Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1800 - 1899
 
 
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1806 Part I NEXT-1807 Part I   
 
 
     
FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
YEAR BY YEAR:
1800-1809
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Phrenology
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
Chimborazo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Ohio
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
Dahlia
Hobart
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
NELSON AND THE WAR AT SEA, 1797-1805
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Tribunat
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"Ligeia"
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Braille
Seton Elizabeth
 
 
 

David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
 
 
 
1806 Part II
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Adelung Johann Christoph
 

Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 1732 – 10 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist.

 

Johann Christoph Adelung
  He was born at Spantekow, in Western Pomerania, and educated at schools in Anklam and Berge Monastery, Magdeburg, and the University of Halle. In 1759 he was appointed professor at the gymnasium of Erfurt, but relinquished this situation two years later and went to reside in a private capacity at Leipzig, where he devoted himself to philological researches. In 1787 he received the appointment of principal librarian to the elector of Saxony at Dresden, where he continued to reside until his death in 1806.

The writings of Adelung are voluminous. By means of his excellent grammars, dictionary, and various works on German style, he contributed greatly towards rectifying the orthography, refining the idiom, and fixing the standard of his native tongue. His German dictionary Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der hochdeutschen Mundart (1774–1786) bears witness to the patient spirit of investigation which Adelung possessed in so remarkable a degree, and to his intimate knowledge of the history of the different dialects on which modern German is based. No man before Jakob Grimm did so much for the language of Germany. Shortly before his death, he issued Mithridates, oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde (1806).
The hint of this work appears to have been taken from a publication with a similar title, published by Konrad von Gesner in 1555, but the plan of Adelung was much more extensive. Unfortunately, he did not live to finish what he had undertaken.

 
 
The first volume, which contains the Asiatic languages, was published immediately after his death; the other two were issued under the superintendence of Johann Severin Vater (1771–1826). Of the very numerous works by Adelung, the following may be noted: Directorium diplomaticum (Meissen, 1802); Deutsche Sprachlehre für Schulen (Berlin, 1781), and the periodical, Magazin für die deutsche Sprache (1782–1784).

He believed strongly that the orthography of the written language should match that of the spoken language. He declared, "Write as you speak and read as it is written." This principle has later been accepted as the key point of the reform of the Serbian literary language initiated by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić.[citation needed]

He died at Dresden.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Fichte Johann Gottlieb: "Bericht uber die Wissenschaftslehre"
 
 
see also: Johann Gottlieb Fichte
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Institut de France created by combining Academie Francaise with other academies
 
Académies:

A plaque on the northern wall of the Institut de France shows the ancient location of the Tour de Nesle.
Académie française (French Academy, concerning the French language) - founded in 1635
Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (Academy of Humanities) - founded in 1663
Académie des sciences (Academy of Sciences) - founded in 1666
Académie des beaux-arts (Academy of Fine Arts) - created in 1816 as the merger of the
Académie de peinture et de sculpture (Academy of Painting and Sculpture, founded 1648)
Académie de musique (Academy of Music, founded in 1669) and
Académie d'architecture (Academy of Architecture, founded in 1671)
Académie des sciences morales et politiques (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences) - founded in 1795, suppressed in 1803, reestablished in 1832

 
 

Institut de France, from the pont des Arts
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Madison James: "An Examination of the British Doctrine which Subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade not Open in Time of Peace"
 
 
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Mill John Stuart
 

John Stuart Mill, (born May 20, 1806, London, Eng.—died May 8, 1873, Avignon, France), English philosopher, economist, and exponent of Utilitarianism. He was prominent as a publicist in the reforming age of the 19th century, and remains of lasting interest as a logician and an ethical theorist.

 

John Stuart Mill by London Stereoscopic Company, c.1870
  Early life and career
The eldest son of the British historian, economist, and philosopher James Mill, he was born in his father’s house in Pentonville, London. He was educated exclusively by his father, who was a strict disciplinarian. By his eighth year he had read in the original Greek Aesop’s Fables, Xenophon’s Anabasis, and the whole of the historian Herodotus. He was acquainted with the satirist Lucian, the historian of philosophy Diogenes Laërtius, the Athenian writer and educational theorist Isocrates, and six dialogues of Plato. He had also read a great deal of history in English.
At the age of eight he started Latin, the geometry of Euclid, and algebra and began to teach the younger children of the family. His main reading was still history, but he went through all the Latin and Greek authors commonly read in the schools and universities and, by the age of 10 could read Plato and the Athenian statesman Demosthenes with ease. About the age of 12, he began a thorough study of Scholastic logic, at the same time reading Aristotle’s logical treatises in the original. In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied the work of the Scottish political economist and philosopher Adam Smith and that of the English economist David Ricardo.

While the training the younger Mill received has aroused amazement and criticism, its most important aspect was the close association it fostered with the strenuous character and vigorous intellect of his father.

 
 
From his earliest days he spent much time in his father’s study and habitually accompanied him on his walks. He thus inevitably acquired many of his father’s speculative opinions and his father’s way of defending them. But he did not receive the impress passively and mechanically. The duty of collecting and weighing evidence for himself was at every turn impressed upon the boy. His childhood was not unhappy, but it was a strain on his constitution and he suffered from the lack of natural, unforced development.
 
 
From May 1820 until July 1821, Mill was in France with the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham, the English Utilitarian philosopher, economist, and theoretical jurist. Copious extracts from a diary kept at this time show how methodically he read and wrote, studied chemistry and botany, tackled advanced mathematical problems, and made notes on the scenery and the people and customs of the country. He also gained a thorough acquaintance with the French language. On his return in 1821 he added to his work the study of psychology and of Roman law, which he read with John Austin, his father having half decided on the bar as the best profession open to him. This intention, however, was abandoned, and in 1823, when he had just completed his 17th year, he entered the examiner’s office of the India House. After a short probation he was promoted in 1828 to assistant examiner.
For 20 years, from 1836 (when his father died) to 1856, Mill had charge of the British East India Company’s relations with the Indian states, and in 1856 he became chief of the examiner’s office.
  In 1822 Mill had read P.-E.-L. Dumont’s exposition of Bentham’s doctrines in the Traités de Législation, which made a lasting impression upon him. The impression was confirmed by the study of the English psychologists and also of two 18th-century French philosophers—Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, who was also a psychologist, and Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who was noted for his emphasis on physical sensations. Soon after, in 1822–23, Mill established among a few friends the Utilitarian Society, taking the word, as he tells us, from Annals of the Parish, a novel of Scottish country life by John Galt.

Two newspapers welcomed his contributions—The Traveller, edited by a friend of Bentham’s, and The Morning Chronicle, edited by his father’s friend John Black. One of his first efforts was a solid argument for freedom of discussion in a series of letters to the Chronicle on the prosecution of Richard Carlile, a 19th-century English radical and freethinker.

Mill seized every chance for exposing departures from sound principle in Parliament and courts of justice.

 
 
Another outlet was opened up for him (April 1824) with the founding of the Westminster Review, which was the organ of the philosophical radicals. In 1825 he began work on an edition of Bentham’s Rationale of Judicial Evidence (5 vol., 1827). He took part eagerly in discussions with the many men of distinction who came to his father’s house and engaged in set discussions at a reading society formed at the home of English historian George Grote in 1825 and in debates at the London Debating Society, formed in the same year.
 
 

John Stuart Mill and Helen Taylor.

Helen was the daughter of Harriet Taylor and collaborated with Mill for fifteen years after her mother's death in 1858.
  Public life and writing
The Autobiography tells how in 1826 Mill’s enthusiasm was checked by a misgiving as to the value of the ends that he had set before him. At the London Debating Society, where he first measured his strength in public conflict, he found himself looked upon with curiosity as a precocious phenomenon, a “made man,” an intellectual machine set to grind certain tunes. The elder Mill, like Plato, would have put poets under ban as enemies of truth; he subordinated private to public affections; and Landor’s maxims of “few acquaintances, fewer friends, no familiarities” had his cordial approval. The younger Mill now felt himself forced to abandon these doctrines. Too much in awe of his father to make him a confidant, he wrestled with his doubts in gloomy solitude. He emerged from the struggle with a more catholic view of human happiness, a delight in poetry for its own sake, a more placable attitude in controversy, a hatred of sectarianism, and an ambition no less noble and disinterested but moderated to practical possibilities. Gradually, the debates in the Debating Society attracted men with whom contact was invigorating and inspiring. Mill ceased to attend the society in 1829, but he carried away from it the conviction that a true system of political philosophy was something much more complex and many-sided than he had previously had any idea of, and that its office was to supply, not a set of model institutions but principles from which the institutions suitable to any given circumstances might be deduced. Mill’s letters in The Examiner in the autumn of 1830, after a visit to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of the younger liberals, may be taken as marking his return to hopeful activity; and a series of articles on “The Spirit of the Age” appeared in the same paper in 1831.
 
 
During the years 1832 and 1833 he contributed many essays to Tait’s Magazine, The Jurist, and The Monthly Repository. In 1835 Sir William Molesworth founded The London Review, with Mill as editor. It was amalgamated with The Westminster (as The London and Westminster Review) in 1836, and Mill continued as editor (latterly as proprietor, also) until 1840. In and after 1840 he published several important articles in The Edinburgh Review. Some of the essays written for these journals were reprinted in the first two volumes (1859) of Mill’s Dissertations and Discussions and give evidence of the increasing width of his interests. Among the more important are “Thoughts on Poetry and Its Varieties” (1833), “Writings of Alfred de Vigny” (1838), “Bentham” (1838), “Coleridge” (1840), “M. De Tocqueville on Democracy in America” (1840), “Michelet’s History of France” (1844), and “Guizot’s Essays and Lectures on History” (1845). The twin essays on Bentham and Coleridge show Mill’s powers at their splendid best and indicate very clearly the new spirit that he tried to breathe into English radicalism.
 
 

"A Feminine Philosopher". Caricature by Spy published in Vanity Fair in 1873.
  During these years Mill also wrote his great systematic works on logic and on political economy. His reawakened enthusiasm for humanity had taken shape as an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of proof for conclusions in moral and social science; the French positivist philosopher Auguste Comte had some influence here, but the main inspiration undoubtedly came from the English scientist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton, whose physics had already been accepted as a model of scientific exposition by such earlier British philosophers as John Locke, David Hume, Jeremy Bentham, and James Mill. But he was determined that the new logic should not simply oppose the old logic. In his Westminster review (of 1828) of Richard Whately’s Elements of Logic, he was already defending the syllogism against the Scottish philosophers who had talked of superseding it by a supposed system of inductive logic. He required his inductive logic to “supplement and not supersede.” For several years he searched in vain for the means of concatenation. Finally, in 1837, on reading William Whewell’s Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences and rereading John F.W. Herschel’s Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and to joining the new logic onto the old as a supplement.

A System of Logic, in two volumes, was published in 1843 (3rd–8th editions, introducing many changes, 1851–72). Book VI is his valiant attempt to formulate a logic of the human sciences—including history, psychology, and sociology—based on causal explanation conceived in Humean terms, a formulation that has lately come in for radical criticism.

Mill distinguished three stages in his development as a political economist.

 
 
In 1844 he published the Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy, which he had written several years earlier, and four out of five of these essays are solutions of perplexing technical problems—the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, and the precise relations between profits and wages.
 
 
Here for the most part Mill appears as the disciple of David Ricardo, striving after more precise statements and reaching forward to further consequences. In his second stage, originality and independence become more conspicuous as he struggles toward the standpoint from which he wrote his Principles of Political Economy. This was published in 1848 (2 vol.; 2nd and 3rd eds., with significant differences, 1849, 1852), and, at about the same time, Mill was advocating the creation of peasant proprietorships as a remedy for the distresses and disorder in Ireland. Thereafter, he made a more thorough study of Socialist writers. He was convinced that the social question was as important as the political question.

He declined to accept property, devised originally to secure peace in a primitive society, as necessarily sacred in its existing developments in a quite different stage of society. He separated questions of production and distribution and could not rest satisfied with the distribution that condemned the labouring classes to a cramped and wretched existence, in many cases to starvation. He did not come to a Socialist solution, but he had the great merit of having considered afresh the foundations of society.

This he called his third stage as a political economist, and he says that he was helped toward it by Mrs. Taylor (Harriet Hardy), who became his wife in 1851.
  It is generally supposed that Mill writes with a lover’s extravagance about Harriet’s powers. He expressly says, indeed, that he owed none of his technical doctrine to her, that she influenced only his ideals of life for the individual and for society, and that the only work directly inspired by her is the essay on the “Enfranchisement of Women” (Dissertations, vol. 2). Nevertheless, Mill’s relations with her have always been something of a puzzle.

During the seven years of his marriage Mill became increasingly absorbed in the work of the British East India Company and in consequence published less than at any other period of his life. In 1856 he became head of the examiner’s office in the India House, and for two years, till the dissolution of the company in 1858, his official work kept him fully occupied. It fell to him as head of the office to write the defense of the company’s government of India when the transfer of its powers was proposed. Mill opposed the transfer, and the documents in which he defended the company’s administration are models of trenchant and dignified pleading. On the dissolution of the company, Mill was offered a seat in the new council but declined it and retired with a pension of £1,500. His retirement from official life was followed almost immediately by his wife’s death at Avignon, France. He spent most of the rest of his life at a villa at Saint-Véran, near Avignon, returning to his house at Blackheath only for a short period in each year.

 
 

John Stuart Mill
  The later years
Mill sought relief by publishing a series of books on ethics and politics that he had meditated upon and partly written in collaboration with his wife. The essay On Liberty appeared in 1859 with a touching dedication to her and the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform in the same year. In his Considerations on Representative Government (1861) he systematized opinions already put forward in many casual articles and essays. It has been remarked how Mill combined enthusiasm for democratic government with pessimism as to what democracy was likely to do; practically every discussion in these books exemplifies this. His Utilitarianism (in Fraser’s Magazine, 1861; separate publication, 1863) was a closely reasoned attempt to answer objections to his ethical theory and to remove misconceptions about it. He was especially anxious to make it clear that he included in “utility” the pleasures of the imagination and the gratification of the higher emotions; and to make a place in his system for settled rules of conduct.

Mill also began to write again on the wider philosophical questions that had occupied him in the Logic. In 1865 he published both his Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy and his Auguste Comte and Positivism, but in both writings his motives were largely political. It was because he regarded the writings and sayings of Sir William Hamilton as the great fortress of intuitional philosophy in Great Britain that Mill undertook to counter his pretensions.

 
 
In dealing with Comte, Mill distinguished sharply between Comte’s earlier philosophical doctrine of Positivism and his later religion of humanity. The doctrine he commended (as he had frequently done previously) because he regarded it as a natural development of the outlook of George Berkeley and Hume; the religion he attacked because he saw in it merely another attempt to foist a priestly hierarchy upon suffering humanity. It is noticeable that Mill’s language in these books is much closer to the language of Bentham and James Mill than it had been since his boyhood, and it was as an act of piety that in 1869 he republished his father’s Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind with additional illustrations and explanatory notes.
 
 

John Stuart Mill
  While engaged in these years mainly with theoretical studies, Mill did not remit his interest in current politics. He supported the North in the U.S. Civil War, using all his strength to explain that the real issue at stake in the struggle was the abolition of slavery. In 1865 he stood as parliamentary candidate for Westminster, on conditions strictly in accordance with his principles. He would not canvass or pay agents to canvass for him, nor would he engage to attend to the local business of the constituency. He was with difficulty persuaded even to address a meeting of the electors but was elected. He took an active part in the debates preceding the passage of the 1867 Reform Bill, and helped to extort from the government several useful modifications of the bill, for the prevention of corrupt practices. The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, and the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris (1856)—concerning the carriage of property at sea during the Crimean War—were among the topics on which he spoke. He took occasion more than once to enforce what he had often advocated, England’s duty to intervene in foreign politics in support of freedom. As a speaker Mill was somewhat hesitating, but he showed great readiness in extemporaneous debate. Elected rector of St. Andrews University, he published his “Inaugural Address” in 1867.

Mill’s subscription to the election expenses of the freethinker and radical politician Charles Bradlaugh and his attack on the conduct of Gov. E.J. Eyre in Jamaica were perhaps the main causes of his defeat in the general parliamentary election of 1868.

 
 
But his studied advocacy of unfamiliar projects of reform had made him unpopular with “moderate Liberals.” He retired with a sense of relief to Avignon. His villa was filled with books and newspapers; the country round it furnished him with a variety of walks; he read, wrote, discussed, walked, botanized. He was extremely fond of music and was himself a fair pianist. His stepdaughter, Helen Taylor (died January 1907), was his constant companion after his wife’s death. Mill was an enthusiastic botanist all his life and a frequent contributor of notes and short papers to the Phytologist. During his last journey to Avignon he was looking forward to seeing the spring flowers and completing a flora of the locality.
 
 
Mill did not relax his laborious habits or his ardent outlook on human affairs. The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations (1875; vol. 3 had appeared in 1867)—on endowments, on land, on labour, and on metaphysical and psychological questions—were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career. In 1867 he had been one of the founders, with Mrs. P.A. Taylor, Emily Davies, and others, of the first women’s suffrage society, which developed into the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, and in 1869 he published The Subjection of Women (written 1861), the classical theoretical statement of the case for woman suffrage. His last public activity was concerned with the starting of the Land Tenure Reform Association, for which he wrote in The Examiner and made a public speech a few months before his death; the interception by the state of the unearned increment on land and the promotion of cooperative agriculture were the most striking features in his program, which he regarded as a timely compromise in view of the impending struggle between capital and labour in Europe. He died in 1873, and his Autobiography and Three Essays on Religion (1874) were published posthumously.

A bronze statue of Mill stands on the Thames embankment in London, and G.F. Watts’s copy of his original portrait of Mill hangs in the National Gallery there.

  Influence and significance
Mill was a man of extreme simplicity in his mode of life. The influence that his works exercised upon contemporary English thought can scarcely be overestimated, nor can there be any doubt about the value of the liberal and inquiring spirit with which he handled the great questions of his time. Beyond that, however, there has been considerable difference of opinion about the enduring merits of his philosophy.

At first sight he is the most lucid of philosophers. Many people have spoken of the marvelous intelligibility of his writing. Usually, however, it is not long before doubts begin to creep in. Although the lucidity remains, its span is seen to be somewhat limited, and one sometimes has the uneasy feeling that he is being equally lucid on both sides of a question.

Oddly enough, however, this judgment has not led to any neglect of Mill. Little attention is now paid to Hamilton or to Whewell, but Mill’s name continually crops up in philosophical discussions. This is partly due to the fact that Mill offers a body of doctrine and a set of technical terms on many subjects (notably on induction) that have proved extremely useful in the classroom. But a more important reason is that he has come to be regarded as a sort of personification of certain tendencies in philosophy that it is regarded as continually necessary to expound or expose because they make such a powerful appeal to serious minds.

 
 
Thus he is or says he is a Utilitarian; yet nothing, it is pointed out, could tell more strongly against Utilitarianism than certain passages in his writings. Then again, he is said to be an Empiricist (although he says himself that he is not), and his theories of the syllogism and of mathematics are constantly used to demonstrate the fatal consequences of this way of thinking.
It is misleading to speak without qualification of Mill’s Utilitarianism. Nor is it sufficient to add that Mill modified the Utilitarianism that he inherited from Bentham and from his father in one way and another in order to meet the criticisms that it encountered in Victorian times.
 
 

John Stuart Mill
  He does, it is true, sometimes give that impression (as in his essay Utilitarianism); but elsewhere (as in his essay On Liberty) he scarcely attempts to conceal the fact that his premises are completely independent of Bentham’s. Thus, contrary to the common belief, it appears to be very hazardous to characterize offhand the precise position of Mill on any major philosophical topic. He sometimes behaved with a reckless disregard of consequences more suitable to a Romantic than to a Utilitarian. He is thoroughly romantic, again, and thoroughly representative of his age in the eagerness with which he seeks out and endeavours to assimilate every last exotic line of thought which shows any signs of vitality. He himself claimed to be superior to most of his contemporaries in “ability and willingness to learn from everybody,” and indeed, for all his father’s careful schooling, there was never anybody less buttoned up against alien influences than Mill. In his writings there can be discerned traces of every wind of doctrine of the early 19th century.

Richard Paul Anschutz

 
 
MAJOR WORKS

Politics and economics
Essays on Some Unsettled Questions in Political Economy (1844); Principles of Political Economy, 2 vol. (1848; 2nd and 3rd eds. with important differences, 1849, 1852); On Liberty (1859); Considerations on Representative Government (1861); Utilitarianism (1863); On The Subjection of Women (1869).

Philosophy and religion
A System of Logic (1843); Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy (1865); Auguste Comte and Positivism (1865); Three Essays on Religion (1874).

Other works
Essays on “Bentham” (1838) and “Coleridge” (1840) in Dissertations and Discussions, 4 vol. (1859–75), also reprinted together with an introduction by F.R. Leavis (1950); Autobiography, ed. by Helen Taylor (1873).

Editions
The definitive edition of the Collected Works is that edited by John M. Robson et al., in 17 vol. (begun in 1963); each volume has a full introduction, notes, and indexes.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
see also: John Stuart Mill
 
 
     
  IDEAS that Changed the World

Myths and Legends
History of Religion
History of Philosophy
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Napoleon I establishes a consistorial organization for Jews in France
 
 
Jewish consistory
 

A Jewish consistory, (or Consistoire in French), was a body governing the Jewish congregations of a province or of a country; also the district administered by the consistory. The Jews in countries under French influence made use of the term in the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the movement for political emancipation demanded the creation of a representative body which could transact official business with a government in the name of the Jews, and when the desire for reform among the educated classes demanded the creation of a body vested with authority to render religious decisions.

 
France
The first attempt to create such a consistory was made by Napoleon I. In 1806 he convened the Assembly of Jewish Notables, whose resolutions were confirmed by a subsequently convened Grand Sanhedrin; after which, by the decree of March 17, 1808, he organized a consistory. According to this decree every department containing 2,000 Jews might establish a consistory. Departments having less than this number might combine with others; but none had more than one consistory. Above these provincial consistories there was a central consistory. Every consistory consisted of a grand rabbi, with another rabbi where possible, and of three lay members, two of whom were residents of the town where the consistory sat. They were elected by twenty-five "notables," who were nominated by the authorities. Thus Israelite French consistories were like their Protestant namesakes parastatal entities to represent these religious minorities to the administration, which in return used to control them. Eligible to become members of the consistory were Israelites who had reached the age of thirty years, who had never been bankrupt, and had not practised usury. The central consistory consisted of three grand rabbis and two lay members. Every year one retired, and the remaining members elected his successor.

Napoleon demanded that the consistories should see to it that the resolutions passed by the Assembly of Notables and confirmed by the Sanhedrin should be enforced by the rabbis; that proper decorum should be maintained in the synagogue; that the Jews should take up mechanical trades; and that they should see to it that no one evaded military service. The central consistory watched over the consistories of the various departments, and had the right to appoint the rabbis.

  French dependencies
This organization was also introduced in the various countries which were under the sway of France during the Napoleonic era, as Belgium (French-annexed from 1794 to 1814), and the client states of Holland and Westphalia. In the last-named country, ruled over by Napoleon's youngest brother, Jérôme Bonaparte, a consistorial organization was introduced by the decree of March 31, 1808.

It was composed of a president (who could be either a rabbi or a layman), three rabbis, two lay members, and one secretary. It was chiefly the outcome of Consistorial President Israel Jacobson's efforts, who hoped to introduce through such a medium his Reform ideas. A circular of this consistory ordered the introduction of confirmation and removed the prohibition against leguminous plants on Passover. None of these organizations survived the Napoleonic era with the exception of that in Belgium.

The desire to introduce reforms, and the difficulty of making them popular so long as they were individual decisions, led to various attempts during the middle of the nineteenth century to introduce either a consistory or a synod which should, by an authoritativevote, settle the difficulties which arose when the demands of the time came into conflict with the traditional law. None of these attempts were successful.

End of the nineteenth century
Since Napoleon's decree of March 17, 1808, various changes have been introduced in the method of electing the delegates, and some of the provisions assigning to the rabbis the role of informers were dropped. The most important changes are contained in the laws of Louis Philippe (May 25, 1844) and of Napoleon III (June 15, 1850, and August 29, 1862).

 
 
In 1871 the ambits of the three consistories in Colmar, Metz and Strasbourg became part of Alsace-Lorraine outside the supervision of the Central Consistory but also without any other common umbrella. However, the three consistories remained concordatary religious bodies and thus were entitled to nominate altogether one representative for the upper house of the parliament of Alsace-Lorraine, like the other recognised religious bodies too.
 
 
The French law of December 12, 1872 introduced the system of universal suffrage in the elections of the consistories. In the beginning of 20th century there were twelve consistories: Paris, Nancy, Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseilles, Bayonne, Epinal, Lille, Besançon, Algiers, Constantine, Oran; each is composed of the grand rabbi of the consistorial district and six lay members, with a secretary. Each consistory has a representative in the Central Consistory, which therefore is composed of twelve members and the grand rabbi of France; its seat is in Paris.   20th century
By the 1905 French law on the Separation of Religions and the State the Israelite consistories in France lost their status as établissements publics du culte (public-law corporations of cult). In 1919 the three Israelite consistories in Alsace-Moselle returned to French jurisdiction and their concordatary status has been preserved since as part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle. So they continue to be parastatal entities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1806
 
 
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, née Barrett (born March 6, 1806, near Durham, Durham county, England—died June 29, 1861, Florence, Italy), English poet whose reputation rests chiefly upon her love poems, Sonnets from the Portuguese and Aurora Leigh, the latter now considered an early feminist text. Her husband was Robert Browning.

 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning
  Elizabeth was the eldest child of Edward Barrett Moulton (later Edward Moulton Barrett). Most of her girlhood was spent at a country house within sight of the Malvern Hills, in Worcestershire, where she was extraordinarily happy. At the age of 15, however, she fell seriously ill, probably as the result of a spinal injury, and her health was permanently affected.

In 1832 the family moved to Sidmouth, Devon, and in 1836 they moved to London, where in 1838 they took up residence at 50 Wimpole Street. In London she contributed to several periodicals, and her first collection, The Seraphim and Other Poems, appeared in 1838. For reasons of health, she spent the next three years in Torquay, Devon. After the death by drowning of her brother, Edward, she developed an almost morbid terror of meeting anyone apart from a small circle of intimates. Her name, however, was well known in literary circles, and in 1844 her second volume of poetry, Poems, by Elizabeth Barrett Barrett, was enthusiastically received.

In January 1845 she received from the poet Robert Browning a telegram: “I love your verses with all my heart, dear Miss Barrett. I do, as I say, love these books with all my heart—and I love you too.” In early summer the two met. Their courtship (whose daily progress is recorded in their letters) was kept a close secret from Elizabeth’s despotic father, of whom she stood in some fear.

 
 
Sonnets from the Portuguese (1850) records her reluctance to marry, but their wedding had taken place on September 12, 1846. Her father knew nothing of it, and Elizabeth continued to live at home for a week.

The Brownings then left for Pisa. (When Barrett died in 1856, Elizabeth was still unforgiven.) While in Pisa she wrote The Runaway Slave at Pilgrim’s Point (Boston, 1848; London, 1849), a protest against slavery in the United States. The couple then settled in Florence, where their only child, Robert Wiedemann Barrett, was born in 1849.

In 1851 and in 1855 the couple visited London. During the second visit, Elizabeth Barrett Browning completed her most ambitious work, Aurora Leigh (1857), a long blank-verse poem telling the complicated and melodramatic love story of a young girl and a misguided philanthropist. This work did not impress most critics, though it was a huge popular success.

During the last years of her life, Browning developed an interest in spiritualism and the occult, but her energy and attention were chiefly taken up by an obsession with Italian politics, to a degree that alarmed her closest friends. Casa Guidi Windows (1851) had been a deliberate attempt to win sympathy for the Florentines, and she continued to believe in the integrity of Napoleon III. In Poems Before Congress (1860), the poem “A Curse for a Nation” was mistaken for a denunciation of England, whereas it was aimed at U.S. slavery. In the summer of 1861 Browning suffered a severe chill and died.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
     
 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 

"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
 

The Broken Jug (also sometimes translated The Broken Pitcher) (German: Der zerbrochne Krug) is a comedy written by the German playwright Kleist Heinrich. Kleist first conceived the idea for the play in 1801, upon looking at a copper engraving in Heinrich Zschokke's house entitled "Le juge, ou la cruche cassée." In 1803, challenged over his ability to write comedy, Kleist dictated the first three scenes of the play, though it was not completed until 1806. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe first staged the play in Weimar, where it premiered on 2 March 1808.

 
In 1937 a German film of the same title was released with Emil Jannings in the lead. In 1944 it was produced as a film in Mexico by German director Alfredo B. Crevenna under the title Adan, Eva y el Diablo. It starred comedians Roberto Soto, Emma Roldan, Amalia Wilhelmy and Perla Aguiar.

The Broken Jug mocks the failings of human nature and the judicial system in a forgiving way. It is similar to Sophocles' tragedy Oedipus the King (c. 429 BCE), in that in both plays the judge is guilty, but different insofar as Adam knows from the start who is guilty, as does the audience, and is trying his hardest to conceal the truth.

The play follows the story of "Adam" and "Eve". Adam is covered in various injuries and talking with his secretary Licht. The jug is not mentioned in these first five scenes although the audience is made aware that Adam is a highly suspicious character. The trial lasting from scene seven through to scene eleven, shows the characters on stage trying to piece together the events which led to the breaking of the jug. At the end of scene eleven Eve states that Adam broke the jug and Adam escapes in the confusion.

Characters

Adam — the judge. He is the one who broke the jug. He became attracted to Eve and in order to make her cooperate with his desires he made up a story about Ruprecht being conscripted into the army.
Eve — a simple but honest country girl. She knows who broke the jug but does not say so until he directly threatens Ruprecht whom she loves.
Licht — the judge's secretary. He is mysterious and portrayals of him vary. He uncovers the truth but cleverly allows Adam to condemn himself rather than openly accusing him.
Walter — the man who comes to inspect Adam and the way he runs his court.
Frau Marthe — Eve's mother.
Ruprecht — a young man who is in love with Eve.

 
First edition 1811
 
 
Motifs-Symbols-Themes
The broken jug — This central image which gives the play its title is intimately bound up with the idea that with the breaking of the jug, Eve's chastity has been lost, an idea which comes from a German phrase, Kleist making the link quite literal. This explains why such a seemingly insignificant object becomes so significant in the eyes of the courtroom. Only Adam and Eve know who broke the jug, and neither reveal the truth until Adam sentences Ruprecht to prison, when she says decisively, "Judge Adam smashed the jug." The audience has been aware throughout the play who is guilty.

Comedy — This is the only piece of work which Kleist wrote which is pure comedy. Most of the humour is based on word play and the ludicrous ideas which are presented.

Truth — Kleist became intrigued by the Kantian idea of being unable to know what is really real. The play shows the contradicting ideas that what is real is what you can see and touch (as represented by Ruprecht) and that appearances might be deceptive and that there might be a deeper truth (as represented by Eve).

  Justice and the judicial system — Adam is both the criminal and the judge.

The periwig — Adam has lost his periwig after having to escape from Eve's bedroom window. It represents his role as the judge.

Rural life — The village where the events take place is small and the inhabitants look to Adam as the ultimate authority. The idea that he could be guilty only occurs to Walter, the outsider, and Licht, the intelligent secretary.

Symbolic Names — The names of the characters are highly symbolic, Adam and Eve, in reference to the Fall and the idea of temptation.

The play opposes the original fall however in that it is the man, Adam, who is corrupt and has corrupted the innocent Eve.
Licht ("Light") uncovers the truth about the breaking of the jug subtly, bringing light, metaphorically, to the situation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
see also: Heinrich von Kleist
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Laube Heinrich
 

Heinrich Laube (September 18, 1806 - August 1, 1884), German dramatist, novelist and theatre-director, was born at Sprottau in Prussian Silesia.

 

Heinrich Laube
  Life
He studied theology at Halle and Breslau (1826–1829), and settled in Leipzig in 1832. Here he at once came into prominence with his political essays, collected under the title Das neue Jahrhundert, in two parts — Polen (1833) and Politische Briefe (1833) — and with the novel Das junge Europa, in three parts — Die Poeten, Die Krieger, Die Bürger — (1833–1837).

These writings, in which, after the fashion of Heinrich Heine and Ludwig Börne, he severely criticized the political regime in Germany, together with the part he played in the literary movement known as “Das junge Deutschland,” led to his being subjected to police surveillance and his works confiscated. On his return, in 1834, from a journey to Italy, undertaken in the company of Karl Gutzkow, Laube was expelled from Saxony and imprisoned for nine months in Berlin. In 1836 he married the widow of Professor Hanel of Leipzig; almost immediately afterwards he suffered a year's imprisonment for his revolutionary sympathies.

In 1839 he again settled in Leipzig and began a literary activity as a playwright.

 
 
Chief among his earlier productions are the tragedies Monaldeschi (1845) and Struensee (1847); the comedies Rokoko, oder die alten Herren (1846); Gottsched und Gellert (1847); and Die Karlsschüler (1847), of which the youthful Friedrich Schiller is the hero.

In 1848 Laube was elected to the Frankfurt Parliament for the district of Elbogen, but resigned in the spring of 1849, when he was appointed artistic director of the Hofburg theatre in Vienna.
 
 
This office he held until 1867, and in this period fall his finest dramatic productions, notably the tragedies Graf Essex (1856) and Montrose (1859), and his historical romance Der deutsche Krieg (1865–1866, 9 vols), which graphically pictures a period in the Thirty Years' War.

In 1869 he became director of the Leipzig Stadttheater, but returned to Vienna in 1870, where in 1872 he was placed at the head of the new Stadttheater; with the exception of a short interval he managed this theatre with brilliant success until his retirement from public life in 1880. He has left a valuable record of his work in Vienna and Leipzig in the three volumes Das Burgtheater (1868), Das norddeutsche Theater (1872) and Das Wiener Stadttheater (1875).

His pen was still active after his retirement, and in the five years preceding his death, which took place at Vienna on 1 August 1884, he wrote the romances and novels Die Böhminger (1880), Louison (1881), Der Schatten-Wilhelm (1883), and published an interesting volume of reminiscences, Erinnerungen, 1841-1881 (1882).

  Assessment
Laube's dramas are not remarkable for originality or for poetical beauty; their real and great merit lies in their stage-craft. As a theater manager he had no equal in Germany, and his services in this capacity have assured him a more lasting name in German literary history than his writings.

Works

Das Glück (1837)
Der Prätendent (1842)
Die Grafin Chateaubriand (1843)

Böse Zungen (1868)
Demetrius (1872)

His Gesammelte Schriften (excluding his dramas) were published in 16 vols (1875–1882); his Dramatische Werke, in 13 vols (1845–1875); a popular edition of the latter in 12 vols (1880–1892). An edition of Laube's Ausgewählte Werke in 10 vols appeared in 1906 with an introduction by H. H. Houben.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Fragonard Jean Honore  d. (b. 1732)
 
 

Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Self-Portrait
 
 
 
     
 
Jean-Honore Fragonard
     
 
 
     
 
Baroque & Rococo
 
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
 
 


Thorvaldsen Bertel. Hebe
1806
Marble, height 156 cm
Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen

 
 
 
     
 
Bertel Thorvaldsen
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Utamaro Kitagawa, Jap. portrait painter, d. (b. 1753)
 
 
 
 
see also: Kitagawa Utamaro
 
 
     
 
Ukiyo-e

The Golden Age of Japanese Art
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
 
 

Wilkie David. "Village Politicians"
 
 
 
     
 
David Wilkie
     
 
 
     
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
     
 
 
1806
 
 
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
 

The Symphony No. 4 in B-flat major, Op. 60, is a symphony in four movements composed by Ludwig van Beethoven in the summer of 1806. It was premièred in March 1807 at a private concert of the home of Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz.

 
Background
The work was dedicated to Count Franz von Oppersdorff, a relative of Beethoven's patron, Prince Lichnowsky. The Count met Beethoven when he traveled to Lichnowsky's summer home where Beethoven was staying. Von Oppersdorff listened to Beethoven's Symphony No. 2 in D Major, and liked it so much that he offered a great amount of money for Beethoven to compose a new symphony for him. Beethoven undertook the new work during the summer of 1806 and completed it in roughly a month, while working on the Fourth Piano Concerto and revising his opera Fidelio, then still known as Leonore. The dedication was made to "the Silesian nobleman Count Franz von Oppersdorf". Hector Berlioz was so enamoured of the symphony's 2nd movement that he claimed it was the work of the Archangel Michael, and not that of a human.
 
 
Instrumentation
The symphony is scored for flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B-flat, 2 bassoons, 2 horns in B-flat and E-flat, 2 trumpets in B-flat and E-flat, timpani and strings.

Movements
The work is in four movements:

Adagio – Allegro vivace, 2/2
Adagio, 3/4 in E-flat major
Menuetto; Allegro vivace, 3/4
Allegro ma non troppo, 2/4

The work takes about 33 minutes to perform.

In general the symphony is sunny and cheerful, with light instrumentation in a manner that recalls the symphonies of Joseph Haydn, with whom Beethoven had studied a decade before. The Fourth Symphony contrasts with the swooping changes of Beethoven's composition style in the previous Third Symphony, and is often overshadowed by both its predecessor and following work, the celebrated Fifth Symphony which Beethoven had set aside to complete the Fourth.

 
 
 
Despite being written in a style more akin to that of Beethoven's first two symphonies, the Fourth contains many aspects that show his growing strength as a composer, most notably the B-flat minor Adagio introduction to the first movement, which Leonard Bernstein described as a "mysterious introduction which hovers around minor modes, tip-toeing its tenuous weight through ambiguous unrelated keys [with reluctance] to settle down into its final B-flat major."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
Beethoven: Symphony No 4 in B flat major
 
Daniel Barenboim conducts the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra - Beethoven's Symphony No.4 in B flat, Op.60 - BBC PROMS 2012
 
 
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
 

Ludwig van Beethoven's Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61, was written in 1806.

 
Performance history
Beethoven wrote the concerto for his colleague Franz Clement, a leading violinist of the day, who had earlier given him helpful advice on his opera Fidelio. The work was premiered on 23 December 1806 in the Theater an der Wien in Vienna, the occasion being a benefit concert for Clement. The first printed edition (1808) was also dedicated to Franz Clement. It is believed that Beethoven finished the solo part so late that Clement had to sight-read part of his performance. Perhaps to express his annoyance, or to show what he could do when he had time to prepare, Clement is said to have interrupted the concerto between the first and second movements with a solo composition of his own, played on one string of the violin held upside down; however, other sources claim that he did play such a piece but only at the end of the performance. The premiere was not a success, and the concerto was little performed in the following decades.
The work was revived in 1844, well after Beethoven's death, with a performance by the then 12-year-old violinist Joseph Joachim with the orchestra of the London Philharmonic Society conducted by Felix Mendelssohn.
 
Ever since, it has been one of the most important works of the violin concerto repertoire, and is frequently performed and recorded today.

Structure

The work is in three movements:

Allegro ma non troppo (D major)
Larghetto (G major)
Rondo. Allegro (D major)

It is scored, in addition to the solo violin, for flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani, and strings.

The first movement starts with four beats on the timpani and has a duration of about 25 minutes. The second and third movements last about 10 minutes each. There is no break between the second and third movements. The entire work itself is approximately 45 minutes in duration.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
 
Itzhak Perlman - Beethoven Violin Concerto - Daniel Barenboim
 
Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61

I. Allegro ma non troppo (00:00)
II. Larghetto (24:37)
III. Rondo. Allegro (33:33)

Itzhak Perlman, violin
Daniel Barenboim, conductor
Berlin Philharmonic

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Ludwig van Beethoven
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Arriaga Juan
 

Juan Crisóstomo Jacobo Antonio de Arriaga y Balzola (January 27, 1806 – January 17, 1826) was a Spanish composer. He was nicknamed "the Spanish Mozart" after he died, because, like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, he was both a child prodigy and an accomplished composer who died young. They also shared the same first and second baptismal names; and they shared the same birthday, January 27 (fifty years apart).

 


Juan Antonio de Arriaga

  Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, in full Juan Crisóstomo Jacobo Antonio Arriaga y Balzola (born January 27, 1806, near Bilbao, Spain—died January 17, 1826, Paris, France), Spanish violinist and composer of extraordinary precocity whose potential was cut short by his early death.

Stylistically, his music stands between the Classical tradition of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Romanticism of Gioacchino Rossini and Franz Schubert; it shows abundant invention, freshness, and technical resourcefulness.

After the success of his opera Los ésclavos felices (“The Happy Slaves”; produced 1820, Bilbao), Arriaga enrolled in the Paris Conservatory, where by age 18 he became an assistant professor.

His other compositions include three string quartets and a symphony.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 
 
 
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
 
"Agar dans le désert" (c. 1825)
Cantata lírico-dramática
Texto de V. J. Étienne (De Jouy)

Intérpretes:
Mª José Moreno (soprano)
Pablo Benavente (tiple)

Euskadiko Orkestra Sinfonikoa
Coro Easo Abesbatza
Dir. Cristian Mandeal
(Claves Records, 2006)

 
 
 
 
 
     
 
Juan Arriaga
     
 
 
     
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
     
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Davy Humphry discovers electrolytic method for preparation of potassium and soda
 
 
 
1806
 
 
P. A. Latreille: "Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum"
 
 
Latreille Pierre Andre
 

Pierre André Latreille (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods. Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. His foresighted work on arthropod systematics and taxonomy gained him respect and accolades. He was considered the foremost entomologist of his time, and was described by one of his pupils as "the prince of entomologists".

 

Pierre André Latreille
Pierre-André Latreille, (born Nov. 29, 1762, Brive-la-Gaillarde, France—died Feb. 6, 1833, Paris), French zoologist and Roman Catholic priest, often considered to be the father of modern entomology. He was responsible for the first detailed classification of crustaceans and insects.

Although he was a devoted student of natural history, Latreille was educated for the priesthood and was ordained in Paris in 1786. Publication of his Précis des caractères génériques des insectes disposés dans un ordre naturel (1796; “Summary of the Generic Characteristics of Insects, Arranged in a Natural Order”) marked the beginnings of modern entomology, the scientific study of insects. It also brought him the position of head of the entomology department at the National Museum of Natural History, Paris (1799).

 
P. A. Latreille: "Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum"
 
 
In this capacity Latreille published many works, among them Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des crustacés et insectes, 14 vol. (1802–05; “Comprehensive Natural History of Crustaceans and Insects”). In 1829 he succeeded Jean Lamarck as professor of zoology in crustaceans, arachnids, and insects at the National Museum of Natural History.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 
 
1806
 
 
Brit. cotton industry employs 90,000 factory workers and 184,000 handloom weavers
 
 
 
1806
 
 
Population of Germany, 27 million (in 1930, 65 million)
 
 
 

 
 
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