough sketch was beautiful, and, had he agreed to complete the painting, he would have received the prize.

Impressionist techniques
He did not do so, however, for he had become preoccupied with new technical studies; earlier than others, he had discovered Impressionism—faces and bodies devoured by the surrounding light and becoming one with the atmosphere. He painted a great deal, and the more so as his studies in the new technique did not interest the satirical journals to which he now submitted drawings devoid of humorous meaning. He was supported by Charles Baudelaire and by that poet’s friends. The two men had met in 1845 and saw each other more frequently after 1848. Baudelaire, who “adored him,” wrote in 1857 the only significant article on Daumier to appear in the painter’s lifetime.

Daumier was indeed the first of the Impressionists. As early as 1848, his lithographs show contours effaced by light. Two factors, however, prevented this fact from being noticed: the lack of interest in his lithographs shown by historians of painting and the lack of research to establish the exact dates of the lithographs. These dates were not necessarily those of their appearance. It has been shown, for instance, that the Impressionist lithographs, which appeared around 1860, had been rejected by journals in 1848 as being too bold, too modern. Because of this lack of demand, Daumier’s Impressionist lithographs are not very numerous, but his painting shows that he was won over to Impressionism. The paintings, also, were too few in number to assign him his true place in the history of Impressionism—before Manet and Monet, both of whom admired him greatly.

The dating of Daumier’s paintings has given rise to controversy. Nineteenth-century art historians and those prior to 1938 dated them largely in relation to the paintings of his contemporaries. But it now seems more reasonable to date them from his lithographs, for it is not likely for an artist who changes styles frequently to work differently when drawing on a lithographic stone than when painting on canvas. When Daumier imagined a form, he would fashion and refashion it numerous times in his lithography. It is not likely that he would wait four to six years after he had stopped dealing with it in his lithographs to treat it in his painting. The question may be studied again, but not on the basis of documents of the period, for Daumier’s notebooks were too abbreviated, and critiques by his contemporaries were rare, since he seldom showed his works, and they went largely unnoticed.

Daumier’s paintings are highly original, both in their style and in the subjects they present. He created the painting of morals and manners (la peinture de moeurs) featuring in his work the everyday life on the Île Saint-Louis and its quays, such as children playing in the water, one of them brought back to its parents after an accident; horses leaving a water trough; washerwomen wearily returning up the stairs from the river or fighting against the wind, their bundles in their arms; drinkers in a pub; and masons on a scaffold.

  He was stirred by the theatre, then by railroads, which he used as a means of showing galleries of faces as powerful in their impact as those of the Ventre législatif (“Legislative Belly” or “Vile Body of the Legislature”). Earlier, the Palais de Justice had provided him with the opportunity of drawing his dramatically impressive lawyers. Then he went to Valmondois, on the outskirts of Paris, and depicted rustic scenes. Much of his painting was devoted to artists’ studios—not studios of a studied picturesqueness but those where artists were concerned with creating works of art.

These subjects are found again in his lithographs, together with topical subjects, such as seaside resorts, hunting, and winter scenes, all of which, having been commissioned, seemed to inspire him less. Thus he transposed into his painting what had until then belonged to the domain of the caricatures of morals and manners.

Daumier was not often inspired by religious subjects, except for the image of Christ, insulted and ridiculed, in which there appears to be personal allusion—that of a man who each day hoped to draw his last cartoon so that he could devote himself to painting. On the other hand, mythology excited him during his Rubens period under Lenoir; but in this case, obviously, the subject was only a prop for the painting.

On several occasions Daumier painted historical subjects. He painted Camille Desmoulins, the Revolutionary leader, rousing the crowd in 1789; and his Emigrants of 1857 is an allusion to the authoritarian empire of Napoleon III, a painting that echoes the words of the proscribed Victor Hugo: “It is not I who am proscribed, it is liberty; it is not I who am exiled, it is France.”

The types that Daumier created did not always survive him. He created a Louis-Philippe, but above all Robert Macaire (the typical businessman of Louis-Philippe’s reign). His Bons Bourgeois probably served as a reference for the French middle class up to the 1940s. In any case, his Lawyers remain up-to-date.

Following tradition, Daumier took pupils who learned their craft by copying and imitating his works. Two of them are known by name: Boulard and Gill. Their works are known—incorrectly—as faux Daumier, for works are only false when one is unable to see that they are the exercises of pupils.

Less solitary than he is said to have been, and admired by the new school, notably by Manet, Daumier grew old: sadly, for he would have liked to give up his lithographic work in favour of painting, but he could not do so.

But he was happy in the knowledge that his lithographs preserved their force, as Hugo said in 1870 when Daumier symbolized his great satirical poem Les Châtiments by a crucified eagle.


Honore Daumier. The Artist

In 1871, Daumier, who had discreetly refused to be decorated by the empire, became a member of the leftist Paris Commune. He was almost blind during his last years. His drawings, like those of Edgar Degas, gained a magnificent wholeness. He had one last joy, an exhibition at the Durand-Ruel Gallery in 1878. People began to say that his paintings were at least as good as his lithographs, though it was more the republican than the artist that they wished to celebrate.

As a cartoonist, Daumier enjoyed a wide reputation, although as a painter he remained unknown. His fame was not based, any more than it is today, on critical appreciations but, rather, on the smiling or laughing admiration of those who read the satirical journals.

Jean Adhémar

Encyclopædia Britannica

Honore Daumier
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"

Friedrich Caspar David. Cross in the Mountains (Tetschen Altar)
Oil on canvas, 115 x 110 cm
Gemäldegalerie, Dresden


Friedrich Caspar David. Cross in the Mountains (Tetschen Altar).1808 (detail)
Caspar David Friedrich
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"

Goya Francisco. "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"

Goya Francisco. "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid" (detail)
Francisco de Goya
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"

Ingres increased the original measurements of this picture before exhibiting it at the Paris Salon, probably in 1825. The subject is the meeting between Oedipus and the sphinx in a desolate place at the gates of Thebes. The painting shows a rocky cave in which the nude figure of the prince confronts the mythical monster. Over his right shoulder, the hero wears a red mantle, which falls against his left thigh. His left foot is placed on a large rock, and two spears lean against his right shoulder, their points resting on the rock. To the left, the sphinx sits in the shadows on a pile of rocks. wrhile below, in the foreground, a foot and some bones are depicted. These are remains of the sphinx's victims -wayfarers she has eaten for failing to find an answer to her riddles. On the lower right of the composition, an animated male figure gestures in the distance.


Ingres Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Oedipus and the Sphinx. 1808;
188.x 149 cm (73x58 in). Musee du Louvre, Paris.
The figure of Oedipus dominates the composition - it was even more prominent in the original smaller picture, the dimensions of which are outlined in white. The figure occupies a large part of the space and is the focus of lighting. In the larger painting, the dark space around the luminous body has increased, and the artist has arranged four points of light to provide counterpoint to the shape of the nude figure.

These are: top left, the breast of the sphinx; top right, the Leonardo-style eye of light among the rocks; below right, the suffused gleam on the line of the horizon; and below left, the foot of a victim. The polygon obtained by joining the points of light contains the human elements of the scene. The composition can be seen to be based on two opposing curves, as indicated by the red lines. The principal figures are contained in a sort of almond shape that inclines towards the top left-hand corner.

Taking inspiration from the classical world and Neo-Platonic thought, Ingres has structured the hit man figure using geometric forms of precise symbolic significance. The picture contains a square, a triangle, and a circle.

  The square represents terrestrial solidity, stability, and balance and is placed in the space created between the bent and straight legs of Oedipus. The triangle, also a stable form, but dynamic and linked to the world of the emotions, is positioned between the arm and the torso, seats of the heart and the liter. The circle, enclosing the head, is the shape of harmony, without beginning or end.

The light that illuminates Oedipus and the rocks in the foreground comes from an undefined source but falls upon the stone and the golden skin of the figure. The nude figure stands out against the dark background, its outline drawn with sharp precision. This is very evident in the right leg. where the full light on the calf fades by fine gradations into the shadow of the foot and upper thigh. In the luminous masses on the left-hand side of the painting, the draughtsmanship is also very strong. The breast of the sphinx, defined by the light and the chiaroscuro, has a sumptuous maternal nudity that alludes to the later tragedy that was to befall Oedipus. (After he had solved the sphinx's riddle, the monster killed herself. Oedipus's fate was to marry his own mother who. when she discovered the truth, hanged herself.)

Ingres Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Oedipus and the Sphinx (detail)
The stable posture of Oedipus contrasts with the motion of the small figure on the right: the red and orange-red mantles unite the two figures, warming their flesh tones. In both cases, the material is creased or fluttering in the breeze in contrast with the smooth and solid mass of the naked flesh. This detail shows Oedipus meeting the eye of the sphinx, with his forefinger curved towards her breast. The clarity of the scene leaves no room for mystery or ambiguity.

Ingres Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Oedipus and the Sphinx (detail)
The sole of a human foot is illuminated against the darkness in the bottom left of the painting, while a pile of bones and a skull are outlined against the rocks in the foreground. Tide superb contours and lucidity of form outline a tragic still life. With the sphinx positioned above, space for the dead is contained in the left-hand side of the composition. Space for the living, in the form of the gesturing figure in the distance, is on the right. Oedipus is positioned firmly in the centre, his fate undecided.

Ingres Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Oedipus and the Sphinx, 1864, oil on canvas,
105.5 x 87 cm, The Walters Art Museum

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Spitzweg Carl

Carl Spitzweg (February 5, 1808 – September 23, 1885) was a German romanticist painter and poet. He is considered to be one of the most important artists of the Biedermeier era.


Carl Spitzweg
  Carl Spitzweg, (born Feb. 5, 1808, Munich—died Sept. 23, 1885, Munich), German painter who is recognized as the most representative of the Biedermeier (early Victorian) artists in Germany.

Trained in pharmacy at the University of Vienna, Spitzweg was a pharmacist and newspaper illustrator before becoming a painter in 1833.

Though widely travelled in Europe, he was provincial in his choice of subjects; tenderly, humorously, but with firm control of light, shadow, composition, and detail, he portrayed small town misfits, street musicians, postmen, night watchmen, and lovers bidding farewell.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Carl Spitzweg. Der Sonntagsspaziergang
Carl Spitzweg
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"

Runge Philipp Otto. Der Morgen ("Morning", 1808), oil on canvas
Philipp Otto Runge
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5

The Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 of Ludwig van Beethoven (Beethoven Ludwig), was written in 1804–1808. It is one of the best-known compositions in classical music, and one of the most frequently played symphonies. First performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien in 1808, the work achieved its prodigious reputation soon afterwards. E. T. A. Hoffmann described the symphony as "one of the most important works of the time".

It begins by stating a distinctive four-note "short-short-short-long" motif twice:

The symphony, and the four-note opening motif in particular, are well known worldwide, with the motif appearing frequently in popular culture, from disco to rock and roll, to appearances in film and television.

Since the Second World War it has sometimes been referred to as "The Victory Symphony". "V" is the Roman character for the number five; the phrase "V for Victory" became well known as a campaign of the Allies of World War II. That Beethoven's Victory Symphony happened to be his Fifth (or vice versa) is co-incidence. Some thirty years after this piece was written, the rhythm of the opening phrase – "dit-dit-dit-dah" – was used for the letter "V" in Morse Code, though this is probably also coincidental.

The BBC, during World War Two, prefaced its broadcasts to Europe with those four notes, played on drums.

The Fifth Symphony had a long gestation. The first sketches date from 1804 following the completion of the Third Symphony.

However, Beethoven repeatedly interrupted his work on the Fifth to prepare other compositions, including the first version of Fidelio, the Appassionata piano sonata, the three Razumovsky string quartets, the Violin Concerto, the Fourth Piano Concerto, the Fourth Symphony, and the Mass in C.

The final preparation of the Fifth Symphony, which took place in 1807–1808, was carried out in parallel with the Sixth Symphony, which premiered at the same concert.

Beethoven was in his mid-thirties during this time; his personal life was troubled by increasing deafness.

In the world at large, the period was marked by the Napoleonic Wars, political turmoil in Austria, and the occupation of Vienna by Napoleon's troops in 1805.

The coversheet to Beethoven's 5th Symphony.
The dedication to Prince J. F. M. Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky is visible.

The Fifth Symphony was premiered on 22 December 1808 at a mammoth concert at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna consisting entirely of Beethoven premieres, and directed by Beethoven himself. The concert lasted for more than four hours. The two symphonies appeared on the program in reverse order: the Sixth was played first, and the Fifth appeared in the second half. The program was as follows:

1.The Sixth Symphony
2.Aria: "Ah, perfido", Op. 65
3.The Gloria movement of the Mass in C major
4.The Fourth Piano Concerto (played by Beethoven himself)
6.The Fifth Symphony
7.The Sanctus and Benedictus movements of the C major Mass
8.A solo piano improvisation played by Beethoven
9.The Choral Fantasy

Beethoven dedicated the Fifth Symphony to two of his patrons, Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz and Count Razumovsky. The dedication appeared in the first printed edition of April 1809.

Beethoven - Symphonies No. 5, Op. 67
Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67
1 - Allegro con brio
2 - Andante con moto
3 - Scherzo. Allegro
4 - Allegro

West-Eastern Divan Orchestra
Daniel Barenboim, conductor
Royal Albert Hall, 23 July 2012

Ludwig van Beethoven
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"

The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, also known as the Pastoral Symphony (German Pastoral-Sinfonie), is a symphony composed by Beethoven Ludwig, and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven's few works containing explicitly programmatic content, the symphony was first performed in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808 in a four hour concert.

Beethoven was a lover of nature who spent a great deal of his time on walks in the country. He frequently left Vienna to work in rural locations.

The first sketches of the Pastoral Symphony appeared in 1802. It was composed simultaneously with Beethoven's more famous—and more fiery—Fifth Symphony. Both symphonies were premiered in a long and under-rehearsed concert in the Theater an der Wien in Vienna on 22 December 1808. The composer said that the Sixth Symphony is "more the expression of feeling than painting", a point underlined by the title of the first movement.

The symphony is scored for piccolo (fourth movement only), 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B flat, 2 bassoons, 2 horns in F and B flat, 2 trumpets in C and E flat (third, fourth, and fifth movements only), 2 trombones (alto and tenor, fourth and fifth movements only), timpani (fourth movement only), and strings.

Part of a sketch by Beethoven for his
Symphony No. 6

The symphony has five movements, rather than the four typical of symphonies of the Classical era. Beethoven annotated the beginning of each movement as follows:

1. Erwachen heiterer Empfindungen bei der Ankunft auf dem Lande (Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arrival in the countryside): Allegro ma non troppo
2. Szene am Bach (Scene by the brook):
Andante molto mosso
3. Lustiges Zusammensein der Landleute (Merry gathering of country folk): Allegro
4. Gewitter, Sturm (Thunder. Storm): Allegro
5. Hirtengesang. Frohe und dankbare Gefühle nach dem Sturm (Shepherd's song; cheerful and thankful feelings after the storm): Allegretto

The third movement ends on an imperfect cadence that leads straight into the fourth; the fourth movement leads straight into the fifth without a pause. A performance of the work lasts about 40 minutes.

Beethoven - Symphony No. 6 - Pastoral, Op. 68
Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68 (Pastoral)
1 - Allegro ma non troppo
2 - Andante molto mosso
3 - Allegro
4 - Allegro
5 - Allegretto

West--Eastern Divan Orchestra
Daniel Barenboim, conductor
Royal Albert Hall, 23 July 2012

Ludwig van Beethoven
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
J. L. Gay-Lussac: "The Combination of Gases"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis

Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, (born December 6, 1778, Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, France—died May 9, 1850, Paris), French chemist and physicist who pioneered investigations into the behaviour of gases, established new techniques for analysis, and made notable advances in applied chemistry.

Early career
Gay-Lussac was the eldest son of a provincial lawyer and royal official who lost his position with the French Revolution of 1789. His father sent him to a boarding school in Paris to prepare him to study law. Early in his schooling, Gay-Lussac acquired an interest in science, and his mathematical ability enabled him to pass the entrance examination for the newly founded École Polytechnique, where students’ expenses were paid by the state. Although the school was designed primarily to train engineers, chemistry formed an important part of the curriculum. Gay-Lussac proved to be an exemplary student during his studies there from 1797 to 1800. Upon graduation, he entered the prestigious École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (School of Bridges and Highways). He withdrew from this school in 1801 to become chemist Claude-Louis Berthollet’s research assistant. Berthollet, who had recently set up a laboratory in his country house at Arcueil, just outside of Paris, became the focus of a small but very influential private scientific society. The society’s first volume of memoirs, published in 1807, included contributions from Gay-Lussac.

Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac
  Searching for laws of nature
At Arcueil, Berthollet was joined by the eminent mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace, who engaged Gay-Lussac in experiments on capillarity in order to study short-range forces. Gay-Lussac’s first publication (1802), however, was on the thermal expansion of gases. To ensure more accurate experimental results, he used dry gases and pure mercury. He concluded from his experiments that all gases expand equally over the temperature range 0–100 °C (32–212 °F). This law, usually (and mistakenly) attributed to French physicist J.-A.-C. Charles as “Charles’s law,” was the first of several regularities in the behaviour of matter that Gay-Lussac established. He later wrote, “If one were not animated with the desire to discover laws, they would often escape the most enlightened attention.” Of the laws Gay-Lussac discovered, he remains best known for his law of the combining volumes of gases (1808). He had previously (1805) established that hydrogen and oxygen combine by volume in the ratio 2:1 to form water. Later experiments with boron trifluoride and ammonia produced spectacularly dense fumes and led him to investigate similar reactions, such as that between hydrogen chloride and ammonia, which combine in equal volumes to form ammonium chloride. Further study enabled him to generalize about the behaviour of all gases. Gay-Lussac’s approach to the study of matter was consistently volumetric rather than gravimetric, in contrast to that of his English contemporary John Dalton.
Another example of Gay-Lussac’s fondness for volumetric ratios appeared in an 1810 investigation into the composition of vegetable substances performed with his friend Louis-Jacques Thenard. Together they identified a class of substances (later called carbohydrates) including sugar and starch that contained hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1. They announced their results in the form of three laws, according to the proportion of hydrogen and oxygen contained in the substances.
Other researches
As a young man, Gay-Lussac participated in dangerous exploits for scientific purposes. In 1804 he ascended in a hydrogen balloon with Jean-Baptiste Biot in order to investigate the Earth’s magnetic field at high altitudes and to study the composition of the atmosphere. They reached an altitude of 4,000 metres (about 13,000 feet). In a following solo flight, Gay-Lussac reached 7,016 metres (more than 23,000 feet), thereby setting a record for the highest balloon flight that remained unbroken for a half-century. In 1805–06, amid the Napoleonic wars, Gay-Lussac embarked upon a European tour with another Arcueil colleague, the Prussian explorer Alexander von Humboldt.

Gay-Lussac’s research together with the patronage of Berthollet and the Arcueil group helped him to gain membership in the prestigious First Class of the National Institute (later the Academy of Sciences) at an early stage in his career (1806). Although no vacancy in the chemistry section existed, his credentials in physics were sufficiently strong to enable him to enter that section. In 1807 he published an important study of the heating and cooling produced by the compression and expansion of gases. This was later to have significance for the law of conservation of energy. Three years previously Gay-Lussac had been appointed to the junior post of répétiteur at the École Polytechnique where, in 1810, he received a professorship in chemistry that included a substantial salary. He was also granted a professorship in physics at the Faculty of Science in Paris upon its founding in 1808. In that same year he married Geneviève Rojot; the couple eventually had five children.

  Rivalry with Davy
Gay-Lussac’s appointment to the faculty of the École Polytechnique in 1804 provided him with laboratory facilities in the centre of Paris. These accommodations eased his collaborations with Thenard on a series of experimental investigations. When they heard of the English chemist Humphry Davy’s isolation of the newly discovered reactive metals sodium and potassium by electrolysis in 1807, they worked to produce even larger quantities of the metals by chemical means and tested their reactivity in various experiments. Notably they isolated the new element boron. They also studied the effect of light on reactions between hydrogen and chlorine, though it was Davy who demonstrated that the latter gas was an element.

Rivalry between Gay-Lussac and Davy reached a climax over the iodine experiments Davy carried out during an extraordinary visit to Paris in November 1813, at a time when France was at war with Britain. Both chemists claimed priority over discovering iodine’s elemental nature. Although Davy is typically given credit for this discovery, most of his work was hurried and incomplete. Gay-Lussac presented a much more complete study of iodine in a long memoir presented to the National Institute on August 1, 1814, and subsequently published in the Annales de chimie.

In 1815 Gay-Lussac experimentally demonstrated that prussic acid was simply hydrocyanic acid, a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and he also isolated the compound cyanogen [(CN)2 or C2N2]. His analyses of prussic acid and hydriodic acid (HI) necessitated a modification of Antoine Lavoisier’s theory that oxygen was present in all acids.
Applied science
Beginning in 1816, Gay-Lussac served as the joint editor of the Annales de chimie et de physique, a position he shared with his former Arcueil colleague François Arago. This was an influential position and a further source of income. As was customary, he continued to hold several teaching posts simultaneously; however, his major income during his later years was derived from a series of governmental and industrial consultancies.

In 1818 he became a member of the government gunpowder commission. Even more lucrative was his 1829 appointment as director of the assay department at the Paris Mint, for which he developed a precise and accurate method for the assaying of silver. Gay-Lussac also performed experiments to determine the strength of alcoholic liquors. In his final years he served as a consultant for the glass factory at Saint-Gobain. Such a wide array of appointments attests to the value his contemporaries placed upon applying chemistry toward solving social and economic concerns. Still, Gay-Lussac did not escape criticism from colleagues for turning away from the path of “pure” science and toward the path of financial gain.

Gay-Lussac was a key figure in the development of the new science of volumetric analysis. Previously a few crude trials had been carried out to estimate the strength of chlorine solutions in bleaching, but Gay-Lussac introduced a scientific rigour to chemical quantification and devised important modifications to apparatuses. In a paper on commercial soda (sodium carbonate, 1820), he identified the weight of a sample required to neutralize a given amount of sulfuric acid, using litmus as an indicator.

Gay-Lussac and Biot ascend in a hot air balloon, 1804. Illustration from the late 19th century.
He went on to estimate the strength of bleaching powder (1824), using a solution of indigo to signify when the reaction was complete.

In his publications are found the first use of the chemical terms burette, pipette, and titrate. The principles of volumetric analysis could be established only through Gay-Lussac’s theoretical and practical genius but, once established, the analysis itself could be carried out by a junior assistant with brief training. Gay-Lussac published an entire series of Instructions on subjects ranging from the estimation of potash (1818) to the construction of lightning conductors. Among the most influential Instructions was his estimation of silver in solution (1832), which he titrated with a solution of sodium chloride of known strength. This method was later employed at the Royal Mint. In 1831 Gay-Lussac was elected to the Chamber of Deputies and in 1839 received a peerage.

In 1848 (the year of revolutions) Gay-Lussac resigned from his various appointments in Paris, and he retired to a country house in the neighbourhood of his youth that was stocked with his library and a private laboratory. In the spring of 1850, realizing that he was dying, he asked his son to burn a treatise he had begun called Philosophie chimique. In a eulogy delivered after his death at the Academy of Sciences, his friend, the physicist Arago, summed up Gay-Lussac’s scientific work as that of “an ingenious physicist and an outstanding chemist.”

Maurice P. Crosland

Encyclopædia Britannica
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt

Notes: Napoleon's meeting with Goethe, recounted by Goethe

"The second [of October, 1808]. – Marshal Lannes and minister Maret have spoken about me, I think, favourably. – I have known the former since 1806. - I have been summoned to the Emperor for eleven o'clock in the morning. – A fat chamberlain, Monsieur Pole, tells me to wait. - The crowds disappear. – I am introduced to Savary and Talleyrand. – I am summoned into the emperor's study. – At the same time, Daru has his presence announced. – He is immediately brought in. – This makes me hesitate. - I am summoned a second time. - I enter. – The emperor is seated at a large circular table. He is eating breakfast. On his right, at some distance from the table, is Talleyrand; on his left, Daru, with whom he discusses taxes. - The emperor signals to me to approach. – I remain standing in front of him at a suitable distance. – After looking at me for a moment, he said: “You are a man”. – I bowed my head. – He said to me: “How old are you?” – “Sixty”. – “You are well preserved. You have written some tragedies”. I replied the bare essentials. Daru began to speak. In an attempt to flatter the Germans, to whom he was obliged to do so much harm, he had learned a little about our literature. He was furthermore versed in Latin literature and had even translated Horace. When he spoke of me, his words were more or less those which my Berlin friends would have used. I recognised their way of seeing things and their feelings. – He added that I had translated some French works and, for example, Voltaire's Mahomet. – The emperor said: “That is not a good work”, and then went on in detail about how it was very unfitting for the conqueror of the world to paint such an unfavourable portrait of himself. – He then brought the conversation to Werther, which he must have studied in detail. After several perfectly apposite observations, he mentioned a specific part and said: “Why did you do that? It is not natural. And he spoke at length on this and with great perspicacity.”  
Goethe Johann Wolfgang  and Napoleon I meet at Erfurt
I listened, my face calm, and I replied, with a satisfied smile, that I was unaware whether anyone had ever made the same criticism, but that I found it perfectly justified, and that I agreed that you could find fault with this passage's lack of verity. “But”, I added, “a poet can be excused for taking refuge in an artifice which is hard to spot, when he wants to produce specific effects which cannot be created simply and naturally.”
The emperor seemed to agree with me; he returned to drama and made some very sensible remarks, remarks which could only have come from someone who had observed the tragic stage with a great deal of attention - such as a criminal judge might do – someone who felt very deeply how far French theatre had strayed from the natural and true.
He went on to talk about destiny plays, criticising them. They belonged to the dark ages. “Why these days do they keep giving us destiny?” he said. “There's no destiny, only politics”.
He turned once again to Daru and spoke to him about taxes. I stepped a few paces back and found myself close to the turret where I had, more than thirty years earlier, spent many hours of pleasure and also sadness, and I had the time to note that, to my right, towards the door by which I entered stood Berthier, Savary and another person, Talleyrand had moved away.
Marshal Soult was announced.

A tall man with a fine head of hair entered. The emperor questioned him teasingly about some unpleasant events in Poland, and I had the time to look around me in the room and to reflect on the past.
The old tapestries were still there.
But the old portraits had gone.
In that place used to hang portraits of the Duchess Amalia, a hand-painted half mask, and the portraits of all the other governors and members of the household.
The emperor rose, came straight towards me and, and by a sort of manoeuvre, separated me from all the other people in the line in which I found myself. He turned his back to those people and spoke to me lowering his voice. He asked me whether I was married, whether I had children and other personal matters.
He also questioned me on my relations with the house of the princes, on the Duchess Amalia, on the prince and on the princess. I replied in a natural manner. He seemed satisfied and translated for himself these replies into his tongue, but in slightly more forceful terms than I had managed.
I must also remark that, in the whole of our conversation, I had admired the variety of his affirmative replies and gestures, in that he was rarely immobile when he listened. Sometimes he made a meditative gesture with his head and said “Yes” or “That's right”, or something similar; or if he had stated an idea, he most often added; “And what would Monsieur Goethe say to that?”
I took the opportunity to make a sign to the chamberlain to see if I could retire. On his signalling yes, I immediately took my leave.
The fourteenth. I received the Cross of the Légion d'Honneur."

Trans. from French: PH.

Source: Goethe Mélanges, Traduction Porchat, Hachette, 1863 (Annales de 1749 à 1822, p. 307-309.

  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


Illustrations by Eugene Delacroix and Harry Clarke
Napoleon I

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Henry Crabb Robinson, the first war correspondent, sent by "The Times of London" to Spain to report on the
Peninsular War
Robinson Henry Crabb

Henry Crabb Robinson, (born May 13, 1775, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, Eng.—died Feb. 5, 1867, London), English man of letters whose voluminous diaries provide valuable information on life in the Romantic and early Victorian periods and give lively portraits of its literary personalities.


Henry Crabb Robinson, 1869
  Living in London from 1796, Robinson practiced law as a barrister on the Norfolk circuit (1813–28).

He also served as foreign correspondent for The Times of London (1807–09) and became involved in the antislavery campaign and in the founding of the University of London.

He befriended William Blake, of whose last years Robinson’s diaries give the fullest account. He also knew Charles Lamb, William and Dorothy Wordsworth, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, of whose lectures he made notes.

In Germany (1800–05) he met the leading poets and thinkers of his day, including J.W. von Goethe, Friedrich von Schiller, and J.G. von Herder; on his return to England, he was influential in making German literature and philosophy more widely known.

His diaries were first published in 1869. Collections of his correspondence with the Wordsworth circle (1927), about Germany (1929), and about books and writers (1938) were edited by E.J. Morley.

Encyclopædia Britannica

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