Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
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FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

The battle of Jena
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg

The Battle of Blaauwberg, also known as the Battle of Cape Town, fought near Cape Town on 8 January 1806, was a small but significant military engagement. It established British rule in South Africa, which was to have many ramifications for the region during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A bi-centennial commemoration was held in January 2006.

The battle was an incident in Europe's Napoleonic Wars. At that time, the Cape Colony belonged to the Batavian Republic, a French vassal. Because the sea route around the Cape was important to the British, they decided to seize the colony in order to prevent it—and the sea route—from also coming under French control. A British fleet was despatched to the Cape in July 1805, to forestall French troopships which Napoleon had sent to reinforce the Cape garrison.

The colony was governed by Lt Gen Jan Willem Janssens, who was also commander-in-chief of its military forces. The forces were small and of poor quality, and included foreign units hired by the Batavian government for the purpose. They were backed up by local militia units.

The first British warship reached the Cape on Christmas Eve 1805, and attacked two supply ships off the Cape Peninsula. Janssens placed his garrison on the alert. When the main fleet sailed into Table Bay on 4 January 1806, he mobilised his garrison, declared martial law, and called up the militia. After a delay caused by rough seas, two British infantry brigades, under command of Lt Gen Sir David Baird, landed at Melkbosstrand, north of Cape Town, on 6 and 7 January. Janssens moved his forces to intercept them. He had decided that "victory could be considered impossible, but the honour of the fatherland demanded a fight". His intention was to attack the British on the beach and then to withdraw to the interior, where he hoped to hold out until the French troopships arrived.
The Storming of the Cape of Good Hope
However, on the morning of 8 January, while Janssens's slow-moving columns were still moving through the veld, Baird's brigades began their march to Cape Town, and reached the slopes of the Blaauwberg mountain (now spelled "Blouberg"), a few kilometres ahead of Janssens. Janssens halted and formed a line across the veld.

The battle began at sunrise, with exchanges of artillery fire. They were followed by an advance by Janssens's militia cavalry, and volleys of musket fire from both sides. Then, one of Janssens's hired foreign units, in the centre of his line, turned and ran from the field. A British bayonet charge disposed of the units on Janssens's right flank, and he ordered his remaining troops to withdraw.

Janssens began the battle with 2,049 troops, and lost 353 in casualties and desertions. Baird began the battle with 5,399 men, and had 212 casualties.

From Blaauwberg, Janssens moved inland to a farm in the Tygerberg area, and from there his troops moved inland to the Elands Kloof in the Hottentots-Holland mountains, about 50km from Cape Town. The British forces reached the outskirts of Cape Town on 9 January. To spare the town and its civilian population from attack, the commandant of Cape Town, Lieutenant-Colonel Hieronymus Casimir von Prophalow sent out a white flag. He handed over the outer fortifications to Baird, and terms of surrender were negotiated later in the day. The formal Articles of Capitulation for the town and the Cape Peninsula were signed the following afternoon, 10 January, at a cottage at Papendorp (now the suburb of Woodstock) which became known as "Treaty Cottage." Although the cottage has long since been demolished, Treaty Street still commemorates the event. The tree under which they signed remains to this day.

However the Batavian Governor of the Cape, General Janssens had not yet surrendered himself and his remaining troops and was following his plan to hold out for as long as he could, in the hope that the French troopships for which he had been waiting for months would arrive and save him.

He had only 1,238 men with him, and 211 deserted in the days that followed.

  Janssens held out in the mountains for a further week. Baird sent Brig Gen William Beresford to negotiate with him, and the two generals conferred at a farm belonging to Gerhard Croeser near the Hottentots-Holland on 16 January without reaching agreement. After further consideration, and consultation with his senior officers and advisers, Janssens decided that "the bitter cup must be drunk to the bottom". He agreed to capitulate, and the final Articles of Capitulation were signed on 18 January.

Uncertainty reigns as to where the Articles of Capitulation were signed. For many years it has been claimed that it was the Goedeverwachting estate (where a copy of the treaty is on display), but more recent research, published in Dr Krynauw's book Beslissing by Blaauwberg suggests that Croeser's farm (now the Somerset West golf course) may have been the venue. An article published in the 1820s by the then resident clergyman of the Stellenbosch district, Dr Borcherds, also points towards Croeser's farm.

The terms of the capitulation were reasonably favourable to the Batavian soldiers and citizens of the Cape. Janssens, and the Batavian officials and troops were sent back to the Netherlands in March.

The British forces occupied the Cape until 13 August 1814, when the Netherlands ceded the colony to Britain as a permanent possession. It remained a British colony until it was incorporated into the Union of South Africa on 31 May 1910.

Articles of Capitulation
Summary of the Articles of Capitulation signed by Lt Col Von Prophalow, Maj Gen Baird and Cdre Popham on 10 January 1806:

Cape Town, the Castle, and circumjacent fortifications were surrendered to Great Britain;
the garrison became prisoners of war, but officers who were colonists or married to colonists could remain at liberty as long as they behaved themselves;
officers who were to be repatriated to Europe would be paid up to the date of embarkation and would be transported at British expense;
all French subjects in the colony must return to Europe;

inhabitants of Cape Town who had borne arms [i.e. burgher militiamen] could return to their occupations;
all private property would remain free and untouched;
all public property was to be inventoried and handed over;
the burghers and inhabitants would retain all their rights and privileges, including freedom of worship;
paper money in circulation would remain current;
the Batavian government property that was to be handed over would serve as security for the paper money;
prisoners of war would not be pressed into British service or be forced to enlist against their wills;
troops would not be quartered on the citizens of Cape Town;
two ships which had been sunk in Table Bay were to be raised by those who had sunk them, repaired, and handed over.

  Summary of the Articles of Capitulation signed by Lt Gen Janssens and Brig Gen Beresford on 18 January 1806 and ratified by Maj Gen Baird on 19 January:

the colony and its dependencies were surrendered to Great Britain;
the Batavian troops were to move to Simon's Town, with their guns, arms, baggage, and all the honours of war - the officers could retain their swords and horses, but all arms, treasure, public property, and horses were to be handed over;

the Batavian troops would not be considered to be prisoners;
Janssens' Hottentot (sic) troops were also to march to Simon's Town, after which they could either return home or join the British forces;

the British commander-in-chief [Baird] would decide the position of those Batavian troops who were already prisoners of war;
the British government would bear the expense of the Batavian troops' subsistence until they embarked;
the Batavian troops would be transported to a port in the Batavian Republic;

sick men who could not be transported would stay behind, at British expense, and be sent to Holland after they had recovered;
the rights and privileges allowed to the citizens of Cape Town would also apply to the rest of the colony, except that the British could quarter troops on residents of the country districts;

once embarked, the Batavian troops would be treated the same as British troops were when on board transport ships;
Janssens would be allowed to send a despatch to Holland, and the British commanders would assist in forwarding it;
decisions regarding the continuation of agricultural plans by one Baron van Hogendorp would be left to the future British government;

any matter arising out of the Articles of Capitulation would be decided justly and honourably without preference to either party.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pitt William the Younger d. (b. 1759)

William Pitt the Younger
Fox Charles James

Charles James Fox, (born Jan. 24, 1749, London, England—died Sept. 13, 1806, Chiswick, Middlesex [now in Hounslow, London]), Britain’s first foreign secretary (1782, 1783, 1806), a famous champion of liberty, whose career, on the face of it, was nevertheless one of almost unrelieved failure. He conducted against King George III a long and brilliant vendetta; for this reason he was almost always in political opposition and, in fact, held high office for less than a year altogether. He achieved only two important reforms, steering through Parliament a resolution pledging it to abolish the slave trade speedily and, in the 1792 Libel Act, restoring to juries their right to decide not merely whether an allegedly libellous article had, in fact, been published but also what constituted libel in any given case and whether or not a defendant was guilty of it.

Early life
Fox was the third son of Henry Fox, afterward 1st Baron Holland, by his wife, Lady Caroline Lennox, daughter of the 2nd duke of Richmond. Through his mother he was descended from Charles II of England and Henry IV of France. He was educated at Eton and at Hertford College, Oxford, where he acquired an extensive knowledge of the classics, to which he remained devoted for the rest of his life. His father brought him up without the least regard for morality and encouraged him, while still a schoolboy, to acquire extravagant and dissolute habits. He lost vast sums at gambling, and in 1774 his father, just before his death, paid the young man’s gambling debts to the amount of £140,000. Almost 20 years later political friends not only freed him from debt but settled on him a comfortable income. He then showed his gratitude by abandoning forever both racing and gambling.

Charles James Fox (1782) by Joshua Reynolds
  Entry into politics
Fox was procured a seat in Parliament by his father in 1768. Two years later he was appointed a junior lord of the Admiralty but gave up his office in February 1772 in order that he might be free to oppose a bill (eventually the Royal Marriage Act) designed to prevent marriages of members of the royal family unless authorized by the king or ratified by the Privy Council. He reentered the government the following December as a junior lord of the Treasury, but the King, who already disliked him for his recent opposition, accused him of insubordination and dismissed him in February 1774.

Already a friend of Edmund Burke, he naturally gravitated into the Whig group and before long was their accepted leader in the Commons. He went into opposition just when the controversy with the American colonies was becoming acute.

Believing that the colonial policy of the prime minister Lord North was unjust and oppressive, he opposed it with unrestrained violence, but he later admitted that the American war was popular in England. The series of disasters sustained by the British troops in America, culminating in the capitulation of the army led by Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown (October 1781), eventually brought down North’s government (March 1782).

The King had to call in a Whig ministry, of which Lord Rockingham became prime minister, and Lord Shelburne (later marquess of Lansdowne) colonial secretary; Fox became the first foreign secretary in English history.
Fox believed, erroneously, that the negotiations for peace with the Americans came within the province of the foreign secretary, and he wished to recognize the independence of the former colonies immediately and unconditionally. Shelburne wanted to withhold this recognition until the peace treaties with the European countries with which Britain had also been at war were ready for signature; and he maintained that, since the independence of America had not yet been formally recognized, he, as colonial secretary, had the right to conduct the negotiations. Fox, therefore, notified his intention to resign (June 30), but before he could implement it Rockingham died (July 1).

When the King offered the premiership to Shelburne, Fox and his friends maintained that it was for them, not for the King, to choose Rockingham’s successor. This was unconstitutional; the King had the undoubted right to choose the minister. Fox and some of his friends at once resigned, but others remained to support Shelburne. The historian Sir George Otto Trevelyan described Fox’s refusal to serve under Shelburne as the fatal and irreparable mistake of his life. Though his suspicions of Shelburne were far from groundless, they were exaggerated; moreover, Shelburne was in some respects the most enlightened statesman of his time.


The Tree of LIBERTY, – with, the Devil tempting John Bull (1798): Fox is caricatured by Gillray as Satan, tempting John Bull with the rotten fruit of the opposition's Tree of liberty.
  The Fox–North coalition (1783)
Fox always had a liking for coalitions; on Feb. 14, 1783, he joined with his old enemy North to eject the new government and accomplished his object 10 days later. Defending an action that was undoubtedly unpopular and damaging to his reputation, Fox maintained that it was wise and candid to end the hostility between North and himself now that its sole cause, the American war, was over. After trying desperately for five weeks to withstand “the most unprincipled coalition the annals of this or any other nation can equal,” the King had to grant it office (April 2). The Duke of Portland, a nonentity, became the nominal prime minister; Fox and North, the two secretaries of state. Although the King withheld from the ministers various customary marks of royal confidence, they had no difficulty in retaining the vote of the independent country gentlemen in the House of Commons. The new ministers did not improve their position at court by proposing to give the Prince of Wales (later George IV) an income of £100,000 a year. By remaining the intimate friend of this dissolute young man, who was detested by his father and who ostentatiously supported the coalition, Fox further outraged the King’s feelings.
The coalition fell because of its India bill. Fox and North had no wish to evade their responsibility for ending a system of misgovernment in India that had alarmed and disquieted English statesmen of all parties. Their bill proposed to change the whole constitution of the East India Company, which effectively controlled British India, by transferring control of the company’s territories, revenues, and commerce to seven commissioners who were to be nominated by the British government and removable only upon a vote of either house of Parliament.
But vested interests took alarm, and the House of Lords rejected the bill on December 17 after the King had made it known that he would consider as an enemy anyone who voted for it. The coalition was dismissed next day, and the young politician William Pitt (the Younger) accepted an invitation to form a government.

Fox increased his unpopularity by attacking the sovereign’s right to choose his ministers and to appeal to the electorate to confirm his choice. Fox’s opponents could now plausibly maintain that he would not even submit his case to the judgment of the nation. Many of the coalitions’s supporters changed sides, and the dissolution of Parliament (March 1784) completed the discomfiture of the opposition, which found itself with only about 145 members in the new House of Commons. Fox himself, however, was reelected for the great popular constituency of Westminster, defeating the ministerial candidate.


Charles James Fox
  Opposition to Pitt and Addington
Had he been even a little accommodating, Fox could have joined William Pitt’s government on honourable terms in 1784, to the great advantage of the cause of reform. But his attacks on Pitt’s proposed commercial concessions to Ireland in 1785 and on a commercial treaty made with France in 1787 damaged his reputation. He blundered again in 1788–89, when the King was temporarily insane, by supporting the claim of the Prince of Wales to the regency as a right—whereas Pitt maintained that Parliament alone had the right and competence to appoint a regent. Party interests, of course, were deeply involved in the constitutional dispute; the Prince’s first act of power would have been to dismiss Pitt and bring in the Whigs.

Fox welcomed the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. War with Revolutionary France broke out in 1793, and a large part of the opposition, headed by Portland, went over to the government in 1794. The minority (50–60) adhering to Fox became one of the weakest oppositions ever known in England, and in about 1797 many opposition members even ceased to attend Parliament. Fox was dismissed from the Privy Council in 1798 for reaffirming in a public speech the doctrine of the sovereignty of the people; yet eight years later the King had to reinstate him without exacting any retraction of principle.

In 1795 Fox had secretly married Elizabeth Armitstead, with whom he had been living for many years and to whom he always remained devoted; the marriage was revealed only in 1802. In their country house, St. Anne’s Hill, near Chertsey in Surrey, he indulged his tastes for classical literature and a rural existence and found there ample compensation for all the disappointments and stresses of public life. Mrs. Fox, who bore him no children, died on July 8, 1842.

Fox approved of the peace negotiations that resulted in the treaty signed at Amiens (1802) but spoke of the “shameful surrender of all our conquests” to Napoleon. He was critical of the ministry (1801–04) of Henry Addington (afterward Viscount Sidmouth) for its failure either to preserve the peace or to put the country into an adequate state of defense to meet Napoleon’s invasion threat, which followed the renewal of war in 1803. Though his motion, virtually one of censure (April 23, 1804), was defeated by 256 votes to 204, Addington’s government resigned a few days later.

Pitt now wished to form a coalition government on a broad base but failed to persuade George III to waive his objections to Fox as a minister (he would have been foreign secretary), though the King was prepared to give him a foreign mission. Fox, with his usual generosity, acquiesced in this proscription, said that he was too old (at 55) to care about office, and advised his friends to join the coalition; but both they and the followers of Lord Grenville (with whom they had recently collaborated) rejected the suggestion and went into opposition.


In The Hopes of the Party (1791), Gillray caricatured Fox with an axe about to strike off the head of George III, in imitation of the French Revolution.
Last years
When Grenville became prime minister after Pitt’s death on Jan. 23, 1806, the King’s veto on Fox’s appointment to office as foreign secretary disappeared without protest. During the earlier phase of the war against France, Fox had believed that the various European despots were fighting to destroy the newly won liberties of the French, and he had underestimated the bellicose spirit of France and the danger to England of French conquests. But by 1806 he had come to realize that France, under Napoleon, threatened Great Britain and the whole Continent.

By this time Fox’s health was breaking down. Suggestions were made that he should take some less laborious office, or even that he should take a peerage to save him from the more exacting task of leading the House of Commons.
Fox made his last speech in Parliament on June 19, 1806, and he died on September 13 in the Duke of Devonshire’s house. He was buried in Westminster Abbey by the side of Pitt.

Fox had a genius for friendship, and the secret of his political influence was the uncalculating generosity of his mind. His charm could overcome the hostility of even the most inveterate of his foes. As a statesman he had great and manifest failings. He was often governed by prejudice, and he was not a profound political thinker. Above all, he hated anything that savoured of oppression, and his attitude on various colonial issues showed his passionate determination that the peoples of the empire were no longer to be exploited. His approval of the French Revolution shattered his friendship with the statesman and political writer Edmund Burke; although privately Fox showed himself far from insensible to the horrors perpetrated by the French Republicans, he gave these feelings no adequate public expression and opposed the war with republican France as a crusade against freedom in the interests of despotism. At home the excessive power of the crown was, in his view, the great source of all the country’s ills, and to the destruction of that overweening power he dedicated his life.
He put forward the view, afterward accepted, that the crown must choose the prime minister from the party that commanded a majority in the House of Commons, irrespective of the sovereign’s personal inclinations. Yet he was no democrat, despising public opinion if he considered it prejudiced and intolerant. He would never have countenanced the notion that property, the security of which was one of the prime preoccupations of both Whig and Tory parties, would be safe in a democratic society in which the propertyless voters would obviously be in a majority. In his view property was the true foundation of aristocracy, and a country best prospered whose government was in such hands.

Fox had a strong European sense and a deep feeling for the responsibilities of his own country as a member of a greater society with mutual obligations. It was because he held these large and generous views that his influence endured, inspiring such measures as the Reform Act of 1832.

Arthur C.V.D. Aspinall

Encyclopædia Britannica

Joseph Bonaparte named King of Naples
Bonaparte Joseph

Joseph Bonaparte, original Italian Giuseppe Buonaparte (born January 7, 1768, Corte, Corsica—died July 28, 1844, Florence, Tuscany, Italy), lawyer, diplomat, soldier, and Napoleon I’s eldest surviving brother, who was successively king of Naples (1806–08) and king of Spain (1808–13).


Joseph Bonaparte by François Gérard, 1808
  Like his brothers, Joseph embraced the French republican cause and, with the victory of Corsican patriot Pasquale Paoli, was forced to leave Corsica to seek refuge in France. In 1796 he accompanied Napoleon in the early part of his Italian campaign and had some part in the negotiations with Sardinia that led to the armistice of Cherasco.

He then took part in the French expedition for the recovery of Corsica and assisted in the reorganization of the island. He was appointed by the Directory minister to the court of Parma (1797) and then to Rome. Late in 1797 he returned to Paris and became one of the members for Corsica in the Council of Five Hundred.

Joseph did little in the coup d’état of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799). He was a member of the Council of State and of the Corps Législatif, and he concluded at Mortfontaine a convention with the United States (1800). He also presided over negotiations leading to the Treaty of Lunéville with Austria (1801); and he was one of those who represented France in discussions with the British envoy, Lord Cornwallis, that led to the treaty of Amiens (1802), which marked Napoleon’s total pacification of Europe. A year later, however, relations between England and France were severed, and Joseph’s diplomatic efforts proved to have been in vain.

On the question of the consolidation of Napoleon’s power as first consul for life (August 1, 1802) with the power to nominate his own successor, the brothers disagreed. As Napoleon had no heir, Joseph as eldest brother claimed to be recognized as heir, while Napoleon wished to recognize the son of Louis Bonaparte.

On the proclamation of the French empire (May 1804) the friction became acute. Joseph refused Napoleon’s offer to make him king of Lombardy if he would waive all claim of succession to the French throne.

After acting for a year as chief of the French government while Napoleon was in Germany, Joseph was sent to Naples to expel the Bourbon dynasty (1806). Proclaimed king of Naples by imperial decree later the same year, he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, and reorganized the judicial, financial, and educational systems.

From 1808 Napoleon became increasingly dissatisfied with Joseph’s conduct. Called away from Naples to become king of Spain, Joseph was forced to leave Madrid hastily when Spanish insurgents defeated French forces at Baylen. He was reinstated by Napoleon at the close of 1808 and thereafter was kept in a subordinate position that led him on four occasions to offer to abdicate.

On March 30, 1814, when the troops of the allies reached Paris, Joseph fled, having left Marshal Marmont to make a truce with the assailants of Paris if they should be in overpowering strength. He played only an insignificant role in the Hundred Days (1815). After Napoleon’s surrender at Rochefort, Joseph went to the United States and in 1830 pleaded for the recognition of the claims of Napoleon’s son, the duke of Reichstadt, to the French throne. He afterward visited England and for a time resided in Genoa and then in Florence, where he died.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Louis Bonaparte named King of Holland
Bonaparte Louis

Louis Bonaparte, original Italian Luigi Buonaparte, also called (from 1810) comte de Saint-Leu (born September 2, 1778, Ajaccio, Corsica—died July 25, 1846, Livorno, Italy), French soldier and Napoleon I’s third surviving brother. As king of Holland (1806–10) he guarded the welfare of his subjects. His unwillingness to join the Continental System brought him into conflict with the emperor.


Louis Bonaparte
  After attending military school at Châlons, France, Louis accompanied Napoleon on the Italian campaign of 1796–97 and acted as his aide-de-camp in Egypt in 1798–99. In 1802 Napoleon as first consul married him to Joséphine’s daughter Hortense de Beauharnais; the forced union led to deplorable results springing from Louis’s violent jealousy of his wife and his growing resentment toward Napoleon for not allowing the couple to divorce. (Their youngest child, Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, survived to become Napoleon III.) In 1804 Louis was raised to the rank of general and the following year became governor of Paris.

Napoleon proclaimed Louis king of Holland on July 5, 1806. From the first, the emperor reproached him for being too easy on his subjects. By 1809 Napoleon was considering annexing Holland in order to arrest the trade the Dutch secretly conducted with England.

In 1810, failing to negotiate successfully with either England or Louis, the emperor dispatched French troops against the Dutch capital. Louis abdicated and fled his kingdom, which on July 9 Napoleon annexed to France.

Styling himself the comte de Saint-Leu, Louis lived for some time in Bohemia, Austria, and Switzerland. He spent his later life in Italy, largely occupied with literary pursuits. He wrote Documents historiques et réflexions sur le gouvernement de la Hollande, 3 vol. (1820; Historical Documents and Reflections on the Government of Holland, 1820), and two partial works, Marie, ou les peines de l’amour, 2 vol. (1812; Maria; or, the Hollanders, 1815), and Le Retour (1846; “The Return”).

Encyclopædia Britannica

War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807

Within months of the collapse of the Third Coalition, the Fourth Coalition (1806–07) against France was formed by Britain, Prussia, Russia, Saxony, and Sweden. In July 1806, Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine out of the many tiny German states which constituted the Rhineland and most other western parts of Germany.

He amalgamated many of the smaller states into larger electorates, duchies and kingdoms to make the governance of non-Prussian Germany smoother. Napoleon elevated the rulers of the two largest Confederation states, Saxony and Bavaria, to the status of kings.

In August 1806, the Prussian king, Frederick William III decided to go to war independently of any other great power. The army of Russia, a Prussian ally, in particular was too far away to assist. In September, Napoleon unleashed all the French forces east of the Rhine. Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena (14 October 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day. Some 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) attacked Prussia, moving with such speed that they destroyed the entire Prussian army as an effective military force.

Out of 250,000 troops the Prussians sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners, 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets. At Jena, Napoleon had fought only a detachment of the Prussian force. Auerstädt involved a single French corps defeating the bulk of the Prussian army. Napoleon entered Berlin on 27 October 1806. He visited the tomb of Frederick the Great and instructed his marshals to remove their hats there, saying, "If he were alive we wouldn't be here today". In total, Napoleon had taken only 19 days from beginning his attack on Prussia until knocking it out of the war with the capture of Berlin and the destruction of its principal armies at Jena and Auerstädt.

  By contrast, Prussia had fought for three years in the War of the First Coalition with little achievement. Saxony quit Prussia and together with small states from north Germany allied with France.

In the next stage of the war the French drove Russian forces out of Poland and employed many Polish and German soldiers in several sieges in Silesia and Pomerania, with the assistance of Dutch and Italian soldiers in the latter case. Then Napoleon turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and to try to capture the temporary Prussian capital at Königsberg. A tactical draw at Eylau (7–8 February 1807), followed by capitulation at Danzig (24 May 1807) and Battle of Heilsberg (10 June 1807) forced the Russians to withdraw further north. Napoleon then routed the Russian army at Friedland (14 June 1807). Following this defeat, Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit (7 July 1807). In Germany and Poland new Napoleonic client states, like the Kingdom of Westphalia, Duchy of Warsaw and Republic of Danzig were established.

By September, Marshal Brune completed the occupation of Swedish Pomerania, allowing the Swedish army, however, to withdraw with all its munitions of war.

In early September 1807, Britain attacked neutral Denmark, conducting a naval bombardment of Copenhagen in order to make Denmark surrender its fleet. The large Danish fleet posed a possible threat in that it might replace many of the ships France had lost at Trafalgar in 1805. The British attack led Denmark to join the war on the side of France.


Charge of the Russian Imperial Guard cavalry against French cuirassiers at the
Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807

At the Congress of Erfurt (September–October 1808), Napoleon and Alexander agreed that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System, which led to the Finnish War of 1808–09 and to the division of Sweden into two parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia. The eastern part became the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt

Battle of Jena, also called Battle of Jena-Auerstadt, (Oct. 14, 1806), military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, fought between 122,000 French troops and 114,000 Prussians and Saxons, at Jena and Auerstadt, in Saxony (modern Germany). In the battle, Napoleon smashed the outdated Prussian army inherited from Frederick II the Great, which resulted in the reduction of Prussia to half its former size at the Treaty of Tilsit in July 1807.

Frederick William III of Prussia prepared for war after signing a secret alliance with Russia in July 1806. In early October the Prussian-Saxon army, under Charles William Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, moved slowly westward through Saxony in an attempt to threaten Napoleon’s communications to the west. Napoleon advanced northward rapidly through the eastern end of the Thuringian Forest to cut the Prussians off from the Elbe River and engage them before their Russian allies could join them.

The Prussians had to face about to meet this attack from their rear. Frederick William III placed 63,000 men under Duke Charles William Ferdinand at Auerstädt and about 51,000 under Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen on a 15-mile (24-kilometre) front between Weimar and Jena.

Shortly after dawn on October 14, Napoleon, employing only about 54,000 of his 96,000 troops, struck Friedrich Ludwig’s 38,000 troops at Jena. By 3 pm he had swept them and 13,000 reinforcements from the field. About 13 miles (21 km) to the north, at Auerstädt, the secondary French force of 26,000, under Louis-Nicolas Davout, encountered Charles William Ferdinand’s main Prussian army. The duke dissipated his vastly superior strength in piecemeal attacks, enabling Davout to stand firm for six hours. After the duke was mortally wounded, Frederick William III took command. The Prussians’ attack slackened when they heard the news of the French victory at Jena. Davout moved up his artillery to rake the entire Prussian line, and by 4 pm the Prussian army had disintegrated. Davout was later made Duke d’Auerstädt for his extraordinary victory.

French dragoon with captured Prussian flag at the battle of Jena
The double victory of the French cost them about 12,000 casualties to about 24,000 Prussian and Saxon casualties and about 20,000 more captured. Napoleon completed his conquest of Prussia within six weeks, before Russia could act to aid its ally.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Napoleon reviewing the Imperial Guard, by Horace Vernet.



14 October 1806

Forces Engaged
At Jena: 46,000 to 54,000 men. Commander: Napoleon Bonaparte.
            At Auerstadt: 26,000 men. Commander: Marshal Louis Davout.

Prussian: At Jena: 55,000 men. Commander: Prince Frederick Hohenlohe.
              At Auerstadt: 50,000 men. Commander: Karl Wilhelm, duke of Brunswick.

Disastrous Prussian defeat led to complete reform
of the Prussian military, most importantly the establishment of the General Staff system, leading to the dominance of Prussian military in Europe.


The battle of Jena
Historical Setting
In 1805, Napoleon was at the height of his power and talent. Although unable to launch his proposed invasion of Great Britain that year, he employed the army set aside for that purpose in the two battles that best showed his genius: Ulm and Austerlitz. Austrian General Mack was so swiftly surrounded at Ulm (20 October 1805) that he had no choice but to surrender before giving battle; at Austerlitz (2 December 1805), Napoleon's army crushed a combined Austro-Russian force. The alliance between Russia and Austria was dissolved at that point, but the fact that Prussia had been urged to join it and had hesitated certainly contributed to the outcome at Austerlitz.

Prussian King Frederick William III vacillated in the months preceding the battle, unsure if Austria would conclude a separate peace after he joined Austria and Russia. Napoleon had offered him an alliance and possession of the state of Hanover if he joined with France, but the war party in Prussia argued strongly against subordinating Prussia to Napoleon. Frederick William's hesitance doomed the Austrians and Russians at Austerlitz.

Soon after the battle, Prussia did accept Napoleon's offer, for Frederick William lusted after Hanover. Unfortunately, so did Great Britain, which had previously dominated that German state dirough die ruling House of Hanover, which occupied the British throne. In the early months of 1806, Britain negotiated with Napoleon over territories in Italy and Germany, and Napoleon made overtures of returning Hanover to Britain. Further, Napoleon forced on Prussia an agreement ceding the Duchy of Cleves and forcing cooperation with the Continental System, the French emperor's economic warfare against Britain wherein all the Continent would cease trade with it. The potential loss of Hanover and the definite loss of income from British trade aroused Frederick William, and he finally swung his support to the war party in the Prussian court.
  With the inclusion of 20,000 soldiers from the allied state of Saxony, the Prussians could field an army of just over 200,000 men.
That swing affected Russia, which was also in the midst of talks with Napoleon concerning the recognition of territorial adjustments in Italy. The proposed agreement would establish Napoleon's power in Italy through states that he established, give Russia a free hand in the Balkans, and also withdraw French troops from German territory. Seeing Prussia grow hostile encouraged Czar Alexander to reject the proposed French treaty and instead begin to treat with Frederick William, but any potential assistance from Russia was too far away.
The Prussian army had long held a position of highest respect in Europe, thanks to the organization and reputation of Frederick the Great. In the middle of the eighteenth century, he had made Prussia a power to be respected because of his own genius and the organization of the army, which he inherited
from his father, Frederick I.

In the War of the Austrian Succession (1747-1750) and the Seven Years' War (1757-1763), Frederick the Great had consistently shown more skill and daring than any of his opponents, and the iron discipline that he forced on his men made them virtual automatons doing his will. The only problem with such a system was that it depended on an extremely talented leader, but, after Fredericks death, no later monarch had his vision or competence. The army was the same, but its command was not. Still, the reputation endured, and Napoleon had not yet fought such an established military force. Napoleon knew, however, that the men in charge of the Prussian army, from the king through the upper ranks, were still thinking in terms of Frederick the Great's time, and Napoleon's army had changed all the rules. Depending on that ultraconservatism in his enemy, Napoleon on 7 October rejected an ultimatum from Frederick William to leave German lands. It took him only a week to prove to Prussia that their army was not what it used to be.

Napoleon after the battle of Jena
The Battle
Napoleon had been preparing for this operation for some time. When he learned on 18 September 1806 that the Prussians had marched into Saxony 5 days earlier, he launched his own plans into motion. Concentrating around Bam-berg and Bayreuth on the Main River, on 8 October he marched northward in three columns through theThuringian Forest. He aimed toward the town of Gera, where he assumed that the Prussians would join together the three portions of their army. Along the line of march from Bamberg to Gera lies the town of Jena, some 20 miles east of Weimar. It was there that Prussian Prince Frederick Hohenlohe brought his force, and two other parts of the army under the command of the duke of Brunswick and the king himself met with Hohenlohe just north of Jena on 13 October. They decided to withdraw toward the Elbe River, the western border of Prussia; Hohenlohe was to deploy between Jena and Capellendorf as a rear guard to cover the army's withdrawal through the town of Auerstadt, 12 miles to the north.

Battles of Jena and Auerstedt
Napoleon, on learning of his enemy's position from prisoners, decided to divide his force in two. He would lead one force up the Saale River toward Jena, while the second, under Marshal Louis Davout, would march along a northerly line west of Jena toward the Elbe River. Thus, Napoleon could establish a blocking force under Davout if the Prussians continued to withdraw or use it as a flanking force if they stood to fight. Napoleon approached Jena from the south on the afternoon of 13 October, learning that the bulk of the Prussian army was encamped on a plateau just west of the town. He planned to spend 14 October positioning his men for battle the next day.
Early in the morning of 14 October, Napoleon visited various units to give them encouragement. It was a very foggy morning, but the Saxons in the Prussian army heard the cries of "Vive 1'Empereur!" This cry worried not only the Saxons but also the Prussian commander, Hohenlohe, who had assumed that the French force near him was little more than an advance guard or reconnaissance in force. Thus, both commanders misread the enemy's strength. Napoleon thought he faced the bulk of the Prussian army rather than me rear guard; Hohenlohe found out too late that he faced most of the French army.

In the morning fog, the French troops received their orders to march at 0600. Within 3 hours, they had captured the villages that were their objectives, and Napoleon ordered his forces to stop and reassemble their units. The Prussian advanced force, under General Tauenzien, lost a large number of its men in the fighting, but regrouped to the rear of Hohenlohe's force to act as a reserve. As Hohenlohe brought up more men to meet the French, both commanders were positioning their troops for the battle to come. It began much sooner than expected, however, because
of the impetuousness of one of Napoleon's marshals, Ney.
  Fearing that the battle might be over too quickly for him and his men to gain their share of glory, Ney pressed his attack on the Prussians at die village ofVierzehnheiligen. Napoleon was forced to send in men to support this premature attack, but the supplemental French troops captured the village and immediately met the front of the Prussian army lined up in the open outside town. Retreating back into the protection of the village, the French began shooting at the exposed Prussians. The discipline imposed on the Prussians since the days of Frederick I did not fail; indeed, it was the major cause of the Prussian defeat that day. Under intense musket and artillery fire, the Prussian troops stood their ground for 2 hours and died in huge numbers. As that was taking place, Napoleon ordered attacks on both Prussian flanks. Shortly after noon, he ordered a general advance, and the decimated Prussians were pressed back all along the line.

Hohenlohe ordered a withdrawal northwestward, but die retreat soon degenerated. The only hope to save the Prussians from total rout was the arrival and defensive stand of reinforcements marching from Weimar. They, however, arrived too late and found themselves facing a victorious and exuberant French army that in a matter of minutes tore the reinforcements to shreds. By 1600, the French pursuit was in full swing, with the only serious resistance coming from the Saxon troops, which stood their ground and died.

Napoleon soon learned that his defeated enemy was not the main Prussian force, which was instead engaged to the north with Marshal Davout at Auerstadt. Davout, who was supposed to act as the flanking assault on Hohen-lohe's position, found himself with 26,000 men facing more than 50,000 Prussians. The battle there also started about 0600 in the fog, when the two armies stumbled into each other at the village of Hassenhausen.

Detailed map of the Battle of Auerstedt
Davout had time to deploy his leading division before the fog cleared, and they soon beat back four Prussian cavalry charges. As more Prussians came up to engage, their commander, the duke of Brunswick, was killed. For a time, the army had no commander because Frederick William had no military knowledge or experience, and he was too paralyzed by events to appoint a replacement. Later Prussian cavalry charges also failed to break the French infantry squares, and the Prussian army withdrew toward Auerstadt, about 3 miles to the southwest of Hassen-hausen. The French flanks had advanced far enough forward to bring flanking artillery fire on the retreat. Rather than commit his reserve cavalry to beat back the pressing French, the king shortly after noon ordered a withdrawal toward Hohenlohe, whom he did not know was at the same time watching his men run as fast as they could. As die two retreating armies met and learned of each others' fate, the rout became even worse. Frederick William and his queen fled for Berlin.

Napoleon in Berlin (Meynier). After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on 27 October 1806
The vaunted Prussian army almost vanished in a matter of hours. The French inflicted almost 25,000 casualties on the Prussians and captured as many prisoners. Most of the remainder of the army simply disappeared. The French also captured all the Prussian artillery, some 200 pieces. For this immense victory, the French lost about 4,000 casualties at Jena and another 7,000 at Auerstadt. French forces scoured the countryside for Prussian survivors, while Napoleon led about half the army to Berlin, which he entered without a fight on 27 October. Napoleon offered terms to Frederick William, who turned them down upon receiving a note from Czar Alexander that 140,000 men were to be sent if the Prussian monarch would but stand firm. Any Russian promise was useless because French soldiers occupied every fortress in Prussia in less than a month, taking the prisoner count up to 100,000. Still, Frederick William (based in East Prussia) organized what troops he could to join with the Russians. Together they fought to a draw against Napoleon s forces at Eylau in February 1807, gaining some hope of a successful future, but that was crushed by Napoleons decisive victory at Friedland in mid-June 1807. After that, in the Treaty of Tilsit, Russia pledged an alliance and Prussia was truly punished.

In the wake of the battle at Freidland, Napoleon humiliated the Prussians by not only seizing all their military supplies but taking away significant territorial possessions. All land east of the Elbe River was ceded; before the Prussian campaign, Napoleon had organized most German principalities into the Confederation of the Rhine, and western Prussian lands were awarded to them. Large tracts in the east went into the newly created Duchy of Warsaw. The Poles appreciated the territorial acquisition and recognition, but being vassals to the French grated on them.

Jena/Auerstadt was one of the most complete victories Napoleon ever scored; it wiped out an entire army in one blow. It was not, however, the political triumph he hoped for. He assumed that, with Prussia defeated, the British would see the hopelessness of their position and come to terms with him. When they did not, Napoleon announced the Berlin Decree, which shut European trade up even tighter than did the Continental System. It mandated the seizure of any and all British property in Europe and forbade neutral trade with Britain. London responded with the Orders in Council, forbidding neutral trade with France or any of its possessions.
  Thus, full-scale economic warfare was launched, and the major neutral country engaged in trade with the two combatants was the United States. The strains brought on by the trade restrictions and the British blockade of Europe led eventually to the War of 1812.

The humiliation that Prussia felt had a long-term positive effect. Before the war, a few senior officers warned of the problems inherent in the outdated Prussian military, but theirs were voices crying in the wilderness. The chief voice was that of Major-General Gerhard von Schamhorst. After the Treaty of Tilsit, Frederick William appointed him head of the Military Reorganization Commission. With the aid of four other forward-looking officers, Scharnhorst began overhauling the Prussian military. Realizing that future kings and commanding officers may not be blessed with sufficient military talent, Scharnhorst and his compatriots developed the concept of the General Staff. Rather than have officers appointed by superiors on the basis of birth or social standing, officers in the future would rise via talent and education. That would keep the best officers in command and advisory positions, able to give the best advice to their superiors, including the king, or to lessen the effect of bad orders given by those same superiors.
Scharnhorst died in 1813, but was replaced by the more aggressive August von Gneisenau. He oversaw the implementation of Scharn-horst's staff concept in the wake of Napoleon's ultimate defeat at Waterloo in 1815. The General Staff was to engage in planning, coordinate the various branches of the military, and oversee operational readiness. The development of institutions of higher military education also promised to locate and promote talented officers. The creation of the concept of war games took the Prussian army to the heights of preparedness, whereas the institution of a staff military history section meant that past mistakes were to be avoided and observers were to visit past and contemporary battlefields to see how battles were won in the past and how other armies fought in the present. The Prussian General Staff created the finest military organization of the nineteenth century, with the goal of institutionalizing excellence. Quick and decisive Prussian victories over Denmark in 1864, Austria in 1866, and France in 1870 showed the rest of the world the value of such an organization, and by the early twentieth century every nation with any pretensions to military power developed their own General Staffs.

Thus, Jena was the fire that destroyed Frederick the Great's army, from whose ashes the phoenix of the nineteenth-century Prussian/German army arose.
Napoleon I

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Continental System

Continental System, in the Napoleonic wars, the blockade designed by Napoleon to paralyze Great Britain through the destruction of British commerce. The decrees of Berlin (November 21, 1806) and Milan (December 17, 1807) proclaimed a blockade: neutrals and French allies were not to trade with the British.

The Continental System hurt English industries and helped spur the Luddite protest movement against unemployment in England. Although it stimulated manufacturing in some parts of France, the system damaged regions dependent on overseas commerce. Because the British had an overwhelming superiority at sea, though, enforcing the system proved disastrous for Napoleon. His efforts to halt evasions of his blockade stretched French forces too thin, and ultimately provoked his calamitous invasion of Russia in 1812.

England responded to the Continental System with Orders in Council that subjected France and all countries in alliance with Napoleon to a counterblockade. These orders were one of the main causes of the Anglo-American War of 1812.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806

Greater Poland Uprising of 1806 was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1772–1795).

The 1806 Greater Poland Uprising was organized by General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski to help advancing French forces under Napoleon I in liberating Poland from Prussian occupation. The Wielkopolska Uprising was a decisive factor that allowed the formation of the Duchy of Warsaw (1806) and the inclusion of Wielkopolska in the Duchy of Warsaw.

It was one of the three most successful (entirely victorious) uprisings in the history of Poland, in addition to the Greater Poland Uprising of 1918-1919 and Sejny Uprising.

Historical background
While Kingdom of Prussia already possessed large Polish population in Upper Silesia, it gained additional Polish citizens during the partitions of Poland. From the beginnings of Prussian rule Poles were subject to a series of measures aimed against them and their culture; Polish language was abolished as official language and German introduced.
Prussian ruler Frederick the Great who hated and despised Poles hoped to replace them with Germans Prussian officials who spread German language and culture often despised Poles, who were portrayed as 'backward Slavs'. Lands of Polish nobility were confiscated and given to German nobles. German colonists were settled

The War of the Fourth Coalition between Napoleonic France and Kingdom of Prussia gave hope to the Polish inhabitants of Greater Poland of recovering their independence and ending oppressive Prussian rule.

  Napoleon, counting on the benefits of gaining control over lands on the other side of Prussia, sent a group of emissaries to South Prussia to collect information about the situation in the province and the sympathies of the Polish citizens. On 20 September 1806 the emperor issued orders to form a new division from Polish deserters from the Prussian army. There were so many that two days later, Napoleon decided to form a second division.

The open conflict between France and Prussia ensured that Prussia could only maintain a small number of troops in Greater Poland. Moreover, a large portion of those soldiers were Polish nationals. This caused a great deal of trouble for Prussian commanders; for instance, between 1 November and 20 December, 3000 Polish troops (1/7th) deserted from the Toruń Corps.

The low morale of Germans contributed to the French victory at the battle of Jena-Auerstedt.

Mission of General Dąbrowski
In order to organize a diversion on the back of Prussians, Napoleon chose General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, who was staying in Italy. Dąbrowski was chosen for this mission because he had a great respect in Greater Poland from his military leadership during the uprising of 1794.

Napoleon sent a message to Dąbrowski on 5 October 1806, and on 22 October the General met with the Emperor at Dessau. During this audience, Napoleon ordered Dąbrowski to go to Poznań and organize regular Polish troops. After four days of preparation, Dąbrowski proposed to the French Emperor his plan of forming a Polish army of 40,000 soldiers. To realize this plan, Dąbrowski asked to have Polish officers from other Napoleonic units sent to him, and on his special request, Józef Wybicki was designated to become the future head of the civilian authorities. This group heard from Napoleon, who was already in Berlin, that "[Poles] have to deserve independence" and, when asked whether he would create a Polish State, Napoleon answered: "I will see whether the Poles are worthy of being a nation".

Dąbrowski sent emissaries before him to Poznań, to evaluate the situation. After they returned to the General with the news that the whole "region is full of patriotic spirit and joy about the success of the French Army", Dąbrowski and Wybicki entered the city on 3 November 1806 leading the first units of the French army. Their arrival became a large Polish patriotic demonstration. On this same day, Dąbrowski called Poles to stand with arms on Napoleon's side and fight against Prussian occupation. Dąbrowski and Wybicki created Voivodship Commissions (Komisja wojewódzka) whose tasks were to take administrative control and keep the area quiet, preventing fights about social and economical issues. Dąbrowski's and Wybicki's proclamation was enthusiastically adopted by the bourgeoisie but with reserve by the szlachta. Therefore, in the newly created Poznań Department, Polish units were formed mostly in large urban areas like Poznań, and in the countryside, mobilisation was very slow. In the Kalisz Department, a special Proclamation for this area was announced on 9 November. Large centers of uprising fighters formed in Kalisz and Konin. On 10 November, Polish fighters engaged in battles against Prussian troops near Ostrzeszów and Kępno; then, on 13 November the uprising spread to the area around Sieradz. Poles had the most difficult fighting in the Bydgoszcz Department. As Commander of the newly created Polish units in this region, General Amilkar Kosiński had to fight against the largest Prussian troops in Greater Poland on one side and with an uncooperative French intendent on the other one, using troops with very little training or experience.
Entrance of Jan Henryk Dąbrowski to Poznań painted by Jan Gładysz
Meanwhile, Dąbrowski was already creating a regular army, mobilising one man from each ten cottages, and on 3 December appointed the pospolite ruszenie as auxiliaries to the regular troops. These regular Army units, alongside some irregular uprising troops, cleaned Greater Poland of some pockets of remaining Prussian units. An uprising spread in other regions, and in November, fighters took control over the Jasna Góra fortress.

Mainly due to the action of Wybicki at the beginning of January 1807, the regular Polish army, organised like other Napoleon's armies, had 23,000 soldiers (20,000 of them were from the Poznań and Kalisz Departments). The French Emperor stayed in Poznań between 27 November and 12 December 1806.

Pomeranian Campaign
On 1 January 1807, Dąbrowski was near Łowicz, where he received from the hands of Wincenty Krasiński a bulawa of hetman Stefan Czarniecki. The great merits of Dąbrowski and his popularity among soldiers weren't given much consideration, in the appointment of the Chief of the War Office in the Ruling Commission (szef Dyrekcji Wojny w Komisji Rządzącej). Józef Poniatowski, who was unfavourable to Dąbrowski, was appointed instead. Napoleon chose him because he wanted to guarantee the cooperation of the Polish aristocracy. A large difference between Dąbrowski and Poniatowski was exemplified during the writing of the Polish Army Code. Poniatowski wanted to keep corporal punishment, but Dąbrowski loudly opposed against it. To avoid this conflict, Napoleon decided that Polish Army would adopt the French code.

On 3 January, French marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier gave the order to existing units of planned divisions of Poznań and Kalisz Departments to form one brigade from each Department. The Commander of the Poznań Brigade was General Wincenty Axamitowski and the Kalisz Brigade was commanded by General Stanisław Fiszer. Both brigades of infantry formed a division commanded by general Dąbrowski. Brigades were strengthened by 300 Polish cavalry units, in addition to the unit from the Warsaw Department, that were both transformed in a unique regiment of cavalry commanded by the son of Jan Henryk Dąbrowski - Lt. Col. Jan Michał Dąbrowski. All the units of the new division, that started their march on 7 January, had to meet in Bydgoszcz.

Meanwhile, the units commanded by Amilkar Kosiński, which had been fighting against regular Prussian troops since December, won the battle of Koronowo and marched to Świecie, forcing the enemy to leave the town and securing this place of concentration for the newly created division. Before the beginning of the new campaign, the main Polish troops were strengthened and reorganized into three divisions: Poznań Division commanded by J. H. Dąbrowski, Kalisz Division commanded by Józef Zajączek and Warsaw Division commanded by Józef Poniatowski.

  Kalisz Division was sent to the siege of Grudziądz and the Warsaw Division moved northwards with the whole French Army in the direction of Danzig. At this time, 6000 soldiers of the Poznań Division stayed near Bydgoszcz and later advanced on Gniezno and Dirschau.

Both towns were captured, but the Poles were forced to retreat by Prussian troops. Later on, Poniatowski ordered a part of the pospolite ruszenie that weakened the Poznań Division to disband, which were returned as reinforcements on February 1807. After that, only the troops of Gen. Kosiński were fighting in this area.

After a reorganization, Poznań Division was composed of 6 battalions of infantry, 3 squadrons of cavalry and 2,000 pospolite ruszenie commanded by Gen. Michał Sokolnicki. On 15 February, cavalry again captured Dirschau, but was once again forced to retreat. 8 days later, on 23 February, the whole division attacked the town which was defended by a strong Prussian garrison.

After 7 hours of battle, Poles captured Dirschau, but Gen. Dąbrowski was wounded, forcing him to leave his division for a while, and his son was badly injured as well. Therefore, J. M. Dąbrowski was promoted to the rank of Brigade General and moved to the Invalide Corps.

After the battle, Gen. Kosiński became the new division commander.

Earlier, in January 1807, Dąbrowski had formed from the Poznań troops, a Division group commanded by Col. Garczyński. This unit captured Schneidemühl, Deutsch Krone and Wieluń. February 1807, Garczyński's group was subordinated to Gen. Kosiński and later, with some troops of pospolite ruszenie, was sent to fight near Neustettin.

At this time, the troops of Sokolnicki captured Stolp in Pommern and, later on, took part in the siege of Danzig, which surrendered in May. Also in May, Poznań Division, renamed as 3rd Polish Division, returned under the command of Gen. J. H. Dąbrowski. After the capture of Danzig, Polish troops fought also in Masuria, including the battle of Friedland.

The Pomeranian Campaign was ended by the capitulation of Königsberg on 15 June 1807, the later treaties of Tilsit and the recognition of the Duchy of Warsaw by the Kingdom of Prussia.

However, there was a more immediate effect. By the time of the uprising, the Prussian army, previously thought invincible, had been fought to almost the point of total liquidation. Napoleon had destroyed the majority of the Prussian army only months after the declaration of war, and the only significant force loyal to the Prussian regime left was garrisoning Prussian Poland. These troops were expected to reinforce the Russians and continue fighting the French. With this Polish uprising supported by French military operations, this was no longer possible for the simple reason that outside a handful of Prussian units who managed to escape and join the Russians, the Prussian army had been completely and systematically wiped out. Russia would face France alone.

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Confederation of Rhine

Confederation of the Rhine, French Confédération du Rhin German Rheinbund , union (1806–13) of all the states of Germany, except Austria and Prussia, under the aegis of Napoleon I, which enabled the French to unify and dominate the country until Napoleon’s downfall.

The formation of the confederation was preceded by French encroachment in Germany beginning in 1792: all territory west of the Rhine River was annexed outright, and the first steps toward consolidation were taken by compensating the larger German states (in particular, Prussia, Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Hanover, and Oldenburg) for losses there by awarding them territories of secondary German states. In 1803 the number of states was drastically reduced, and in July 1806 Napoleon united the expanded kingdoms of Bavaria and Württemberg and the enlarged states of Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Nassau, and Berg, as well as some smaller states, as the Confederation of the Rhine. Saxony joined the confederation in 1807 as a kingdom. In the Treaties of Tilsit (1807), Prussia ceded territory west of the Elbe River to the confederation. The Confederation of the Rhine was abolished after Napoleon’s fall from power in 1813. Napoleon was chiefly interested in the confederation as a counterweight to the two principal German states, Austria and Prussia, but the consolidation that it brought broke down old barriers and later contributed to the movement for German unification.

Encyclopædia Britannica
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The core and largest territory of the empire was the Kingdom of Germany, though it included at times the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the Kingdom of Burgundy, as well as numerous other territories.

The empire grew out of East Francia, a primary division of the Frankish Empire. On Christmas Day 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe after more than three centuries.
After Charlemagne died, the title passed in a desultory manner during the decline and fragmentation of the Carolingian dynasty, eventually falling into disuse by 924. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles comprising the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role.
  The precise term Holy Roman Empire was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii ("transfer of rule") was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor, the notion that he held supreme power inherited from the emperors of Rome. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties.

The German prince-electors, the highest ranking noblemen of the empire, usually elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", and he would later be crowned emperor by the Pope; the tradition of papal coronations was discontinued in the 16th century. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification formed in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units, principalities, duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords, and kings of the empire were vassals and subjects who owed the emperor their allegiance, they also possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto sovereignty within their territories.
Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on August 6, 1806, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.

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Treaty of Poznan
Peace of Posen (1806). Saxony is made a kingdom.
The Treaty of Poznań was signed on 11 December 1806 in Poznań and ended the war between France and Saxony (Prussia’s ally) after the latter’s defeat during the War of the Fourth Coalition.

Saxony had to pay 25 million francs in reparations and join the Confederation of the Rhine. Saxony became a kingdom.
The Burr Aaron plot in the U.S.
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