Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
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FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

Frontispiece and title-page of Des Knaben Wunderhorn: Alte deutsche Lieder, Volume 3, published in 1808
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress

The Congress of Erfurt was the meeting between Emperor Napoleon I of France and Tsar Alexander I of Russia from 27 September to 14 October 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the Treaty of Tilsit which followed the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition.

At Tilsit Napoleon had made Alexander an admirer, but by the time of the Erfurt meeting anti-French sentiment at the Russian court was beginning to threaten the newly forged alliance. Napoleon and his foreign minister Jean-Baptiste Nompère de Champagny sought to strengthen the alliance once more in order to settle affairs in Spain and prepare for the expected war with Austria. Working at cross-purposes to Napoleon was Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord who had by this time come to the conclusion that Napoleon was leading France to destruction, and who secretly advised Alexander to resist Napoleon's demands.

Napoleon receiving Baron Vincent, Austrian ambassador, by Nicolas Gosse
The city of Erfurt was under the direct control of the Emperor of the French at this time as Principality of Erfurt. Napoleon attempted to awe Alexander with the glories of the French Empire. The meeting became a great conference involving an array of kings, princes, dukes, barons and notables from all over Europe.

Among the attendees was Talma and the entire Comedie Française, who presented sixteen French tragedies over the course of the Congress.
Goethe was courted by Napoleon himself and the twenty-year-old Arthur Schopenhauer arrived in Goethe's train and cast a cynical eye over the proceedings.

Out of the meetings came an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, in fourteen articles, calling upon Britain to cease its war against France, recognizing the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden, and stating that in case of war with Austria, Russia should aid France "to the best of its ability." The two emperors departed for their homelands on October 14.

  Six months later the expected war with Austria began, and Alexander barely lived up to his agreement, aiding France as little as possible. By 1810 both emperors were considering war with one another. Erfurt was the last meeting between the two leaders.

By 1812 Russia no longer complied with Napoleon's Continental System of economic warfare against the United Kingdom and anti-French sentiment in the Russian court had reached a new height. Russian defence spending had increased and troops were deployed to the border in preparation for an invasion of Poland. Napoleon pre-empted this by attacking first and with greater force.

From the beginning at Tilsit few onlookers believed these two European powers could peacefully exist side by side, with the Grand Duchy of Warsaw a French satellite state neighbouring Russia. Erfurt may have delayed the eventual outbreak of war, but it was likely the two powers would ultimately come into conflict.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Napoleon I

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Napoleon III

Napoleon III, also called (until 1852) Louis-Napoléon, in full Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born April 20, 1808, Paris—died Jan. 9, 1873, Chislehurst, Kent, Eng.), nephew of Napoleon I, president of the Second Republic of France (1850–52), and then emperor of the French (1852–70). He gave his country two decades of prosperity under a stable, authoritarian government but finally led it to defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71).


 Napoleon III
  Youth in exile
He was the third son of Napoleon I’s brother Louis Bonaparte, who was king of Holland from 1806 to 1810, and his wife, Hortense de Beauharnais Bonaparte, stepdaughter of Napoleon I.

Louis-Napoléon’s childhood and youth were spent largely in exile. His mother, like all the Bonapartes, was banished from France in 1815 after the fall of Napoleon I. Eventually, she found a new home in Switzerland, where, in 1817, she bought the castle of Arenenberg.

Of romantic disposition herself, she inspired young Louis-Napoléon with a longing for his lost fatherland, as well as with enthusiastic admiration of the genius of Napoleon I.

After attending a grammar school at Augsburg, Ger. (1821–23), her “sweet stubborn boy” was taught by private tutors. During visits to relatives in southern Germany and Italy, he became acquainted not only with other exiled victims of the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy but also with the life of a suppressed people, such as those Italians who were living under Austrian and papal rule.

He was, above all, interested in history and inspired by the idea of national liberty. Accordingly, he took part in an unsuccessful plot against the papal government in Rome in 1830 and in the rebellion in central Italy in 1831, in which his beloved brother perished. He himself was saved from the Austrian troops only by his mother’s bold intervention.

Claim to the throne
After the death in 1832 of his cousin the Duke of Reichstadt (Napoleon I’s only son), Louis-Napoléon considered himself his family’s claimant to the French throne. To be better prepared for his task, he completed his military training and pursued his studies of economic and social problems. Soon after, he felt ready to publish his own writings on political and military subjects. In his pamphlet “Rêveries politiques” (1832), he asserted that only an emperor could give France both glory and liberty. He thus wanted to make his name known, propagate his ideas, and recruit adherents. Convinced that as Napoleon’s nephew he would be popular with the French army, he vainly tried, on Oct. 30, 1836, to win over the Strasbourg garrison for a coup d’état. King Louis-Philippe exiled him to the United States, from which he was recalled early in 1837 by his mother’s last illness. Expelled from Switzerland in 1838, he settled in England.

Napoleon at the time of his failed coup in 1836
  In 1839 he published “Des idées napoléoniennes.” So far, Bonapartism had been nothing but a wistful reminiscing of former beneficiaries of the empire or a romantic legend created by those who were dissatisfied with the humdrum present. In his new booklet Louis-Napoléon tried to transform Bonapartism into a political ideology. In doing so, he obeyed mystical inspirations as well as rationalism. To him, ideology and politics were the result of rational reflection as well as of belief.

The central exponent in history was, in his opinion, the great personality called by Providence and representing progress. Napoleon I had been such a man, even though he was not allowed to finish his work. But Napoleon, the “Messiah of the new ideas,” was survived by the “Napoleonic idea,” for the “political creed,” like the religious creeds, had its martyrs and apostles. The Napoleonic idea was a “social and industrial one, humanitarian and encouraging trade,” that would “reconcile order and freedom, the rights of the people and the principles of authority.” Louis-Napoléon saw it as his task to accomplish this mission.

Landing with 56 followers, near Boulogne, Fr., on Aug. 6, 1840, he was again unsuccessful. The town’s garrison did not join him. He was arrested, brought to trial, and sentenced to “permanent confinement in a fortress.”

At his “university of Ham” (the castle in which he was held) he spent his time studying to fit himself for his imperial role. He corresponded with members of the French opposition and published articles in some of their newspapers. He also wrote several brochures, among them “Extinction du paupérisme” (1844), which won him some supporters on the left. It was not until May 25, 1846, that he succeeded in escaping and fleeing to Great Britain, where he waited for another chance to seize power.

Louis Napoléon captured 74,2 percent of votes cast the first French direct presidential elections in 1848
On hearing of the outbreak of the revolution, in February 1848, he travelled to Paris but was sent back by the provisional government. Some of his supporters, however, organized a small Bonapartist party and nominated him as their candidate for the Constituent Assembly.

On June 4 he was elected in four départements but, awaiting more settled conditions, he refused to take his seat. Running again in September, he was elected in five départements, and after his arrival in Paris he lost no time in preparing to run for the presidency. He was supported by the newly founded Party of Order, which consisted of adherents of the Bourbons, Louis-Philippe, and Catholics. Lacking a suitable candidate, they regarded Louis-Napoléon—not a skilled parliamentarian but a popular figure—as a useful tool.

He used, now on a large scale, the kind of propaganda that had won him elections before. Because of his name and his descent, the Emperor’s nephew captivated the voters. Evoking the Napoleonic legend with its memories of national glory, Louis-Napoléon promised to bring back those days in time of peace. He succeeded also in recommending himself to every group of the population by promising to safeguard their particular interests. He promised “order” and “prosperity” to the middle class and the farmers and assistance to the poor. In December 1848 he was the only candidate to obtain votes—totalling 5,434,226—from among all classes of the population.

He took office, determined to free himself from dependence on the Party of Order, which had also won the parliamentary elections of May 1849. The government sent a military expedition to help the Pope reconquer Rome. At home it deprived active Republicans of their government positions and restricted their liberties, but the President could rely on only about a dozen members of the National Assembly who were Bonapartists.

Baron Haussmann and Napoleon III make official the annexation of eleven communes around Paris to the City.
   Prudently expanding his power by using every right the constitution granted him, Louis-Napoléon soon obtained key positions in the administration and in the army for his adherents.

On October 31, he succeeded for the first time in appointing a Cabinet consisting of men depending more on him than on the National Assembly. By travelling through the country he gained wide popularity. Moreover, he used the disfranchisement of 3,000,000 electors of the poorer classes by the National Assembly in 1850 and an economic recession in 1851 as a pretext for agitating against the parties and for advertising himself as the “strong man” against the danger of a nonexistent revolution.

The constitution forbade the reelection of the president after expiration of his four-year term, and when Louis-Napoléon realized that he could not obtain the three-fourths majority necessary for a revision of the constitution he carried out a coup d’état on December 2. Only the Republicans dared to resist him. On December 4 they were defeated in street fighting in Paris, just as they were in other towns and in some regions. Arrests and deportations numbered in the thousands. Louis-Napoléon dissolved the Legislative Assembly and decreed a new constitution, which among other provisions restored universal suffrage.
A plebiscite approved the new constitution. Encouraged by his success, he held another plebiscite in November 1852 and was confirmed as emperor after the resolution of the Senate concerning the restitution of the empire. Failing to obtain the hand of a princess of equal birth, Napoleon III married the countess Eugénie de Montijo in January 1853.

Domestic policy as emperor
Napoleon III intended to be always ahead of public opinion so as to be able to understand the requirements of his time and to create laws and institutions accordingly. Hence, he took the greatest pains to study the public opinion and to influence it by means of propaganda. Although promising “reasonable freedom,” for the time being he considered it necessary to use the methods of a police state.

Willing “to take the initiative to do everything useful for the prosperity and the greatness of France,” he promoted public works, the construction of railroads, the establishment of institutions of credit, and other means of furthering industry and agriculture. An enthusiastic promoter of great technical projects, he supported inventors and took a personal interest in the rebuilding of modern Paris.

He did not, however, disavow what he called his “love of the diligent and needy.” He ensured a lower price for bread, furthered the construction of hygienic dwellings for workers, and established boards of arbitration. In his societies of mutual assistance, employers and employees were to learn to understand each other. He hoped that his social-welfare institutions, to the endowment of which he frequently contributed, would be imitated by the citizens. The middle class, however, looked upon him only as its protector against Socialism and regarded his social ideas as mere utopianism.


He met the wealthy heiress Harrett Howard in 1846. She became his mistress and helped fund his return to France.
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione, a cousin of Count Cavour, became a mistress of Napoleon III and an advocate of Italian independence from 1855 to 1857.

Napoleon III in 1863
  Foreign policy as emperor
As in domestic policy, the Emperor immediately took the initiative in foreign affairs. “Louis-Philippe fell because he let France fall into disrepute. I must do something,” he declared. He wanted to make France a great power once more by breaking up the European system created by the Congress of Vienna of 1815, which, incidentally, had imposed great humiliations on France.

Convinced that in the present “epoch of civilization the successes of armies were only temporary” and that it was “public opinion which always gained the final victory,” he planned “to march at the head of generous and noble ideas,” among which the principle of nationality was the most important. In accordance with this principle he wanted an international congress to reconstruct “the European balance of power on more durable and just foundations.” And “if other countries gain anything France must gain something also.”

The Crimean War offered him a chance of realizing one of his favourite ideas: the conclusion of an alliance with Great Britain that would succeed in checking Russian expansion toward the Mediterranean. After the Paris conference, at which the peace terms were settled, Napoleon seemed to become Europe’s arbitrator.

 Ironically, it was an attempt on his life by Felice Orsini, an Italian revolutionary (January 1858), that reminded him of his wish “to do something for Italy.” Together with Piedmont-Sardinia, he went to war against Austria in order to expel it from Italy. A promoter of technical warfare, he witnessed the success of his modernized artillery and of the military use of the captive balloon.

The fact that at the victorious Battle of Solferino in June 1859 he had been in command convinced him of his military genius. Yet, frightened by the possibility of intervention by the German Confederation, he suddenly made peace. Outmanoeuvred by Count Cavour, who confronted him with a unified Italy instead of the weak federation he had intended, he received Nice and Savoy as a reward. His activities in Italy displeased the British. Despite the conclusion of an Anglo-French commercial treaty in 1860, they remained suspicious and apprehensively watched his construction of armoured warships and his colonial and oriental policies.

Napoleon III dreamed of “opening new ways to commerce and new outlets to European products overseas,” of accelerating “the progress of Christianity and civilization.” He was therefore open to a colonial policy bent on furthering commercial interests and the establishment of bases. He intensified the extension of French power in Indochina and West Africa. In the Middle East the Emperor hoped that a better treatment of the Algerians would have a favourable influence on the Arabs from Tunisia to the Euphrates. He supported the construction of the Suez Canal. When the Roman Catholic Maronites who were under French protection in Lebanon were persecuted in 1860, he hoped to profit politically by dispatching an expeditionary force.


The Empress Eugenie in 1853, after her marriage to Napoleon III.
Empress Eugénie as Marie Antoinette, painted by Franz Xaver Winterhalter in 1854.

Disderi - Napoléon III and his wife Eugenie - 1865
  Attempts at reform
In 1860 Napoleon III believed his regime to be stable enough to grant certain freedoms. The commercial treaty with Great Britain was to be the beginning of a new economic policy based on free-trade principles, with the aim of increasing prosperity and decreasing the cost of living.

Dissatisfied with the functioning of the legislature, the Emperor decided to give “the great bodies of the state a more direct part in the formation of the general policy of our government.”

His hopes were not fulfilled to the extent he had expected. A deterioration in the economy caused dissatisfaction among the middle class and the working people, who joined the Catholics, angered by his anti-papal Italian policy, to become a steadily growing opposition. In the elections of 1857 only five members of the opposition had gained seats in the National Assembly; six years later there were 32.

At this very time, repeated bladder-stone attacks temporarily incapacitated the Emperor, who had been in poor health since 1856. He had always insisted on exercising control over all decisions of government; in his ministers he had seen nothing but tools.

Now, he became dependent on persons in his entourage who formed groups and intrigued against each other. In 1863 the authoritarian Eugène Rouher, nicknamed the “Vice Emperor,” became prime minister; on the other hand, Napoleon III took the advice of his half brother the Duke of Morny to continue his policy of liberalization. With the help of his uncle Jérôme Bonaparte, who preached a democratic Bonapartism, he tried to win over the workers.

But his concessions (freedom of coalition in 1864, freedom of assembly in 1868, extension of the rights of members of parliament, and liberalization of the press laws) were restricted by too many reservations and came too late. He allowed Victor Duruy, his minister of education from 1863, to fight clerical influence in education, yet on the other hand he tried to reconcile French Catholics by working for a compromise settlement in disputes between the papacy and the new Italian kingdom.

Portrait of Napoleon III in 1868, by Adolphe Yvon.
  In 1861, by proposing to make the Austrian archduke Maximilian emperor of Mexico and by negotiating with the president of Ecuador about a projected “Kingdom of the Andes,” he had begun his Latin-American venture. He had expected material rewards for France and also hoped that the planned kingdom would check the growing influence of the United States in Latin America. Yet, as soon as the United States had concluded its Civil War it forced the French to withdraw. In Europe when the Polish insurrection broke out in 1863, he did not, in spite of his sympathy, dare to support Poland against Russia. Nevertheless, such sympathies led to an estrangement from Russia.
Moreover, the great powers refused Napoleon’s proposal of a conference for the reorganization of Europe. Regarding Otto von Bismarck’s policy with a certain benevolence, he kept aloof when Prussia settled the Schleswig-Holstein question by a war on Denmark. He had always sympathized with Prussia and the idea of the extension of Prussia’s power in North Germany. He did not, however, openly tell Bismarck what price he demanded for his help. When in 1866, after routing Denmark, Prussia turned on its former ally, Austria, and defeated it more quickly than Napoleon had expected, he refused any armed intervention in its favour and only acted as mediator. Bismarck, however, was not willing to pay for Napoleon’s neutrality by the cession of German territories.
The emperor’s plans to obtain compensation in Belgium failed, as did his attempt to gain Luxembourg in 1867. The retreat of Prussian troops from the fortress Luxemburg was no satisfactory reward: “Bismarck tried to cheat me. A French emperor cannot be cheated,” grumbled Napoleon III, not willing to allow the Prussians to cross the Main River line and extend their power into southern Germany, which was Bismarck’s obvious aim.

Bismarck with Napoleon III after his capitulation

Closeup of Napoleon III in the last photograph taken of him (1872)
  Last years
The emperor’s failures in foreign affairs strengthened the opposition. When in the 1869 elections the government received 4,438,000 votes against the opposition’s 3,355,000, Napoleon recognized that a genuine change of the regime was inevitable.

In January 1870 he appointed Olivier-Émile Ollivier, whom Morny had recommended as the most appropriate prime minister for a liberal empire. The new Cabinet informed Great Britain and Prussia that France was ready to disarm, but Bismarck refused to cooperate.

On July 2 it became known that a Hohenzollern prince, a relative of the king of Prussia, was a candidate for the Spanish throne. In Paris this was regarded as Prussian interference in a French sphere of interest and a threat to security.

Using his favourite means of secret diplomacy, Napoleon played a major part in causing the Hohenzollern prince to renounce his candidature. But then the sick emperor, influenced by the advocates of a belligerent policy, set out to humiliate Prussia by demanding that the candidature of the Hohenzollern prince would never be revived.

As a result, war broke out on July 19. At the Battle of Sedan the sick emperor tried in vain to meet his death in the midst of his troops, but on September 2 he surrendered. He was deposed, and on September 4 the Third Republic was proclaimed.


Napoleon III after his death; wood-engraving in the Illustrated London News of January 25, 1873, after a photograph by Mssrs. Downey.
Napoleon was released by the Germans and went to live in England. He studied technical and social problems, defended his politics in various publications, and even thought of landing in France to regain his throne. He died after undergoing an operation for the removal of bladder stones.

Heinrich Gustav Euler

Encyclopædia Britannica
Dalton John: "New System of Chemical Philosophy"
Jakob Friedrich Fries: "New Critique of Reason"
Fries Jakob Friedrich

Jakob Friedrich Fries (23 August 1773 – 10 August 1843) was a German philosopher. He was born in Barby (present-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) and died in Jena (present-day Thuringia, Germany).


Jakob Friedrich Fries
  Life and career
Fries studied theology at the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at the Universities of Leipzig and Jena. After travelling, in 1806 he became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at the University of Heidelberg.
Though the progress of his psychological thought compelled him to abandon the positive theology of the Moravians, he retained an appreciation of its spiritual or symbolic significance. His philosophical position with regard to his contemporaries had already been made clear in his critical work Reinhold, Fichte und Schelling (1803), and in the more systematic treatises System der Philosophie als evidente Wissenschaft (1804) and Wissen, Glaube und Ahnung (1805).

Fries' most important treatise, the Neue oder anthropologische Kritik der Vernunft (2nd ed., 1828–1831), was an attempt to give a new foundation of psychological analysis to the critical theory of Immanuel Kant. In 1811 he published his System der Logik (ed. 1819 and 1837), and in 1814 Julius und Evagoras, a philosophical romance. He was also involved in public polemics, and in 1816 wrote Über die Gefährdung des Wohlstandes und des Charakters der Deutschen durch die Juden ("On the Danger Posed by the Jews to German Well-Being and Character"), advocating among other things a distinct sign on the dress of Jews to distinguish them from the general population, and encouraging their emigration from German lands.

He blamed the Jews for the ascendant role of money in society and called for Judaism to be "extirpated root and branch" from German society.

In 1816 he was invited to Jena to fill the chair of theoretical philosophy (including mathematics, physics, and philosophy proper), and entered upon a crusade against the prevailing Romanticism. In politics he was a strong Liberal and Unionist, and he did much to inspire the organization of the Burschenschaft.

In 1816 he had published his views in a brochure, Von deutschem Bund und deutscher Staatsverfassung, dedicated to "the youth of Germany", and his influence gave a powerful impetus to the agitation which led in 1819 to the issue of the Carlsbad Decrees by the representatives of the German governments.

Karl Sand, the murderer of August von Kotzebue, was one of Fries's pupils; and a letter of his, found on another student, warning Sand against participation in secret societies, was twisted by the suspicious authorities into evidence of Fries' conspiracy. He was condemned by the Mainz Commission; the Grand Duke of Weimar was compelled to deprive him of his professorship; and he was forbidden to lecture on philosophy. The grand duke, however, continued to pay him his stipend, and in 1824 he was recalled to Jena as professor of mathematics and physics, receiving permission also to lecture on philosophy in his own rooms to a select number of students.
  Finally, in 1838, the unrestricted right of lecturing was restored to him.
Fries was involved in a dispute with the contemporary German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel. In the preface to his Philosophy of Right, Hegel criticised Fries' participation in student events and his role in the Burschenschaft. In Hegel's view, Fries was dependent upon "immediate perception and contingent imagination";[1] his views were emotional rather than rational. Hegel argued that Fries' methodology was not sufficiently scientific and that, therefore, his conclusions were illogical. However, Fries did respond to these criticisms and accused Hegel of defending the existing order, and his own privileged position within it. He argued that, "Hegel's metaphysical mushroom has grown not in the gardens of science but on the dunghill of servility". For Fries, Hegel's theories merely added up to a defence of the establishment and, specifically, the Prussian authorities.

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Napoleon I abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy
Schlegel Friedrich: "Von der Sprache und Weisheit der Inder"
see also: Friedrich Wilhelm von Schlegel
Chateaubriand Francois: "Les Aventures du dernier Abencerage" (published 1826)

Chateaubriand: "Les Aventures du dernier Abencerage"
see also: Chateaubriand
  Western Literature

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Goethe: "Faust"

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's (Goethe Johann Wolfgang) Faust is a tragic play in two parts: Faust. Der Tragödie erster Teil (translated as: Faust: The First Part of the Tragedy) and Faust. Der Tragödie zweiter Teil (Faust: The Second Part of the Tragedy). Although rarely staged in its entirety, it is the play with the largest audience numbers on German-language stages. Faust is Goethe's most famous work and considered by many to be one of the greatest works of German literature.

Goethe completed a preliminary version of Part One in 1806. The 1808 publication was followed by the revised 1828–29 edition, which was the last to be edited by Goethe himself. Prior to these appeared a partial printing in 1790 of Faust, a Fragment.

The earliest forms of the work, known as the Urfaust, were developed between 1772 and 1775; however, the details of that development are no longer entirely clear. Urfaust has twenty-two scenes, one in prose, two largely prose and the remaining 1,441 lines in rhymed verse. The manuscript is lost, but a copy was discovered in 1886.

Goethe finished writing Faust Part Two in 1831. In contrast to Faust Part One, the focus here is no longer on the soul of Faust, which has been sold to the devil, but rather on social phenomena such as psychology, history and politics, in addition to mystical and philosophical topics. The second part formed the principal occupation of Goethe's last years. It appeared only posthumously in 1832.

The First Part of the Tragedy
The principal characters of Faust Part One include:

-Heinrich Faust, a scholar, sometimes said to be based on the real life of Johann Georg Faust, or on Jacob Bidermann's dramatized account of the Legend of the Doctor of Paris, Cenodoxus
-Mephistopheles, the devil
-Gretchen, Faust's love (short for Margaret; Goethe uses both forms)
-Marthe, Gretchen's neighbour
-Valentin, Gretchen's brother
-Wagner, Faust's famulus

Faust Part One takes place in multiple settings, the first of which is heaven. Mephistopheles makes a bet with God: he says that he can lure God's favourite human being (Faust), who is striving to learn everything that can be known, away from righteous pursuits. The next scene takes place in Faust's study where Faust, despairing at the vanity of scientific, humanitarian and religious learning, turns to magic for the showering of infinite knowledge. He suspects, however, that his attempts are failing. Frustrated, he ponders suicide, but rejects it as he hears the echo of nearby Easter celebrations begin. He goes for a walk with his assistant Wagner and is followed home by a stray poodle (the term then meant a medium-to-big-size dog, similar to a sheep dog). In Faust's study, the poodle transforms into the devil (Mephistopheles). Faust makes an arrangement with the devil: the devil will do everything that Faust wants while he is here on Earth, and in exchange Faust will serve the devil in Hell.

Faust und Wagner auf dem Osterspaziergang, Lithographie von Gustav Schlick
Faust's arrangement is that if he is pleased enough with anything the devil gives him that he wants to stay in that moment forever, then he will die in that moment.

When the devil tells Faust to sign the pact with blood, Faust complains that the devil does not trust Faust's word of honor. In the end, Mephistopheles wins the argument and Faust signs the contract with a drop of his own blood. Faust has a few excursions and then meets Margaret (also known as Gretchen). He is attracted to her and with jewellery and help from a neighbor, Martha, the devil draws Gretchen into Faust's arms. With influence from the devil, Faust seduces Gretchen. Gretchen's mother dies from a sleeping potion, administered by Gretchen to obtain privacy so that Faust could visit her. Gretchen discovers she is pregnant. Gretchen's brother condemns Faust, challenges him and falls dead at the hands of Faust and Mephistopheles. Gretchen drowns her illegitimate child and is convicted of the murder. Faust tries to save Gretchen from death by attempting to free her from prison. Finding that she refuses to escape, Faust and the devil flee the dungeon, while voices from Heaven announce that Gretchen shall be saved – "Sie ist gerettet" – this differs from the harsher ending of Urfaust – "Sie ist gerichtet!" – "she is condemned." It was reported that members of the first-night audience familiar with the original Urfaust version cheered on hearing the amendment.

The Second Part of the Tragedy
Rich in classical allusion, in Part Two the romantic story of the first Faust is forgotten, and Faust wakes in a field of fairies to initiate a new cycle of adventures and purpose. The piece consists of five acts (relatively isolated episodes) each representing a different theme. Ultimately, Faust goes to heaven, for he loses only half of the bet. Angels, who arrive as messengers of divine mercy, declare at the end of Act V: "He who strives on and lives to strive/ Can earn redemption still" (V, 11936–7).

Relationship between the parts
Throughout Part One, Faust remains unsatisfied; the ultimate conclusion of the tragedy and the outcome of the wagers are only revealed in Faust Part Two. The first part represents the "small world" and takes place in Faust's own local, temporal milieu. In contrast, Part Two takes place in the "wide world" or macrocosmos.

Basic themes
Faust does not seek power through knowledge, but access to transcendent knowledge denied to the rational mind. Here Goethe's mysticism asserts itself clearly.

Goethe's Faust has inspired a great deal of literature, music, and illustration.

Walter Kaufmann asserts that "Goethe created a character [i.e. Faust] who was accepted by his people as their ideal prototype."

Faust in seinem Studierzimmer, von Eugène Delacroix (1827).
Although today many of the classical and Central European themes may be hard for the modern reader to grasp, the work remains a resonant parable on scientific learning and religion, passion and seduction, independence and love, as well as other subjects. In poetic terms, Goethe places science and power in the context of a morally interested metaphysics. Faust is a scientific empiricist who is forced to confront questions of good and evil, God and the devil, sexuality and mortality.

The German language has itself been influenced by Goethe's Faust, particularly by the first part. One example of this is the phrase "des Pudels Kern," which means the real nature or deeper meaning of something (that was not evident before). The literal translation of "des Pudels Kern" is "the core of the poodle," and it originates from Faust's exclamation upon seeing the poodle (which followed him home) turn into Mephistopheles. Another instance originates in the scene wherein Gretchen asks Faust if he is religious. In German, the word "Gretchenfrage" (literally "Gretchen question") refers to a question aiming at the core of the issue, often forcing the answering person to make a confession or a difficult decision.

In 1821, a partial English verse translation of Faust (Part One) was published anonymously by the London publisher Thomas Boosey and Sons, with illustrations by the German engraver Moritz Retzsch. This translation was attributed to the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge by Frederick Burwick and James C. McKusick in their 2007 Oxford University Press edition, Faustus: From the German of Goethe, Translated by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. In a letter dated 4 September 1820, Goethe wrote to his son August that Coleridge was translating Faust. However, this attribution is controversial: Roger Paulin, William St. Clair, and Elinor Shaffer provide a lengthy rebuttal to Burwick and McKusick, offering evidence including Coleridge's repeated denials that he had ever translated Faustus and arguing that Goethe's letter to his son was based on misinformation from a third party  Coleridge's fellow Romantic Percy Shelley produced admired fragments of a translation first publishing Part One Scene II in The Liberal magazine in 1822, with "Scene I" (in the original, the "Prologue in Heaven) being published in the first edition of his Posthumous Poems by Mary Shelley in 1824.

In 1828, at the age of twenty, Gérard de Nerval published a French translation of J.W. von Goethe's Faust, which given his young age and the complexity of the text is regarded as a remarkable feat, all the more so considering the praise it received from the German author himself.

In 1870–71, Bayard Taylor published an English translation in the original metres.

In 1887 the Irish dramatist William Gorman Wills loosely adapted the first part of Faust for a production starring Henry Irving as Mephistopheles at the Lyceum Theatre, London.

„Ach neige, Du Schmerzensreiche, Dein Antlitz gnädig meiner Not!“ Gretchen vor der Mater dolorosa, von Wilhelm von Kaulbach

Gretchen in front of the Mater dolorosa,  by Wilhelm von Kaulbach after “Faust” Goethe

Calvin Thomas published translations of Part 1 in 1892 and Part 2 in 1897.

Philosopher Walter Kaufmann was also known for an English translation of Faust, presenting Part One in its entirety, with selections from Part Two, and omitted scenes extensively summarized. Kaufmann's version preserves Goethe's metres and rhyme schemes, but objected to translating all of Part Two into English, believing that "To let Goethe speak English is one thing; to transpose into English his attempt to imitate Greek poetry in German is another."

In August 1950, Boris Pasternak's Russian language translation of the first part led him to be attacked in the Soviet literary journal Novy Mir. The attack read in part,

... the translator clearly distorts Goethe's ideas... in order to defend the reactionary theory of 'pure art' ... he introduces an aesthetic and individualist flavor into the text... attributes a reactionary idea to Goethe... distorts the social and philosophical meaning...

In response, Pasternak wrote to the exiled daughter of Marina Tsvetayeva,

There has been much concern over an article in Novy Mir denouncing my Faust on the grounds that the gods, angels, witches, spirits, the madness of poor Gretchen, and everything 'irrational' has been rendered much too well, while Goethe's 'progressive' ideas (what are they?) have been glossed over. But I have a contract to do the second part as well! I don't know how it will all end. Fortunately, it seems that the article won't have any practical effect.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


Illustrations by Eugene Delacroix and Harry Clarke
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Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"

Das Kathchen von Heilbronn oder Die Feuerprobe (Katie of Heilbronn or The Trial by Fire) (1807–1808) is a "great historical knightly play" (German: ein großes historisches Ritterschauspiel) in five acts by the German playwright Kleist Heinrich. The action of the drama takes place in Swabia during the Middle Ages.

The play was first performed at the Theater an der Wien on 17 March 1810 and then published in the same year. Originally, the first two acts appeared separately with the play Phöbus, also by Kleist. Although the play has gained respect among modern audiences, it was originally largely rejected. Goethe, who was director of the theatre at Weimar when it was written, refused at first to present it, calling it "a jumble of sense and nonsense." It was also passed over by the Dresdener Hoftheater and the Berliner Schauspielhaus, and in Germany the play was initially only seen in Bamberg's less famous theatre.
List of characters
The Emperor
Gebhardt, Archbishop of Worms
Friedrich Wetter Count von Strahl
Countess Helena, his mother
Eleonore, her niece
Knight Flammberg, the Count's vassal
Gottschalk, the Count's servant
Brigitte, Housekeeper in the Count's castle
Kunigunde von Thurneck
Rosalie, her chambermaid
Sybille, Rosalie's stepmother
Theobald Friedborn, Armorer from Heilbronn
Käthchen, his daughter
Gottfried Friedborn, her fiance
Maximilian, Burgrave of Freiburg
Georg von Waldstätten, his friend
Ritter Schauermann, his first vassal
Ritter Wetzlaf, his second vassal
The Rheingraf vom Stein, Kunigunde's fiance
Friedrich von Herrnstadt, Friend of the Rheingraf
Eginhardt von der Wart, Friend of the Rheingraf
Graf Otto von der Flühe, Counselor to the Emperor and Judge of the Secret Court
Wenzel von Nachtheim, Counselor to the Emperor and Judge of the Secret Court
Hans von Bärenklau, Counselor to the Emperor and Judge of the Secret Court
Jakob Pech, an innkeeper
Three gentlemen from Thurneck
Kunigunde's old aunts
A boy
A night watchman
Numerous knights
A herald, two coal miners, servants, messengers,pursuers, and people
Käthchen Fountain Figurine (1965) by Dieter Läpple in Heilbronn

Act 1 – In an underground cave of the Secret Court (Vehmgericht) lit by a single lamp

The play begins in the secretly convened court in which Count von Strahl is being accused by Theobald, a blacksmith in the town of Heilbronn, of bewitching his young and beautiful daughter Käthchen. In the court they refer to several events in which Käthchen shows an unnatural possession. The first being when Count von Strahl enters his shop and Käthchen bows before him "as if struck by lightning". The second and more daring attempt by Käthchen to follow the Count involves her throwing herself out of a second story window as he leaves. Using almost bully like tactics of interrogation, Käthchen confesses to never having been bewitched. Upon this interrogation of Käthchen, the highly esteemed Count is found not guilty of any action involving Theobald’s daughter and the court dismisses the case entirely.

Act 2 – In a forest near the underground cave of the Secret Court. Later in the mountains near a coal miner's hut. It is night with thunder and lightning

At the beginning of Kleist’s second act Count von Strahl enters into a monologue about his yearning and passionate love for Käthchen. Throughout the monologue it becomes increasingly evident that he will never act upon these feelings, given the vast social class division. We also learn of the Count’s enemy Kunigunde, who’s impending lawsuits would take away much of Strahl’s rightful lands. Her former suitor, Maximillion Frederick, however, has kidnapped Kunigunde. Strahl unknowingly defeats her enemy’s capturer and frees Kunigunde. The rules of hospitality at the time require that he invite her back to his castle, whereupon she learns of a dream. The dream indicates that he will find his future bride in the daughter of the emperor. Kunigunde, aware of the information, presents herself as this prophesized woman. Soon after the Count begins to consider making Kunigunde his wife.

Act 3 – Hermitage in a mountainous forest. Later at the Thurneck Castle

Käthchen, in her shame, wants to enter a convent despite her father’s objections. In a last attempt to keep his daughter out of the convent, Theobald suggests that she follow Count von Strahl. The Rhine Graf, now betrayed by Kunigunde, decides to attack Count von Strahl. Through a series of unforeseen events Käthchen intercepts his plans to attack and rushes off to warn Strahl. After his refusal to read the letter, he threatens to whip Käthchen for returning. Eventually Strahl reads the letter and learns of the impending attack. After the fighting has subsided Kunigunde sees an opportunity to get rid of Käthchen and sends her into a burning building to retrieve a cherub. Käthchen, with the help of an angel, escapes the building unscathed.

First edition 1810
Act 4 – In the mountains, surrounded by waterfalls and a bridge. Later at the Strahl Castle

Strahl pursues the Rhine Graf and Käthchen accompany them. Käthchen falls asleep beneath an elderberry bush where Strahl questions her. Through questioning they discover that they have met already in their dreams. The Count then begins to realize that Käthchen is his real prophesized wife. Käthchen walks in on Kunigunde during her bathing and is so shocked by what she sees that she cannot speak a word. Kunigunde, having been discovered, decides to have Käthchen poisoned.

Act 5 – City of Worms in a plaza in front of the imperial castle. The throne is to one side. Later in a cavern with a view of the countryside. Finally, the castle square with a view of the castle and a church

Strahl confronts the emperor about the validity of Käthchen’s nobility and in a monologue of the emperor he confesses that he is her biological father. Strahl invites Käthchen to his wedding, but in a twist she learns that it is her wedding. Shocked by this sudden turn of events, Käthchen passes out and the play ends in turmoil.


Käthchen and the Count of Strahl on the Heinrich von Kleist Memorial in Frankfurt (Oder)
Author comments
In a letter to Marie v. Kleist (Berlin, Summer 1811), Heinrich v. Kleist wrote:
"The judgement of the masses has governed me too much until now; especially Käthchen von Heilbronn bears witness to that. From the beginning, it was a marvellous concept and only the intent to adapt it for stage play has lead me to mistakes that I would now like to cry over. In short, I want to soak up the thought that, if a work is only quite freely sprung from one human mind, then that same work must necessarily belong to whole mankind."

"Because he who loves Käthchen cannot complete disregard Penthesilea because they belong together like the + and - of algebra, and they are one and the same being, only imagined out of contrary relations." Kleist in a letter to Heinrich J. von Collin (8 December 1808).

"I am now eager to learn what you would have to say about Käthchen, because she is the obverse of Penthesilea [an Amazon-feminist heroine of an earlier play], her opposite pole, a creature as powerful through submission as Penthesilea is through action?" Kleist in a letter to Marie von Kleist (late autumn 1807)

  Trial by fire
The trial by fire is originally a medieval ordeal meant to test the innocence of a defendant in undecided court cases.

There were several types of trials by fire: walking barefoot over hot coals, holding a hot piece of iron in one's hands, or wearing a shirt dipped in hot wax. Whoever managed to survive such an ordeal was considered innocent.

Other ordeals were also common, wherein the defendant with hands and feet bound together was thrown into water.

Drowning confirmed the defendant's innocence, while staying afloat confirmed the guilty status and the defendant was then put to death.

The trial by fire in this text is not referring to an actual ordeal, but simply a test for Käthchen.

She passes this test when she returns safely from the burning Thurneck Castle with the help of an angel.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Heinrich von Kleist
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Oehlenschlager Adam Gottlob: "Hakon Jarl"

Oehlenschlager: "Hakon Jarl"
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Walter Scott: "Marmion"

Marmion is an epic poem by Scott Walter about the Battle of Flodden Field (1513). It was published in 1808.

Scott started writing Marmion, his second major work, in November 1806. When Archibald Constable, the publisher, learnt of this, he offered a thousand guineas for the copyright unseen. William Miller and John Murray each agreed to take a 25% share in the project. Murray observed: "We both view it as honourable, profitable, and glorious to be concerned in the publication of a new poem by Walter Scott." Scott later said that he thoroughly enjoyed writing the work. He told his son-in-law, Lockhart, "Oh, man, I had many a grand gallop among these braes when I was thinking of Marmion."

In 1807 Scott practised manoeuvres with the Light Horse Volunteers (formed to defend an invasion from France) in order to polish his description of Flodden. Marmion was finished on January 22 and published on 22 February 1808 in a quarto first edition of two thousand copies. This edition, priced one and a half guineas, sold out in a month. It was followed by twelve octavo editions between 1808 and 1825.

The poem tells how Lord Marmion, a favourite of Henry VIII of England, lusts for Clara de Clare, a rich woman. He and his mistress, Constance De Beverley, forge a letter implicating Clara's fiancé, Sir Ralph De Wilton, in treason. Constance, a dishonest nun, hopes that her aid will restore her to favour with Marmion. When De Wilton loses the duel he claims in order to defend his honour against Marmion, he is obliged to go into exile. Clara retires to a convent rather than risk Marmion's attentions. Constance's hopes of a reconciliation with Marmion are dashed when he abandons her; she ends up being walled up alive in the Lindisfarne convent for breaking her vows. She takes her revenge by giving the Abbess who is one of her three judges documents that prove De Wilton's innocence. De Wilton, having returned disguised as a pilgrim, follows Marmion to Edinburgh where he meets the Abbess, who gives him the exonerating documents. When Marmion's host, the Earl of Angus is shown the documents, he arms De Wilton and accepts him as a knight again. De Wilton's plans for revenge are overturned by the battle of Flodden Field. Marmion dies on the battlefield, while De Wilton displays heroism, regains his honour, retrieves his lands, and marries Clara.

Although the book was a huge and lasting commercial success in both Britain and the United States, it did not find favour with contemporary critics. The introductory letters to Scott's friends, which open each canto, were dismissed as unwarranted intrusions. A hero as flawed as Marmion was also unwelcome at this time and the story was criticised for its obscurity. Francis Jeffrey published a particularly harsh review in the Edinburgh Review. Jeffrey observed that much of the verse was 'flat and tedious'; he accused Scott of simply showing off his historical erudition. He also objected to the anachronism of the chivalric code and opposed the warlike sentiments of the introductory epistles. Ultimately, however, the public enthusiasm for Scott's work was undimmed and the poem remained popular for over a century.

First edition title page
The stanzas telling the story of "young Lochinvar", excerpted from Canto V, particularly caught the public imagination and were widely published in anthologies, and learned as a recitation piece.

One of the most quoted excerpts from Scottish poetry is derived from Canto VI, XVII:

Oh, what a tangled web we weave
When first we practise to deceive!
Felicia Hemans used two lines from Marmion as an epigraph for her poem of 1827, The Homes of England.

Where's the coward that would not dare
To fight for such a land?

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Sir Walter Scott

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Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"

Des Knaben Wunderhorn: Alte deutsche Lieder (German, lit. The Boy's Magic Horn: Old German Songs, referring to a hunter's horn, is a collection of German folk poems and songs edited by Achim von Arnim and Brentano Clemens, and published in Heidelberg, in the Grand Duchy of Baden. The book was published in three editions: the first in 1805 followed by two more volumes in 1808.


Frontispiece and title-page of Des Knaben Wunderhorn: Alte deutsche Lieder, Volume 3, published in 1808
The collection was an important source of idealized folklore in the Romantic nationalism of the 19th century.

Des Knaben Wunderhorn became widely popular across the German-speaking world; Goethe, one of the most influential writers of the time, declared that Des Knaben Wunderhorn "has its place in every household".

Arnim and Brentano, like other early 19th-century song collectors, such as the Englishman Thomas Percy, freely modified the poems in their collection.

The editors, both poets themselves, invented some of their own poems. Some poems were modified to fit poetic meter, to conform to then-modern German spelling, or otherwise to conform more closely to an idealized, Romantic "folk style" (naturpoesie).

A 20th-century critical edition by Heinz Rölleke describes the origin of each poem in the collection. Brentano was motivated more by writing his own material than by a strict preservation of the original folk songs.

  Cultural-Historical Background
The young proponents of Romanticism, strongly taken by National sentiments, devoted themselves to the collection and study of the origins of Germanic history in folk songs, fairy-tales, Myths, sagas, and Germanic literature.

Everything untouched by the negative effects of modern civilization in their eyes, was considered good and helpful for the "Gesundung der Nation" (Recovery of the nation). It was under Brentano's direction that the brothers Grimm began collecting their fairytales.

Des Knaben Wunderhorn in music

Selected poems from this collection have been set to music by a number of composers, including Weber, Loewe, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms, Zemlinsky, Schoenberg, and Webern.

Gustav Mahler numbered the collection among his favourite books and set its poems to music throughout much of his life. The text of the first of his four Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, begun in 1884, is based on the Wunderhorn poem Wenn mein Schatz.


Between 1887 and 1901, he wrote two dozen settings of Wunderhorn texts, several of which were incorporated into (or composed as movements for) his Second, Third and Fourth symphonies. In 1899, he published a collection of a dozen Wunderhorn settings that has since become known, slightly confusingly, simply as “Songs from ‘Des Knaben Wunderhorn.’”

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Achim Ludwig

Ludwig Achim (or Joachim) von Arnim (26 January 1781 – 21 January 1831) was a German poet and novelist born in Berlin.


Achim von Arnim by Peter Edward Stroehling
Arnim was descended from a Prussian noble family. His father was Joachim Erdmann von Arnim (1741–1804), associated with the Prussian court and, among other roles, active as the director of the Berlin theater. His mother, Amalia Carlonia Labes (1761–1781), died immediately after Arnim's birth.

Arnim spent his childhood with a grandmother in Berlin. He went on to study law and natural science at Halle and Göttingen, though he inclined from the first towards literature. He received the degree of M.D., but never practiced medicine. His early writings included numerous articles for scientific magazines. His first major work, Theorie der elektrischen Erscheinungen (Theory of electrical phenomena) showed a leaning to the supernatural, common among the German romanticists. He went on to travel through Europe with his brother, Carl Otto Ludwig, from 1801 to 1804. He published the important romantic Zeitung für Einsiedler (Newspaper for Hermits) in Heidelberg in 1808.

Arnim was influenced by the earlier writings of Goethe and Herder, from which he learned to appreciate the beauties of German traditional legends and folk songs.

Forming a collection of these, published the result (1806–1808), in collaboration with Clemens Brentano under the title Des Knaben Wunderhorn. He married Brentano's sister Bettina in 1811, who won wide recognition as a writer in her own right, and their daughter Gisela (one of seven children) became a writer as well.

He lived in Berlin from 1809, worked on Heinrich von Kleist's paper there and founded the political union "Deutsche Tischgesellschaft". From October 1813 to February 1814 he was publisher of the Berlin paper "The Prussian Correspondent." He remained connected with the Prussian patriots (Adam Heinrich Müller, Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué, Heinrich von Kleist). He moved in 1814 to his family home, Schloss Wiepersdorf, where he remained until his death by heart attack in 1831. His output, published in newspapers, magazines and almanacs as well as self-contained books, included novels, dramas, stories, poems and journalistic works. Following his death, his library was taken over by the Weimar court library.

He is considered one of the most important representatives of German Romanticism. His works were collected, with an introduction by Wilhelm Grimm, in twenty volumes (1839–48). Heinrich Heine wrote a eulogy of Arnim in his Deutschland.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Clemens Brentano
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