Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1807 Part II NEXT-1808 Part I    
 
 
     
FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
YEAR BY YEAR:
1800-1809
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Phrenology
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
Chimborazo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Ohio
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
Dahlia
Hobart
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
NELSON AND THE WAR AT SEA, 1797-1805
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Tribunat
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"Ligeia"
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Braille
Seton Elizabeth
 
 
 

David. Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine. 1807
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1807 Part III
 
 
 
1807
 
 
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
 

The Coronation of Napoleon (French: Le Sacre de Napoléon) is a painting completed in 1807 by David Jacques-Louis, the official painter of Napoleon. The painting has imposing dimensions, as it is almost ten metres wide by approximately six metres tall. The crowning and the coronation took place at Notre-Dame de Paris, a way for Napoleon to make it clear that he was a son of the Revolution.

 

David Jacques-Louis. Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine
1805-07
Oil on canvas, 629 x 979 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 
History of the work
The work was commissioned by Napoleon orally in September 1804 and its official title is Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris on 2 December 1804. Jacques-Louis David started work on 21 December 1805 in the former chapel of the College of Cluny, near the Sorbonne, which served as a workshop.

Assisted by his student Georges Rouget, he put the finishing touches in January 1808. From 7 February to 21 March 1808, the work was exhibited at the Salon annual painting display in 1810, and it was presented to the decennial prize competition. The painting remained the property of David until 1819, when it was transferred to the Royal Museums, where it was stored in the reserves until 1837. Then, it was installed in the Chamber Sacre of the museum of the historical Palace of Versailles on the orders of King Louis-Philippe.
  In 1889, the painting was transferred to the Louvre from Versailles and replaced there with a full-size replica - this replica had been begun by David himself in 1808 and completed during his exile in Brussels.

The painting itself is a subject of "The Public Viewing David's 'Coronation' at the Louvre," a painting by Louis-Léopold_Boilly done in 1810, currently housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Composition
The composition is organised around several axes, and incorporates the rules of neoclassicism. One axis is that which passes through the cross and has a vertical orientation.

All eyes are turned towards Napoleon, who is the center of the composition. A diagonal line runs from the pope to the empress.

 
 

The Characters in the painting
 
 

Characters
1. Napoleon I (1769–1821), is standing, dressed in coronation robes similar to those of Roman emperors. Others are merely passive spectators. In the actual painting it is possible to see the outline of what was originally painted: Napoleon holding the crown above his own head, as if placing on himself.
2. Joséphine de Beauharnais (1763–1814), is kneeling in a submissive position, as called for in the French Civil Code. She received the crown from the hands of her husband, not the pope. Her robe is decorated with silk according to a contemporary cartoon by Jean-Francois Bony.
3. Maria Letizia Ramolino (1750–1836), mother of Napoleon, was placed in the stands by the painter. She occupies a place more important than the pope. Actually, she did not attend the ceremony to protest the friction of Napoleon with his brothers Lucien and Joseph. Napoleon's father, Charles Bonaparte, died in 1785. Maria Letizia asked the painter to give it a place of honour. In 1808, when Napoleon discovered the canvas completed in the workshop of David, he was enthralled, and expressed his gratitude to the painter who had managed to convey to posterity the tribute paid to the affection he was carrying to a woman who shared with him the burden of his office.
4. Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), who at the beginning of the empire received the title of grand constable, King of Holland, in 1806. He married Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter of Josephine.
5. Joseph Bonaparte (1768–1844), who was not invited and did not attend because of an argument with Napoleon. This is why his mother did not attend either. After the coronation, he received the title of imperial prince. Then he was king of Naples in 1806 and Spain in 1808.
6. The young Napoleon Charles Bonaparte (1802–1807), son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beauharnais.
7. The sisters of Napoleon. In the replica, the dress of Napoleon's favorite sister will be pink. This is the only change in the replica despite being painted from memory.
8. Charles-Francois Lebrun (1739–1824), the third consul alongside Napoleon and Cambacérès. Under the First Empire, he took the place of prince-architrésorier. He holds the sceptre.
9. Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (1753–1824), arch-chancellor prince of the empire. He takes the hand of justice.
10. Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753–1815), minister of war under the Consulate. Marshal Empire in 1805. He keeps the globe surmounted by a cross.
11. Talleyrand (1754–1836), grand chamberlain since July 11, 1804.
12. Joachim Murat (1767–1815), marshal of empire, king of Naples after 1808, brother-in-law of Napoleon and husband of Caroline Bonaparte.
13. Pope Pius VII (1742–1823), was content to bless the coronation. He is surrounded by dignitaries clerics, appointed by Napoleon since the Concordat. In order not to jeopardize the new balance between Church and State, the pope accepted to attend the coronation.[citation needed] The original sketches (as was typical in those days) showed the (key) subjects - including the Pope - minus their clothing, which was added in the actual painting. The pope was originally pictured with hands crossed on his lap, but Napoleon, supposedly claiming that the Pope was not present to do nothing, instructed that the painting depict him anointing the proceedings.
14. The painter Jacques-Louis David is depicted in the stands as well.
15. Halet Efendi, an Ottoman ambassador, was also present. He is shown below in the detailed picture.
16. The lady robe bearer in front,right behind Josephine,on the right side from the picture-viewer's point,is Elisabeth-Hélène-Pierre de Montmorency-Laval,mother of politician Sosthènes II de La Rochefoucauld.She was a court lady of Josephine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 

Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I (detail)
1805-07
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 
 
 
     
 
Jacques-Louis David
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Kauffmann Angelica, Swiss painter, d. (b. 1741)
 
 


Kauffmann Angelica. Self-Portrait
1780-85
Oil on canvas, 77 x 63 cm
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

 
 
 
     
 
Angelica Kauffmann
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Zeshin Shibata
 

Shibata Zeshin (柴田 是真?, March 15, 1807 – July 13, 1891) was a famous and revolutionary Japanese painter and lacquerer of the late Edo period and early Meiji era. In Japan, he is ironically known as both too modern, a panderer to the Westernization movement, and also an overly conservative traditionalist who did nothing to stand out from his contemporaries. Despite holding this odd reputation in Japan, Zeshin has come to be well regarded and much studied among the art world of the West, in England and the United States in particular.

 
Biography
Zeshin was born and raised in Edo (modern-day Tokyo). His grandfather Izumi Chobei and his father Ichigoro were shrine carpenters (miyadaiku) and skilled wood carvers. His father, who had taken his wife's family name of Shibata, was also an experienced Ukiyo-e painter, having studied under Katsukawa Shunshō. This, of course, gave him an excellent start on the road to being an artist and craftsman. At age eleven, Kametaro, as Zeshin was called in his childhood, became apprenticed to a lacquerer named Koma Kansai II.

At age 13, the young man who would become Zeshin abandoned the name Kametaro and became Junzo. Koma Kansai decided that his young charge would need to learn to sketch, paint, and create original designs in order to become a great lacquerer. He arranged for young Shibata to study under Suzuki Nanrei, a great painter of the Shijō school. Shibata then took on yet another artist's name, abandoning Junzo and signing his works "Reisai," using the Rei from Suzuki Nanrei, and the sai from Koma Kansai.

It was during his time with Nanrei that he was given the name Zeshin, which he would stick with for the rest of his life. The name has a meaning similar to "this is true" or "the Truth", a reference to an old Chinese tale of a king who held an audience with a great number of painters. While nearly all of the painters afforded the king the proper respect, bowing before him and comporting themselves appropriately, one arrived half-naked, did not bow, and sat on the floor licking his paintbrush; the king exclaimed "now, this is a true artist!" And from this the name Zeshin was taken.

Zeshin learned not only the basics of painting and sketching, but also Japanese tea ceremony, haiku and waka poetry, history, literature and philosophy. This would form the foundation of his training in not only the techniques of the traditional arts, but also, and perhaps more importantly, the aesthetic and philosophy of Japanese traditional art. Many of his works from the period of his studies with Nanrei were fan paintings. The great ukiyo-e artist Utagawa Kuniyoshi was impressed with these fan paintings and, approaching the young painter, began a friendship which would last for many years.
Zeshin later studied under other great artists of the Kyoto school, including Maruyama Ōkyo, Okamoto Toyohiko, and Goshin. Though he would later be known primarily for his work with lacquers, Zeshin excelled at traditional ink painting, and produced many works of traditional subjects such as tigers and waterfalls.

  Though Japanese masters (sensei) are often quite egotistical and arrogant before their students, one of Zeshin's teachers is reputed to have made the comment that "just as you cannot appreciate the size of Mt. Fuji while standing upon it, so you cannot truly appreciate my skill and reputation while in Kyoto; when you return to Edo you will realize my incredible import and your great fortune in having studied under me." Zeshin, on the other hand, is reputed to have told his own students that he did not wish them to be known as "a pupil of Zeshin's, but rather as a great artist who studied under a man called Zeshin."

Koma Kansai died in 1835, and Zeshin inherited the Koma School workshop. He took on a young man by the name of Ikeda Taishin as a pupil; Taishin would remain his pupil and close friend until his death in 1903. Zeshin married in 1849 and named his first son Reisai, but lost his mother and his wife both soon afterwards.

In the 1830s and 1840s, Japan suffered an economic crisis, and artists were strictly limited, by law, in their use of silver and gold, both nearly essential for traditional styles of lacquer decoration. Zeshin compensated by using bronze to simulate the look and texture of iron, and with a variety of other substances and decorative styles to keep his work beautiful, while remaining traditional and doable.

Many of his pieces could be said to embrace the concept of wabi, that is, beauty and elegance in the very simple, as exemplified by the Japanese tea ceremony. Although very few of his Edo period (pre-1868) pieces survive, it is evident in many of his later pieces that he would use, at times, a very simple and nearly colorless style of decoration, while continuing to use the traditional designs such as flowers and reeds.

Beginning in 1869, Zeshin was commissioned to work for the Imperial government, and created many works of art for them which are sadly no longer extant. These included a set of gold-lacquered chairs for the Imperial Palace decorated in a sakura (cherry blossom) motif. He was later made Japan's official representative to several international expositions, including Vienna in 1873, Philadelphia the following year, and Paris.

One year before his death in 1891, Zeshin was granted the immense honor of membership in the newly created Imperial Art Committee. The honor of Imperial Commissioned Artists was only granted to 53 artists between 1890 and 1944.

Today, one of the greatest collections of Zeshin's works is the Khalili Collections of London, containing over 100 works by the artist.

 
 
Style
In addition to inventing the form of urushi-e, painting with lacquer, Zeshin also experimented greatly with the technical elements of using lacquer. He mixed his lacquers with a variety of substances to achieve different colors and textures, and to control the consistency and flexibility of the lacquer. He mixed certain substances with the lacquer to ensure it would not crack when his urushi-e scroll paintings were rolled up. He used bronze in his lacquer to simulate the appearance and texture of iron, and cereal starch to thicken his lacquer to simulate, at least in some respects, the effect of Western oil painting.
Zeshin remains, in fact, the only artist to be successful in the medium of urushi-e, as it requires specially treated paper, and a very particular consistency of lacquer to be used as paint. Zeshin also revived a complex lacquer technique called seikai-ha to produce wave forms; this technique is so difficult it had not been used for over a century.

However, although he used many revolutionary elements in his work, both technically and creatively, Zeshin's works were always, on the whole, very traditional. In the brand-new medium of lacquer painting, he would paint traditional subjects like birds and flowers, insects, waterfalls and dragons. He copied a famous painting of a tiger by his teacher Maruyama Okyo, in lacquer. A red, black and gold lacquer picnic set by Zeshin serves as another good example of this revolutionary traditionalism. The picnic set is made in very traditional style, almost entirely of red and black lacquer with gold decorations of leaves and branches.

 
 
 
However, on the serving tray is a series of butterflies and dragonflies, inlaid into the surface of the serving tray and carved out of iridescent seashell.

Zeshin's signature was always quite subdued, and on occasion he would be playful with the idea of the signature. There is a decorative tsuba (sword handguard) made by him on which an ant, displayed in relief in lacquer, is carrying away the "shin" character (真) of Zeshin's signature to the other side of the piece.

It has been said that much of Zeshin's work strongly represents the aesthetic concept of iki (粋), which might be translated as "chic". The Edo concept of iki, known as sui in Kansai, was described most authoritatively by Kuki Shūzō, but like the English ideas of chic, cool, and stylish, the precise colors, patterns, and other stylistic elements that constitute iki are nearly impossible to pin down. Nevertheless, that said, Zeshin's works are often labeled as iki, and considered to have just the right balance of tradition with the new, being beautiful but not gaudy and simple but not boring and smart but not arrogant. His style has been compared by some to haiku, in that its beauty and meaning is more powerful in what is not shown than by what is.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
see also: Shibata Zeshin
 
 
     
 
Ukiyo-e

The Golden Age of Japanese Art
     
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
 

The Coriolan Overture (German: Ouvertüre Coriolan), Op. 62, is a composition written by Beethoven Ludwig in 1807 for Heinrich Joseph von Collin's 1804 tragedy Coriolan, and not, as is sometimes claimed, for William Shakespeare's play Coriolanus, although both works are about the ancient Roman leader Gaius Marcius Coriolanus

 
The structure and themes of the overture follow the play very generally. The main C minor theme represents Coriolanus' resolve and war-like tendencies (he is about to invade Rome), while the more tender E-flat major theme represents the pleadings of his mother to desist.
Coriolanus eventually gives in to tenderness, but since he cannot turn back having led an army of his former enemies to Rome's gates, he kills himself. (In Shakespeare's play, on the other hand, he is murdered.)

The overture was premiered in March 1807 at a private concert in the home of Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz. The Symphony No. 4 in B-flat and the Piano Concerto No. 4 in G were premiered at the same concert.

  Recordings
Two of the most highly regarded recordings are of Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Berliner Philharmoniker (1943) and Fritz Reiner conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1959. Sir Roger Norrington has created a notable period performance version with his recording of the overture with the London Classical Players. Other notable recordings include those by Herbert von Karajan with the Berlin Philharmonic, Karl Böhm with the Vienna Philharmonic, Carlos Kleiber conducting the Bavarian State Orchestra and Bruno Walter conducting the Columbia Symphony. The work was a staple of Arturo Toscanini's repertoire, and six recordings under Toscanini's baton are extant as well as one recording of rehearsal excerpts.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Beethoven - Coriolan Overture
 
Leonard Bernstein, Conductor

Wiener Philarmoniker

 
 
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
 
Leonore No. 3 is the distillation of the Fidelio idea. It is too strong a piece and too big, even too dramatic, to be an effective introduction for a stage action, something that Beethoven realized almost at once. It does, however, stand as one of the great emblems of the heroic Beethoven, a potent and controlled musical embodiment of a noble humanistic passion.
 
 
 
 
Bernstein - Beethoven - Leonore Overture Nº3
 
Leonore Overture Nº 3 in C major, Op. 72b

The Amnesty International Concert

Orchestra: Bavarian Broadcast Symphony Orchestra
Venue: Munich, Germany.
Date: 17/10/1976
Leonard Bernstein (1918 - 1990)

 
 
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
 

Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 23 in F minor, Op. 57 (colloquially known as the Appassionata, meaning "passionate" in Italian) is among the three famous piano sonatas of his middle period (the others being the Waldstein, Op. 53 and Les Adieux, Op. 81a); it was composed during 1804 and 1805, and perhaps 1806, and was dedicated to Count Franz von Brunswick. The first edition was published in February 1807 in Vienna.

 

Unlike the early Sonata No. 8, Pathétique, the Appassionata was not named during the composer's lifetime, but was so labeled in 1838 by the publisher of a four-hand arrangement of the work.

One of his greatest and most technically challenging piano sonatas, the Appassionata was considered by Beethoven to be his most tempestuous piano sonata until the twenty-ninth piano sonata (known as the Hammerklavier), being described as a "brilliantly executed display of emotion and music". 1803 was the year Beethoven came to grips with the irreversibility of his progressively deteriorating hearing.

An average performance of the entire Appassionata sonata lasts about twenty-three minutes.

Form
The sonata, in F minor, consists of three movements:

Allegro assai
Andante con moto
Allegro ma non troppo - Presto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The beginning of the first movement

 
 
Beethoven - Piano Sonata No. 23 in F minor, Op. 57 "Appassionata" - Daniel Barenboim
 
From the Complete Beethoven Piano Sonatas Nos 1-32 cycle recorded 1983-84

Piano Sonata No. 23 in F Minor, Op. 57 ("Appassionata")

Daniel Barenboim, piano

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Ludwig van Beethoven
     
 
 
     
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1807
 
 
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
 
 
 
 
Étienne-Nicolas Méhul - Joseph - Ouverture
 
Mehul Etienne: Joseph, drame mêlé de chants in three acts, first performance 17 February 1807, Opéra-Comique, Paris.

Libretto: Alexandre Duval

Ouverture

Orchestra: Orchestre de Bretagne

Conductor: Stefan Sanderling

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Etienne-Nicolas Mehul
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1807
 
 
Spontini: "La Vestale"
 
 
Spontini Gaspare
 
Gaspare Spontini, in full Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini (born Nov. 14, 1774, Maiolati, Papal States [Italy]—died Jan. 24, 1851, Maiolati), Italian composer and conductor whose early operas, notably his masterpiece, La vestale (1807), represent the spirit of the Napoleonic era and form an operatic bridge between the works of Christoph Gluck and Richard Wagner.
 

Gaspare Spontini
  Entering the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples in 1793, he studied music with Nicola Sala and Giacomo Tritto; he left before completing his studies, however. His first opera, Li puntigli delle donne (“The Obstinacy of Women”), was performed in Rome in 1796. Its success led him to continue writing comic operas for Rome, Venice, Florence, Naples, and Palermo—the most famous was L’eroismo ridicolo (1798; “Ridiculous Heroism”), which brought him to the attention of Dominico Cimarosa. He moved to Paris and in 1799 saw a successful revival of La finta filosofa (“The Fake Female Philosopher”); he established himself there with Milton (1804). Influenced by French composers, Spontini developed the dramatic composition La vestale (“The Vestal Virgin”) that established his European reputation. He became conductor of the Italian Opera in 1810 but left two years later for political reasons (he remained loyal to Joséphine even after her divorce from Napoleon) and became the court composer to Louis XVIII in 1814. He left Paris in 1819 after the failure of his opera Olimpie.

In 1820 he received an appointment from Frederick William III of Prussia as director of music at Berlin, where growing German partisanship placed him under constant attack in the musical press. Nevertheless, the appointment lasted until shortly after the king’s death in June of 1840, when political intrigue forced Spontini to relinquish his duties and leave Berlin, barely escaping a prison sentence. Except for a successful revival of La vestale in Dresden, Ger. (1844), his career was essentially over.
 
 

Additional significant operas by Spontini include La fuga in Maschera (1800; “The Masked Flight”), Olimpie (1819), Nurmahal (1822), Alcidor (1825), and Agnes von Hohenstaufen (1829).

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
 
Spontini - La vestale
 

La vestale (The Vestal Virgin) is an opera composed by Gaspare Spontini to a French libretto by Étienne de Jouy. It was first performed on 15 December 1807 by the Académie Impériale de Musique (Paris Opera) at the Salle Montansier, and is regarded as Spontini's masterpiece. The musical style shows the influence of Gluck and looks forwards to the works of Berlioz, Wagner and French Grand Opera.

 
Composition history
Spontini had finished La vestale by the summer of 1805 but had faced opposition from leading members of the Opéra and rivalry from fellow composers. The premiere was made possible with the help of Spontini's patron, the Empress Josephine, but only after being rearranged by Jean-Baptiste Rey and Louis-Luc Loiseau de Persuis. La vestale was an enormous success, enjoying over two hundred performances by 1830.

Performance history
Its fame soon spread abroad; it first appeared on the Italian stage in Naples in 1811, and it was performed in Stockholm in 1823. It was premiered in the United States in French at Théâtre d'Orléans in New Orleans on 17 February 1828. Important 20th-century revivals include the 1954 production at La Scala with Maria Callas in the title role, which was the first opera staging by the famous film director Luchino Visconti. La vestale is famous in historical terms but is only very infrequently performed. Two of its arias (translated to Italian and recorded by Maria Callas and Rosa Ponselle), "Tu che invoco" and "O Nume tutelar", are better known than the work as a whole. In recognition of its role in the development of Richard Wagner's third opera, Rienzi, it was performed in concert form in Dresden's Semperoper in the Summer of 2013.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
Gaspare Spontini - Ouverture - La Vestale
 
Ouverture La Vestale (1807)

The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra conducted by Gustav Kuhn

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Gaspare Spontini
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

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1807
 
 
Charles Bell: "System of Comparative Surgery"
 
 
Bell Charles
 

Sir Charles Bell (12 November 1774 – 28 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, neurologist and philosophical theologian. He is noted for discovering the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord. He is also noted for describing Bell's Palsy.

His three older brothers included John Bell (1763–1820), also a noted surgeon and writer; and the advocate George Joseph Bell (1770–1843).

 

Sir Charles Bell
  Life
Charles Bell was born in Edinburgh on 12 November 1774, a son of the Rev William Bell, a clergyman of the Episcopal Church of Scotland, who died in 1779 when Bell was a small child. Bell grew up in Edinburgh, attending the High School (1784-8) and Edinburgh University, where he took his medical degree in 1798. He conducted his surgical training as assistant to his elder brother John Bell.

He and his brother had artistic gifts, and together they taught anatomy and illustrated and published two volumes of A System of Dissection Explaining the Anatomy of the Human Body. Bell's career was characterized by the accumulation of quite extraordinary honours and achievements - and by acrimonious disputes unusual even by the standards of medicine during the Regency.

Shortly after his graduation Bell was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh, where he operated and taught anatomy. He and his brother published two additional volumes of their anatomical treatise in 1802 and 1804. Some aspects of his success, however, led to the jealous opposition of local physicians, and he was barred from practice at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. He then moved to London in 1804, where he set up a private surgery and school of anatomy.

 
 
From 1812 to 1825, together with his brother, Bell ran the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy, which had been founded by the anatomist William Hunter. He also served as a military surgeon, making elaborate recordings of neurological injuries at the Royal Hospital Haslar and famously documenting his experiences at Waterloo in 1815, where the anatomist Robert Knox commented very negatively on Bell's surgical abilities; (the mortality rate of amputations carried out by Bell ran at about 90%). Bell was instrumental in the creation of the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, and became, in 1824, the first professor of Anatomy and Surgery of the College of Surgeons in London. In 1829, the Windmill Street School of Anatomy was incorporated into the new King's College London. Bell was invited to be its first professor of physiology, but resigned shortly afterwards. Wishing to return to Scotland, he accepted in 1836 the position of Professor of Surgery at the University of Edinburgh.

Bell died in the Midlands, travelling back from Edinburgh to London, in 1842.

 
 

Opisthotonus (Tetanus) by Charles Bell (1809)
 
 
Honours and Awards
Bell was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 8 June 1807, on the nomination of Robert Jameson, William Wright and Thomas Macknight. He served as a Councillor of the RSE from 1836-9.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London on 16 November 1826, was knighted in 1831 and, like Sir Richard Owen, was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

 
 
Works
Charles Bell was a prolific author. Shortly after arriving in London, he set his sights on the Chair of Anatomy at the Royal Academy, and, in furtherance of this career goal, he published Essays on The Anatomy of Expression in Painting (1806), later re-published as Essays on The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression in 1824. In this work, Bell followed the principles of natural theology, asserting the existence of a uniquely human system of facial muscles in the service of a human species with a unique relationship to the Creator. After the failure of his application, (Sir Thomas Lawrence, later President of the Royal Academy, described Bell as "lacking in temper, modesty and judgement"), Bell turned his attentions to the nervous system.

Bell published detailed studies of the nervous system in 1811, in his privately circulated book An Idea of a New Anatomy of the Brain. He described his experiments with animals and later emphasised how he was the first to distinguish between sensory and motor nerves. This essay is considered by many to be the founding stone of clinical neurology. However, Bell's original essay of 1811 did not actually contain a clear description of motor and sensory nerve roots as Bell later claimed, and he seems to have issued subsequent incorrectly dated revisions with subtle textual alterations. Charles Darwin (and others) found in Bell's published views more evidence of his personal ambitions than of proper scientific enquiry.

 
The Maniac by Charles Bell (1806)
 
 
Nevertheless, Bell's studies on emotional expression, flawed though they were, played a catalytic role in the development of Darwin's considerations of the origins of human emotional life; and Darwin very much agreed with Bell's emphasis on the expressive role of the muscles of respiration. Darwin detailed these opinions in his The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872), written with the active collaboration of the psychiatrist James Crichton-Browne. Bell was one of the first physicians to combine the scientific study of neuroanatomy with clinical practice. In 1821, he described in the trajectory of the facial nerve and a disease, Bell's Palsy which led to the unilateral paralysis of facial muscles, in one of the classics of neurology, a paper to the Royal Society entitled On the Nerves: Giving an Account of some Experiments on Their Structure an Functions, Which Lead to a New Arrangement of the System.

Bell also combined his many artistic, scientific, literary and teaching talents in a number of wax preparations and detailed anatomical and surgical illustrations, paintings and engravings in his several books on these subjects, such as in his book Illustrations of the Great Operations of Surgery: Trepan, Hernia, Amputation, Aneurism, and Lithotomy (1821). He wrote also the first treatise on notions of anatomy and physiology of facial expression for painters and illustrators, titled Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting (1806). In 1833 he published the fourth Bridgewater Treatise, The Hand: Its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design.

 
 

A number of discoveries received his name:

Bell's (external respiratory) nerve: The long thoracic nerve.
Bell's palsy: a unilateral idiopathic paralysis of facial muscles due to a lesion of the facial nerve.
Bell's phenomenon: A normal defense mechanism—upward and outward movement of the eye which occurs when an individual closes their eyes forcibly. It can be appreciated clinically in a patient with paralysis of the orbicularis oculi (e.g. Guillain-Barre or Bell's palsy), as the eyelid remains elevated when the patient tries to close the eye.
Bell's spasm: Involuntary twitching of the facial muscles.
Bell-Magendie law or Bell's Law: States that the anterior branch of spinal nerve roots contain only motor fibers and the posterior roots contain only sensory fibers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Robert Fulton's paddle steamer "Clermont" navigates on Hudson River
 
 
In 1807, Fulton and Livingston together built the first commercial steamboat, the "North River Steamboat" (later known as the "Clermont"), which carried passengers between New York City and upstream to the state capital Albany, New York. The Clermont was able to make the 150-mile trip in 32 hours. From 1811 until his death, Fulton was appointed by the Governor of New York, a member of the Erie Canal Commission.
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Alexander von Humboldt (Humboldt Alexander) and Bonpland: "Voyage aux regions equinoxiales du nouveau continent, 1799—1804," on Span. America, first of 30 vols. published
 
 
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
 

Aimé Jacques Alexandre Bonpland (29 August 1773 – 4 May 1858) was a French explorer and botanist.

 

Aimé Jacques Alexandre Bonpland
  Biography
Bonpland's real surname was Goujaud, and he was born in La Rochelle, a coastal city in France. Around 1790, he left La Rochelle to find his brother Michael, who studied medicine in Paris. The two brothers had the opportunity to take courses in anatomy by Pierre Joseph Desault in the Hôtel-Dieu in Paris. During this period, Aimé Bonpland became friends with another student in anatomy, Marie François Xavier Bichat. From 1791, they also attended courses given at the Botanical Museum of Natural History of Paris where their teachers were the famous Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu and René Louiche Desfontaines. After serving as a surgeon in the French army, and studying under Jean-Nicolas Corvisart at Paris, he accompanied Alexander von Humboldt during five years of travel in Mexico, Colombia and the districts bordering on the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. In these explorations he collected and classified about 60 000 plants that were, until then, mostly unknown in Europe. He later described his finds in Plantes equinoxiales (Paris, 1808–1816). A semi-fictional account of these travels is to be found in Daniel Kehlmann's Die Vermessung der Welt (also published in English as Measuring the World: A Novel, translated by Carol Brown Janeway).
On returning to Paris, he received a pension and the superintendence of the gardens at Malmaison, and published Monographie des Melastomes (1806), and Description des plantes rares cultivées à Malmaison et à Navarre (1813). In 1816, after having vainly tried to convince Napoleon to emigrate to the Americas, he took various European plants and set out for Buenos Aires, where he was elected professor of natural history, an office which he soon left in order to explore central South America.
 
 
In 1821 Bonpland established a colony at Santa Ana, near the River Paraná, in territory then disputed between Paraguay and Argentina, with the specific object of harvesting and selling Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis). At that time Paraguay had a monopoly in the commercialisation of Yerba Mate. No permission was asked for or granted by the Paraguayan government for the installation of the colony and therefore José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, the dictator of Paraguay, ordered the destruction of the colony. Bonpland was arrested and detained in Santa Maria, not in a cell but in a house provided by the Paraguayan government. He was allowed to keep all his possessions and to practice medicine. During his imprisonment, he devoted his services as a physician gratuitously to the poor. He was also compelled to act as physician to a garrison.

On regaining his liberty in 1831, he resided at San Borja in the province of Corrientes, Argentina. There he married and made a living as a yerba mate (Paraguay tea) farmer and merchant. In 1853, he moved to Santa Ana, in the province of Corrientes, today a small town called "Bonpland" in his honor, close to Restauracion. There he occupied himself in scientific research, and in cultivating the orange trees which he had introduced. He died there, frustrating his intention to once again visit Paris to deliver his collections of plants and descriptions to the museum there.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

Humboldt and Bonpland at the Chimborazo base
 
 
see also: Baron von Humboldt
 
 
 
1807
 
 
David Thompson's explorations 1807-1811
 
 
Thompson David
 
David Thompson (April 30, 1770 – February 10, 1857) was a British-Canadian fur trader, surveyor, and map-maker, known to some native peoples as "Koo-Koo-Sint" or "the Stargazer." Over his career he mapped over 3.9 million square kilometers of North America and for this has been described as the "greatest land geographer who ever lived."
 

David Thompson
  David Thompson, (born April 30, 1770, London, Eng.—died Feb. 10, 1857, Longeuil, Lower Canada [now Quebec]), English explorer, geographer, and fur trader in the western parts of what are now Canada and the United States.

He was the first white man to explore the Columbia River from source to mouth. His maps of western North America served as a basis for all subsequent ones.

Thompson was apprenticed to the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1784 and worked as a clerk in northern and western Canada until 1796, when he made an expedition for the company to Lake Athabasca.

He left the company in 1797 to join and become a partner in the rival North West Company and continued to explore and trade on the western plains.

In 1797 Thompson descended a stretch of the Missouri River, and in 1798 he discovered Turtle Lake, one of the headwaters of the Mississippi River. In 1807 he crossed the Rocky Mountains by the Howse Pass and built the first trading post on the Columbia River.

Having explored what is now northwest Montana, Thompson descended the length of the Columbia River in 1811. He then settled in Terrebonne, near Montreal, and drew up maps of the newly explored territory.

 
 
Thompson acted as an astronomer and surveyor for the commission that charted the border between Canada and the United States from 1818 to 1826. He conducted other surveys but was not recognized as a geographer until after his death.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 





see also:

Crossing Canadian Rockies
 
 
 
1807
 
 
Ascot Gold Cup
 

The Gold Cup is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to horses aged four years or older. It is run at Ascot over a distance of 2 miles and 4 furlongs (4,023 metres), and it is scheduled to take place each year in June.

It is Britain's most prestigious event for "stayers" – horses which specialise in racing over long distances. It is traditionally held on day three of the Royal Ascot meeting, which is known colloquially (but not officially) as Ladies' Day. Contrary to popular belief the actual title of the race does not include the word "Ascot".

 

The Ascot Gold Cup, 1834 by James Pollard
 
History
The event was established in 1807, and it was originally open to horses aged three or older. The inaugural winner, Master Jackey, was awarded prize money of 100 guineas. The first race took place in the presence of King George III and Queen Charlotte.

The 1844 running was attended by Nicholas I of Russia, who was making a state visit to England. That year's winner was unnamed at the time of his victory, but he was given the name "The Emperor" in honour of the visiting monarch. In return Nicholas offered a new trophy for the race — the "Emperor's Plate" — and this became the title of the event for a short period. Its original name was restored after nine years, during the Crimean War.

  The Gold Cup is the first leg of Britain's Stayers' Triple Crown, followed by the Goodwood Cup and the Doncaster Cup. The last horse to win all three races in the same year was Double Trigger in 1995.

The Gold Cup is one of three perpetual trophies at the Royal Ascot meeting, along with the Royal Hunt Cup and the Queen's Vase, which can be kept permanently by the winning owners.

A number of horses have won it more than once, and the most successful is Yeats, who recorded his fourth victory in 2009.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1807
 
 
Slave Trade Act 1807
 

47 Geo 3 Sess 1 c 36, sometimes called the Slave Trade Act, the Slave Trade Act 1807 or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the title of "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade". The original act is in the Parliamentary Archives. The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, and also encouraged British action to press other European nations to abolish their slaves trades; but it did not abolish slavery itself. Many of the Bill's supporters thought the Act would lead to the death of slavery, but it was not until 26 years later that slavery itself was actually abolished. Slavery on English soil was unsupported in English law and that position was confirmed in Somersett's Case in 1772, but it remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

 
Background
The Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed in 1787 by a group of Evangelical English Protestants allied with Quakers, to unite in their shared opposition to slavery and the slave trade. The Quakers had long viewed slavery as immoral, a blight upon humanity. By 1807 the abolitionist groups had a very sizable faction of like-minded members in the British Parliament. At their height they controlled 35–40 seats. Known as the "Saints", the alliance was led by the best known of the anti-slave trade campaigners,
Wilberforce William , who had taken on the cause of abolition in 1787 after having read the evidence that Thomas Clarkson had amassed against the trade. These dedicated Parliamentarians had access to the legal draughtsmanship of James Stephen, Wilberforce's brother-in-law. They often saw their personal battle against slavery as a divinely ordained crusade. On Sunday 28 October 1787, Wilberforce wrote in his diary: "God Almighty has set before me two great objects, the suppression of the slave trade and the reformation of manners."

Their numbers were magnified by the precarious position of the government under Lord Grenville, whose short term as Prime Minister was known as the Ministry of All the Talents. Grenville himself led the fight to pass the Bill in the House of Lords, while in the Commons the Bill was led by the Foreign Secretary, Charles James Fox, who died before it was finally signed into law. Other events also played a part.

 
William Wilberforce the leader of the British campaign to abolish the slave trade
 
 
The Act of Union allowed 100 Irish MPs into Parliament, most of whom supported abolition. The Bill was first introduced to Parliament in January 1807. It went to the House of Commons on 10 February 1807. On 23 February 1807, twenty years after he first began his crusade, Wilberforce and his team were rewarded with victory. By an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16 against, the motion to abolish the Atlantic slave trade was carried in the House of Commons. The debate lasted ten hours and the House voted in favour of the Bill. The Bill received Royal Assent on 25 March 1807.
 
 
Other nations
Britain used its international strength to put pressure on other nations to end their own slave trade. The United States acted to abolish its Atlantic slave trade the same month on 2 March (but not its internal slave trade). In 1805 a British Order-in-Council had restricted the importation of slaves into colonies that had been captured from France and the Netherlands.Britain continued to press other nations to end their trade with a series of treaties: the 1810 Anglo-Portuguese treaty whereby Portugal agreed to restrict its trade into its colonies; the 1813 Anglo-Swedish treaty whereby Sweden outlawed its slave trade; the 1814 Treaty of Paris 1814 whereby France agreed with Britain that the slave trade was "repugnant to the principles of natural justice" and agreed to abolish the slave trade in five years; the 1814 Anglo-Dutch treaty whereby the Netherlands outlawed its slave trade and the 1817 Anglo-Spanish treaty that Spain agreed to suppress its trade by 1820.

Enforcement
The Act created fines for captains who continued with the trade. These fines could be up to £100 per slave found on a ship. Captains would sometimes dump slaves overboard when they saw Navy ships coming in order to avoid these fines.

 
"Am I Not A Man And A Brother?" medallion created as part of anti-slavery campaign by Josiah Wedgwood, 1787
 
 
The Royal Navy, which then controlled the world's seas, established the West Africa Squadron in 1808 to patrol the coast of West Africa, and between 1808 and 1860 they seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard. The Royal Navy declared that ships transporting slaves were the same as pirates. Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", who was deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.

In the 1860s, David Livingstone's reports of atrocities within the Arab slave trade in Africa stirred up the interest of the British public, reviving the flagging abolitionist movement. The Royal Navy throughout the 1870s attempted to suppress "this abominable Eastern trade", at Zanzibar in particular. In 1890 Britain handed control of the strategically important island of Heligoland in the North Sea to Germany in return for control of Zanzibar, in part to help enforce the ban on slave trading.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 

 

1807
 
 
Street lighting by gas in London
 
 
 

 
 
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