Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1804 Part II NEXT-1805 Part II    
FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

"The Battle of Trafalgar" by Clarkson Stanfield
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1805 Part I
Arthur Wellesley, later 1st Duke of Wellington, resigns in India
see also: Wellington (Wellesley Arthur)
see also: Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Jefferson Thomas begins his second term as President of U.S.
Treaty of St. Petersburg
The Treaty of Saint Petersburg was signed on 11 April 1805 by the British Empire and the Russian Empire and created an offensive alliance directed against Napoleon's French Empire.
They were joined by Austria (on 9 August), Sweden, while France was allied to Spain, to a number of satellite republics. Sweden only joined after Britain granted subsidies which virtually financed the entire Swedish war costs. Sweden armed 10,000 men.

This treaty would be one of the main causes of the War of the Third Coalition.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Napoleon I crowned as King of Italy in Milan Cathedral

Andrea Appiani. Napoleon As King of Italy
War of the Third Coalition 1805

Britain gathered together allies to form the Third Coalition against France. In response, Napoleon seriously considered an invasion of Great Britain, and massed 180,000 effectives at Boulogne. However, before he could invade, he needed to achieve naval superiority—or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel.


European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition
A complex plan to distract the British by threatening their possessions in the West Indies failed when a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve turned back after an indecisive action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July 1805. The Royal Navy blockaded Villeneuve in Cádiz until he left for Naples on 19 October; the British squadron caught and overwhelmingly defeated the combined enemy fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October (the British commander, Lord Nelson, died in the battle). Napoleon would never again have the opportunity to challenge the British at sea, nor to threaten an invasion. He again turned his attention to enemies on the Continent. The French army left Boulogne and moved towards Austria.

In April 1805, Britain and Russia signed a treaty with the aim of removing the French from the Batavian Republic (roughly present-day Netherlands) and the Swiss Confederation (Switzerland). Austria joined the alliance after the annexation of Genoa and the proclamation of Napoleon as King of Italy on 17 March 1805. Sweden, which had already agreed to lease Swedish Pomerania as a military base for British troops against France, formally entered the coalition on 9 August. The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria with an army of about 70,000 under Karl Mack von Leiberich, and the French army marched out from Boulogne in late July 1805 to confront them.
  At Ulm (25 September – 20 October) Napoleon surrounded Mack's army, forcing its surrender without significant losses. With the main Austrian army north of the Alps defeated (another army under Archduke Charles manoeuvred inconclusively against André Masséna's French army in Italy), Napoleon occupied Vienna.

Far from his supply lines, he faced a larger Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov, with the Emperor Alexander I of Russia personally present. On 2 December, Napoleon crushed the joint Austro-Russian army in Moravia at Austerlitz (usually considered his greatest victory). He inflicted a total of 25,000 casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7,000 in his own force.

Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805) and left the Coalition. The Treaty required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy and the Tyrol to Bavaria.

With the withdrawal of Austria from the war, stalemate ensued. Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victories on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The British HMS Sandwich fires to the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) in the battle of Trafalgar. The Bucentaure also fights HMS Victory (behind her) and HMS Temeraire (left side of the picture). In fact, HMS Sandwich never fought at Trafalgar and her depiction is a mistake by Auguste Mayer, the painter.
Napoleon I

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Mazzini Giuseppe

Giuseppe Mazzini, (born June 22, 1805, Genoa [Italy]—died March 10, 1872, Pisa, Italy), Genoese propagandist and revolutionary, founder of the secret revolutionary society Young Italy (1832), and a champion of the movement for Italian unity known as the Risorgimento. An uncompromising republican, he refused to participate in the parliamentary government that was established under the monarchy of the House of Savoy when Italy became unified and independent (1861).


Photograph of Mazzini by Domenico Lama
  Education and exile.
Giuseppe Mazzini was a doctor’s son; his birthplace, formerly a republic, was annexed to the Kingdom of Piedmont in 1814. As a child, he gave promise of high intellectual ability, fully confirmed when he entered the University of Genoa at 14.

Two years later, strongly influenced by seeing a patriot fleeing from Italy after an unsuccessful insurrection, he began to think “that we Italians could and therefore ought to struggle for the liberty of our country.”

On graduating in law in 1827, he practiced as a “poor man’s lawyer,” wrote articles for progressive reviews, and hoped to become a dramatist or historical novelist. But his life was already shaping itself differently. His love of freedom led him to join the Carbonari, a secret society pledged to overthrow absolute rule in Italy.

In 1830 he was betrayed to the police, arrested, and interned at Savona, where for three months he reviewed his political beliefs and conceived the outlines of a new patriotic movement to replace the decaying Carbonari.

When released early in 1831, he was ordered either to leave Piedmont or to live in some small town. He chose exile and went to Marseille, where his slight figure, handsome olive features, black hair and beard, and black velvet suit were soon familiar to the other Italian exiles, who accepted him as their leader.

His first public gesture was an “open letter” to Charles Albert, the king of Piedmont, urging him to give Piedmont constitutional government, to lead a national movement, and to expel the Austrians from Lombardy-Venetia and their other Italian strongholds. The letter was circulated in Italy, but Charles Albert’s only reaction was to threaten Mazzini with arrest if he returned to Piedmont. As a lifelong republican, Mazzini was afterward censured for this friendly approach to an autocratic sovereign; he explained that he had meant to expose Charles Albert as one who would never fight for Italian freedom.
Foundation of Young Italy.
At Marseille Mazzini spent two of his most rewarding years. He founded his patriotic movement for young men and called it Giovine Italia (Young Italy). It was designed as a national association for liberating the separate Italian states from foreign rule and fusing them into a free and independent unitary republic. Its methods were education and insurrection, and it had a moral basis derived from Mazzini’s own belief in God (though he was not a Christian) and in permanent laws of progress, duty, and sacrifice. It was the first Italian democratic movement embracing all classes, for Mazzini believed that only a popular initiative could free Italy. “Neither pope nor king,” he declared. “Only God and the people will open the way of the future to us.”

The new movement captured the imagination of Italian youth. Branches were secretly formed in Genoa and other cities; by 1833 there were 60,000 members. Mazzini edited the propagandist journal Giovine Italia, which was smuggled into Italy with other revolutionary pamphlets. He also became the lover of a fellow exile, the beautiful Modenese widow Giuditta Sidoli.

Young Italy’s attempted insurrections were failures. A projected rising in Piedmont in 1833 was discovered before it had begun; 12 conspirators were executed, one committed suicide, and Mazzini was tried in absence and condemned to death. He said prophetically, “Ideas ripen quickly when nourished by the blood of martyrs.” A few months later, when he had moved to Switzerland to escape from the French police, he tried to rally 1,000 volunteers to invade Savoy (then part of the kingdom of Piedmont). Only 200 could be mustered, and the force was disbanded.

These failures destroyed Young Italy as an organization, though its spirit lived on. Mazzini turned to wider revolutionary plans, based on his faith in the brotherhood of man and his hopes for a world republican federation. He founded Young Europe and helped to establish Young Germany, Young Switzerland, and Young Poland, but his three years in Switzerland were unhappy and frustrated. Giuditta Sidoli had gone back to Italy to rejoin her children; he suffered an emotional crisis through doubts and disillusionment. In 1837 he went with a few Italian friends to live in London.

  Stay in England.
England was now his real home. He lived in modest London lodgings, surrounded by books, papers, and the tame birds in which he delighted; he studied at the British Museum and wrote for English periodicals. Though he had little money, he started a school for Italian boys in London and a newspaper, Apostolato popolare (“Apostleship of the People”), in which he published part of his essay “On the Duties of Man.”

In 1840, with the help of Giuseppe Lamberti in Paris, he revived Young Italy, primarily as a means of building up a national consciousness among Italians everywhere. He wrote innumerable letters to his new agents in Europe and North and South America; he also became acquainted with Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle and other notable people.

In 1844 he was in touch with the Bandiera brothers, who made an ill-fated attempt to start a revolt in Calabria. After their execution, he told two friends who were members of Parliament of his fears that the British government was opening his letters and had passed on information about the Bandieras’ plans to the Neapolitan authorities. The matter was raised in Parliament, and the government was compelled to admit that it opened private letters. There was much public indignation and widespread sympathy with Mazzini. The affair made him better known in England and brought him into contact with a notable liberal family, the Ashursts. Many English liberals supported him when he founded the People’s International League in 1847.

In that year he wrote an “open letter” to the new pope, Pius IX, who had introduced liberal reforms in the Papal States. He urged the pope to unify Italy, but Pius made no comment. Mazzini returned to Italy for the first time in the revolutionary year of 1848, when the Milanese drove out their Austrian masters and Piedmont began a war to expel the Austrians from Italy.

Milan welcomed him, but he was soon unpopular because he wanted Lombardy to become a republic and he thought that union with the kingdom of Piedmont, as proposed by the Milanese provisional government, was the wrong kind of pattern for the future Italy. When the Piedmontese armies withdrew and the Austrians reentered Milan, he served briefly with an irregular force under Giuseppe Garibaldi before returning to England.


Giuseppe Mazzini late in his career
  Triumvir of republican Rome.
Mazzini was again in Italy in 1849, first in Tuscany and then in Rome, where a revolution had driven out the pope and a republic had been proclaimed. He had long believed that the imperial and papal Romes would be followed by a third Rome—a Rome of the people; now his dream had come true. He was acclaimed as a great patriot, was elected a triumvir of the republic, and became the effective head of the government, showing great administrative talent in ecclesiastical and social reforms. His rule was short-lived. The pope appealed to Catholic countries for help, and a French army landed in Italy; after heroic resistance, the republic was crushed, and Mazzini left Rome.
Back in London, he founded another society—the Friends of Italy—in 1851 and was soon involved in new revolutionary activities. In 1853 he backed the Milanese workers in their unsuccessful rising against the Austrians. In 1853–54 he sent Felice Orsini on two unproductive missions to raise a revolt in Carrara. In 1856 he went secretly to Genoa to plan a number of simultaneous insurrections. The only one that was seriously attempted was Carlo Pisacane’s disastrous landing in Calabria in 1857. Even the apparently futile conspiracies of this period had the useful effect, however, of keeping Italian problems before the governments of Europe. For these plots Mazzini was reviled in Piedmont, where the new moderate party was working for orderly progress without revolution. Count Cavour, the prime minister, called him “chief of the assassins,” but this charge was unfair; Mazzini’s plots were for insurrection, not assassination, and he expressly disclaimed the “theory of the dagger.”

In 1858 Mazzini founded another journal in London: this was Pensiero ed azione (“Thought and Action”), a title reflecting his view that thought is only of value when it results in action.

He did not participate in the Franco-Piedmontese war against Austria in 1859, by which Cavour with the help of Napoleon III vainly sought to free Italy from the Alps to the Adriatic; nor did he belong to the “party of action,” which sponsored Giuseppe Garibaldi’s expedition to Sicily in 1860. Yet this expedition has been called “Mazzini’s gift to the ‘party of action,’ ” for it followed plans devised by him in earlier years. Mazzini went to Naples during Garibaldi’s brief dictatorship of southern Italy but was back in London when the new united Kingdom of Italy (excluding Venice and Rome) was proclaimed in 1861.

Impractical schemes for seizing Venice and Rome occupied Mazzini’s mind in the 1860s. This was the decade of the Socialist First International; he had early contact with its members but soon withdrew, since the moral and religious basis of his own political thought prevented him from accepting either Karl Marx’s communism or Mikhail Bakunin’s anarchism. Messina repeatedly elected him as its parliamentary deputy, but the elections were quashed by the Italian government. In 1870 he misguidedly agreed to lead a republican rising in Sicily. He was arrested on his way there and interned at Gaeta but was released and pardoned after the occupation of Rome by Italian troops.


Citizens shot for reading Mazzini Journals
Accomplishments and reputation.
Mazzini’s life was ending in disappointment, even though both Venice (acquired in 1866) and Rome were now part of the new kingdom. Italy had been united by fusion, as he had always advocated against strong opposition, rather than by federation, but it was a monarchy and not the republic he had wanted. “I thought I was awakening the soul of Italy, and I see only the corpse before me,” he said.

In his last years he founded another paper, Roma del popolo (“Rome of the People”), which he edited from Lugano, and made plans for an Italian workingmen’s congress. He died from pleurisy at Pisa in 1872. He had never married.

Mazzini’s reputation has fluctuated greatly. In his earlier years, he was an almost legendary hero in his own country, but he was later denounced by many of his compatriots as an enemy of the state. For two generations after his death, most historians considered that his useful work ended in 1849 and that he should then have withdrawn from conspiracy.

A different view, however, prevails among modern historians. Many believe that all his plots were valuable, since they held out a permanent threat of violent revolution if Italy were not freed and united. By spurring on the Piedmontese government, and later the Italian government, to work for the national cause, he is now considered to have played an indispensable part in the making of modern Italy.

Edgar Crawshaw Holt

Encyclopædia Britannica

Battle of Austerlitz

Battle of Austerlitz, also called Battle of the Three Emperors, (Dec. 2, 1805), the first engagement of the War of the Third Coalition and one of Napoleon’s greatest victories. His 68,000 troops defeated almost 90,000 Russians and Austrians nominally under General M.I. Kutuzov, forcing Austria to make peace with France (Treaty of Pressburg) and keeping Prussia temporarily out of the anti-French alliance.


Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard 1805. The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was Napoleon's greatest victory, where the French Empire effectively crushed the Third Coalition.
The battle took place near Austerlitz in Moravia (now Slavkov u Brna, Czech Republic) after the French had entered Vienna on November 13 and then pursued the Russian and Austrian allied armies into Moravia. The arrival of the Russian emperor Alexander I virtually deprived Kutuzov of supreme control of his troops. The allies decided to fight Napoleon west of Austerlitz and occupied the Pratzen Plateau, which Napoleon had deliberately evacuated to create a trap. The allies then launched their main attack, with 40,000 men, against the French right (south) to cut them off from Vienna. While Marshal Louis Davout’s corps of 10,500 men stubbornly resisted this attack, and the allied secondary attack on Napoleon’s northern flank was repulsed, Napoleon launched Marshal Nicolas Soult, with 20,000 infantry, up the slopes to smash the weak allied centre on the Pratzen Plateau. Soult captured the plateau and, with 25,000 reinforcements from Napoleon’s reserve, held it against the allied attempts to retake it. The allies were soon split in two and vigorously attacked and pursued both north and south of the plateau. They lost 15,000 men killed and wounded and 11,000 captured, while Napoleon lost 9,000 men. The remnants of the allied army were scattered. Two days later Francis I of Austria agreed to a suspension of hostilities and arranged for Alexander I to take his army back to Russia.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Napoleon I

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Peace of Pressburg

Treaty of Pressburg, (Dec. 26, 1805), agreement signed by Austria and France at Pressburg (now Bratislava, Slovakia) after Napoleon’s victories at Ulm and Austerlitz; it imposed severe terms on Austria.

Austria gave up the following: all that it had received of Venetian territory at the Treaty of Campo Formio to Napoleon’s kingdom of Italy; the Tirol, Vorarlberg, and several smaller territories to Bavaria; and other western lands of the Habsburg monarchy to Württemberg and Baden. Austria agreed to admit the electors of Bavaria and Württemberg, who were allied to Napoleon, to the rank of kings, and to release them, as well as Baden, from all feudal ties with the defunct Holy Roman Empire, thus sharply reducing Austrian influence in Germany. Austria agreed to pay an indemnity of 40,000,000 gold francs. As small compensation, Napoleon allowed Austria to annex Salzburg, Berchtesgaden, and the estates of the Teutonic Order. The French Empire received Piedmont, Parma, and Piacenza, and completely excluded Austria from influence in Italy. The treaty was an integral part of Napoleon’s policy of creating a ring of French client states beyond the Rhine, the Alps, and the Pyrenees.

Encyclopædia Britannica
Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad ʿAlī, also called Mehmed Ali (born 1769, Kavala, Macedonia, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece]—died August 2, 1849, Alexandria, Egypt), pasha and viceroy of Egypt (1805–48), founder of the dynasty that ruled Egypt from the beginning of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th. He encouraged the emergence of the modern Egyptian state.


An 1840 portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha by Auguste Couder
  Rise to power
Muhammad ʿAlī’s ethnic background is unknown, though he may have been an Albanian and was certainly a Muslim and an Ottoman subject. His father, Ibrahim Agha, the commander of a small provincial military force that was maintained by the governor of Kavala, died when Muhammad ʿAlī was a boy, and he was brought up by the governor. At 18 he was married to one of the governor’s relatives, who became the mother of five of Muhammad ʿAlī’s 95 children. He became involved in the tobacco trade, an experience that may account for his later commercial interests. In 1798 Egypt, at that time a semiautonomous province of the Ottoman Empire, was occupied by a French force under Napoleon Bonaparte. Muhammad ʿAlī arrived there in 1801 as second in command of a 300-man Albanian regiment sent by the Ottoman government to oust the French from Egypt. With great political skill, he managed by 1805 to be named the wālī, the Ottoman sultan’s viceroy in Egypt, with the rank of pasha.
Nowhere in the Ottoman Empire was there greater opportunity for a total restructuring of society than in Egypt. The three-year French occupation (1798–1801) had disrupted the country’s traditional political and economic structure. Continuing the task begun by the French, Muhammad ʿAlī put an end to Egypt’s traditional society. He eliminated the Mamlūks, the former ruling oligarchy, expropriated the old landholding classes, turned the religious class into pensioners of the government, restricted the activities of the native merchant and artisan groups, neutralized the Bedouins, and crushed all movements of rebellion among the peasants. The task of rebuilding Egypt along modern lines now lay before him.
But, though Muhammad ʿAlī had considerable native intelligence and great personal charm, he was a man of limited knowledge and narrow horizons. He proved insensitive to the possibilities open to him and governed generally according to Ottoman principles. No group within Egyptian society was capable of forcing fundamental changes upon him; elements that might have served as the instruments of change had been crushed at the outset of his regime. Neither was there an ideology capable of bringing together the ruler and the ruled in a great national effort. Finally, Muḥammad ʿAlī had to devote much of his effort to resisting attempts by his Ottoman overlord to remove him from office. His policies were designed more to entrench himself and his family in Egypt as its hereditary rulers than to create a new society.

Muhammad Ali of Egypt establishes a modern Navy
Administrative and economic reforms
To strengthen his position within Egypt and to increase his revenues, Muhammad ʿAlī instituted sweeping changes. By 1815 most of Egypt’s agricultural land had been converted into state land, and profits from agriculture became available to the ruler. He improved Egypt’s irrigation system, on which its agriculture depended; he introduced new crops, such as cotton, which promised high cash returns; and he reorganized the administrative structure of the government to ensure strict control of the economy. He also attempted to construct a modern industrial system to process Egypt’s raw materials. Disbanding his mercenary army, he created a fleet and an army of Egyptians conscripted from the peasant class but commanded by Turks and others recruited from outside Egypt.
  To supply services for his armed forces, he created Western-style schools to train doctors, engineers, veterinarians, and other specialists. He also began sending educational missions to European countries for training in modern techniques.

His industrial experiments failed, largely because Egypt lacked sources of power, a native managerial class, and a trained working class. Even the agricultural sector declined ultimately because of administrative mismanagement, excessive taxation, military conscription of the peasantry, and his monopolization of trade. By the mid-1830s Muhammad ʿAlī’s policy of turning Egypt into a massive plantation for his own benefit had reached a point of diminishing returns. Furthermore, his financial requirements had greatly increased because of his military campaigns.


Muhammad Ali of Egypt
  Attempts at expansion
Muhammad ʿAlī initially supported the Ottoman sultan in suppressing rebellion both in Arabia and in Greece, and he also invaded the Nilotic Sudan in search of recruits for his army and gold for his treasury.

Victorious in all three campaigns, until European intervention in Greece caused the destruction of his fleet at the Battle of Navarino in 1827, Muhammad ʿAlī felt that he was strong enough to challenge the sultan.

His first war against the sultan (1831–33) gained him control of Syria as far north as Adana. In the second war (1838–41) the decisive defeat of Ottoman troops at the Battle of Nizip (1839) and the desertion of the Ottoman fleet to Muhammad ʿAlī led to intervention by the European powers.
In July 1840, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia agreed to end Egyptian rule in Syria, shattering Muhammad ʿAlī’s hopes for greater independence from the Ottoman Empire.

In 1841 he and his family were granted the hereditary right to rule Egypt and the Sudan, but his power was still subjected to restraints, and the sultan’s suzerain rights remained intact.
In the late 1840s, owing to his failing lucidity, Muhammad ʿAlī retired from office. In 1848, rule was officially transferred to Muhammad ʿAlī’s son Ibrahim, who died shortly thereafter; Muhammad ʿAlī himself died in the following year.

Although many of his reforms and institutions were abandoned—some before his death—he is nevertheless hailed as having cleared the path for the creation of an independent Egyptian state.

Helen Anne B. Rivlin

Encyclopædia Britannica
Battle of Trafalgar

The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

The battle was the most decisive naval victory of the war. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson Horatio aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve off the southwest coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost.

The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the eighteenth century and was achieved in part through Nelson's departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy, which involved engaging an enemy fleet in a single line of battle parallel to the enemy to facilitate signalling in battle and disengagement, and to maximise fields of fire and target areas. Nelson instead divided his smaller force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the larger enemy fleet, with decisive results.

Nelson was mortally wounded during the battle, becoming one of Britain's greatest war heroes. The commander of the joint French and Spanish forces, Admiral Villeneuve, was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Spanish Admiral Federico Gravina escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle.


The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the starboard mizzen shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner
(oil on canvas, 1806 to 1808)
21 October 1805

Forces Engaged
English: Twenty-seven ships of the line. Commander: Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson.

French: Thirty-three ships of the line. Commander: Admiral P. C. J. B. S. Villeneuve.

British victory established Britain as the dominant
naval power well into the next century and ended
any possibility of Napoleon invading Britain.

Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson.
Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, the French Admiral.

Historical Background
After his failed venture in Egypt in 1798, Napoleon managed to land squarely on his feet. He overthrew the ruling body of the French government, the Directory, and established a three-member Consulate, with himself as First Consul. He broke up die alliance of countries arrayed against him, the 2nd Coalition (England, Austria, and Russia), by defeating die Austrians at Marengo in June 1800. Then he faced his greatest enemy, England. Napoleon knew that to make successful war against England he would need both allies and ships. To this end, he attempted forming a coalition of his own, but the Royal Navy's victory in the Battle of Copenhagen in April 1802 scuttled it. Still, he hoped that by negotiation or conquest he could control the ports of Europe. That would give him, he reasoned, the bases to amass a multinational fleet and at the same time deny the English trade access into the Continent. In the meantime, a naval demonstration toward Egypt should draw the bulk of the English Royal Navy there, giving Napoleon the opportunity to rush an invasion fleet of small craft across the English Channel. He began assembling an army.
The Treaty of Amiens, signed with the English in 1802, gave him time to organize his army. It was a cease-fire more than a peace, with neither side closely observing its terms. The planned feint toward Egypt never came about, but Napoleon's control of the European coastal ports did. France occupied the Netherlands, acquiring the Dutch fleet, and entered into an alliance with Spain. This gave Napoleon control of every port from the Dutch North Sea coast to the Franco-Italian border. He thus acquired a large number of ships, but gathering them together was the problem.
England's response to Napoleon's acquisition of European ports was to blockade them. France's Mediterranean ports were blocked by a squadron under the command of Lord Nelson, victor of Copenhagen. He had recently commanded a squadron near the French port of Boulougne, where Napoleon was building his invasion fleet. A raid to disrupt that project was a miserable failure for the English, and Nelson was eager to come to grips with the French fleet in order to exact some revenge.
  Four other admirals commanded squadrons blockading the remaining ports, but Nelson was regarded as the premier naval commander of his day.

For a time litde happened. Although the Peace of Amiens ended in May 1803, no fighting of any consequence took place through the spring of 1804. Napoleon continued to mass troops on the coast for the invasion, and England responded by enlarging its army to more than half a million men, almost one-twentieth of the country's population. Napoleon finally set things into motion in May 1805, when he otdered Admiral P. C. J. B. S. Villeneuve to break out of the southern French port of Toulon and race for French islands in the West Indies. There he was to join forces with Commodore Honore Ganteaume, who was to escape the blockade at Brest.

Together they would harass English possessions in the Caribbean for 2 months and then sail back to Europe. They would be strong enough to break through any blockading squadron, thus freeing French ships to make a huge and possibly unstoppable fleet. This would then safeguard the proposed cross-English Channel invasion and hopefully defeat the Royal Navy in battle as well.

Nelson, temporarily away from Toulon, learned of Villeneuve's escape and assumed that Egypt was his goal. Nelson sailed for Alexandria, but found no French. He then sailed for the West Indies, where faulty intelligence reports sent him on a useless foray to Trinidad.

Nelson and Villeneuve spent much of the summer sailing back and forth across the Atlantic, neither sure exactly where the other was located or was going. Nelson returned to England in August and then was back at sea aboard his flagship Victory on 14 September.

Word had come that Villeneuve had picked up reinforcements and sailed for the Spanish port of Cadiz. There, on 28 September, Nelson joined the bulk of the English fleet that he was to command at the upcoming battle. He placed a few ships within site of Cadiz to spy on the Franco-Spanish fleet, while he kept the main body of ships over the horizon.

"The Battle of Trafalgar" by Clarkson Stanfield
The Battle
Nelson spent the next few weeks waiting for Villeneuve to move and instructing his captains on his tactics. Nelson here introduced a new method of naval engagement, abandoning the traditional maneuver of lining up parallel to the enemy and blasting away. Instead, he proposed breaking his ships into three columns that would approach the enemy from the perpendicular. These columns were supposed to break through the Franco-Spanish line of ships, breaking them into smaller groups that could not support each otber. Then, each English ship was to close with the nearest enemy and fight in single combat.

Nelson depended on the superior maneuverability of his ships, quality of his captains, and discipline and accuracy of his gunners. With the Franco-Spanish fleet out of its own formation, he was sure that the individual enemy captains would not be able to adapt to the concept of single-ship actions.

Villeneuve really was not looking for a battle when he tried to slip out of Cadiz on 19 October, but for a chance to run through the Straits of Gibraltar and return to Toulon. He headed south with Nelson in pursuit through 19 and 20 October, but had a difficult time keeping his fleet in line astern batde order. On die morning of 21 October, Nelson's fleet had successfully outrun Villeneuve's and came into sight well before Gibraltar appeared. The wind was storming out of the northwest, at Nelson's back, when he saw Villeneuve reverse course and try to run back to Cadiz rather dian go to Gibraltar.
  Off Trafalgar Point, Nelson ordered his ships into two columns rather than diree. He retired to his cabin where he was observed recording a prayer in his journal. When he returned to the upper deck, he ordered a message spelled out in signal flags: "England expects that every man will do his duty." Not all the English ships saw this, or if they did they paid no heed, thinking it was probably a reiteration of the orders they all knew by heart. Nelson led the left column in the Victory while Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood commanded the right column.
The engagement began about noon on 21 October. Collingwood's ship, the Royal Sovereign, was first to engage, and soon his column had cut the line of Franco-Spanish ships in half. By 0100, the Victory was engaged. Nelson's plan was a success; the leading French ships could not come about and aid the trailing ships, and the aggressive English captains pressed their attacks on the confused and now outnumbered enemy captains. The Franco-Spanish fleet soon fell into utter confusion. The French ship Redoubtable engaged the Victory and scored the one significant French accomplishment that day: a sniper from the Redoubtable shot Nelson. The bullet entered his shoulder and struck his spine. He was carried below with his face covered by a cloth so the crew could not see who was injured. He was in agony for the next 3 hours, but diere was nothing the surgeons could do. He waited for news of the English victory, which came in midafternoon. The ship's log recorded: "Partial firing continued until 4.30, when a victory having been reported to the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Nelson KB and Commander-in-Chief, he then died of his wound" (Warner, Great Sea Battles, p. 182).

Situation at noon as the Royal Sovereign was breaking into the Franco-Spanish line
Although eighteen French and Spanish ships struck their colors in surrender, the storm whose winds had favored the English then scattered the victors and vanquished. Only four ships were taken as prizes. In contrast, the English lost no ships, 24 men killed, and about 100 wounded. The Victory sailed first to Gibraltar, with Nelson's body embalmed in a cask filled with brandy. The story is told during tours at St. Paul's Cathedral in London that the sailors drank from the cask, and that since then grog in the Royal Navy has been nicknamed "Nelson's Blood."
At first the battle seemed to have no serious positive results because Napoleon's forces soon afterward scored brilliant successes over the Austrians at Ulm and over the.Austrians and Russians at Austerlitz. The battle off Trafalgar Point had numerous long-term effects, however. First, of course, was Nelsons death. He dominated not only the Royal Navy but all of naval warfare in his day. He died a hero, but even had he lived he would never again have matched the accomplishment on 21 October 1805. England engaged in no more serious naval warfare, indeed, until more than a century later at Jutland in 1916.
The second effect was that because no more significant naval battles occurred during the wars against Napoleon, the English blockade continued and succeeded in keeping Napoleon's ships bottled up in various harbors. Only a minor skirmish against a Franco-Venetian fleet at Lissa in the Adriatic in 1811 marred the dullness of blockade duty. Without a functioning navy, Napoleon could not seriously threaten an invasion of England nor even harass their possessions around the world.
The best he could do was try to maintain his Continental System, which attempted to deny England its lucrative European trade.
  The continuing English blockade did have a side effect in North America.
Needing sailors to crew the ships, the English began the practice of impressment, forcing foreign (usually American) sailors into the Royal Navy. This practice, virtually piracy, violated international law. That, coupled with the restrictions on neutral trade invoked by England's Orders in Council (1806), so provoked the Americans that they ultimately went to war in 1812.
More importantly for the war in Europe, England's mastery of the sea after Trafalgar allowed England to transport troops onto the Continent.

This began in Portugal and Spain in 1809, starting what came to be called the "Spanish ulcer" that so drained French military power and gave valuable experience to the English army. This helped lead to Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815-After every Continental power had been defeated by Napoleon at least once, England emerged as the spiritual leader of the coalition that finally brought him down. It can be said that the victory at Waterloo was begun at Trafalgar 10 years earlier.

England enjoyed naval superiority until World War II after having struggled against French and Dutch maritime rivalry for the previous century. This allowed the expansion of the British Empire throughout the nineteenth century, but also aroused the jealousy of Germany, whose naval arms race at the end of the nineteenth and start of the twentieth century contributed to the outbreak of World War I. That naval superiority, confirmed at Trafalgar, saved England from any chance of a French invasion in the early nineteenth century, just as it saved them from any chance of a German invasion in 1940.

Nelson is shot on the quarterdeck of Victory

Horatio Nelson




Before this time tomorrow, I shall have gained a peerage, or Westminster Abbey.

Horatio Nelson, I Aug. 1798, on the eve of the Battle of the Nile, where he annihilated Napoleon's Mediterranean fleet; Roger Hudson (ed.) Nelson and Emma (1994) pp. 128-9. Also credited to Nelson before Cape St Vincent on 14 Feb. 1797. By the end of the 18th century Westminster Abbey had become the burial ground of British national heroes; Nelson, however, was entombed in St Paul's Cathedral, as was Wellington.


Lord Horatio Nelson By John Hoppner

I had the happiness to command a band of brothers.

Horatio Nelson to Admiral Lord Howe after the Battle of the Nile, Aug. 1798. Was this a self-conscious echo of Shakespeare's Henry V: 'We few, we happy few, we band of brothers' (Act 4, Sc.3)?


You know, Foley, I have only one eye - I have a right to be blind sometimes ... I really do not see the signal.

Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Copenhagen, 2 April 1801; Carola Oman Nelson (1947) Ch. 14, from the eyewitness Colonel William Stewart. He had lost the sight of his right eye at the siege of Calvi, Corsica, on 12 July 1794; here he famously uses his impairment to justify disregarding an order to break off action against the Danish fleet. Captain Thomas Foley commanded Nelson's flagship HMS Elephant. The action was taken to force Denmark to leave a grouping that included Russia, Prussia and Sweden, banding the four Baltic states together in protest against British interference with their maritime trade. It succeeded, and the Baltic conglomerate was dissolved in June.


Those far-distant, storm-beaten ships, upon which the Grand Army never looked, stood between it and the dominion of the world.

Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan USN The Influence of Sea Power upon History Vol.2 (1892). Mahan refers to the blockade of continental Europe imposed by the Royal Navy to strangle the Napoleonic empire economically and to contain French forces to the European shoreline.


I do not say they cannot come. I only say they cannot come by sea.

Admiral Earl St Vincent, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1801. As long as the Royal Navy held the English Channel, 'they' - the French — could not cross it to make a seaborne invasion of Britain.


We will form a more complete coastal system and England will weep for the war she undertakes, with tears of blood.

Napoleon to the Council of State, I May 1803, on the resumption of hostilities with Britain after the brief interlude of the Peace of Amiens; Miot de Melito Memoirs. His rejoinder to the blockade was the Continental System, the economic consolidation of French-occupied Europe.


He could not know who 1 was, but he entered at once into conversation with me, if I can call it conversation, for it was almost all on his side and all about himself, and in, really, a style so vain and silly as to surprise and almost disgust me.

Sir Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington) on his one and only meeting with Nelson on 12 Sept. 1805; Oman (1947) p.522. Once Nelson discovered who Wellesley was, his demeanour changed completely.


When I came to explain to them the 'Nelson touch', it was like an electric shock. Some shed tears, all approved - 'It was new - it was singular - it was simple!'

Horatio Nelson to Emma, Lady Hamilton, I Oct. 1805; Hudson (1994) p.213. The 'Nelson touch' was Nelson's battle-plan to cut through the Franco-Spanish fleet at two points and destroy it piecemeal.


In case signals can neither be seen nor perfectly understood, no captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy.

Horatio Nelson, 9 Oct. 1805.


England expects that every man will do his duty.

Horatio Nelson, signal to the British Fleet from his flagship HMS Victory before the Battle of Trafalgar, 21 Oct. 1805, as remembered by Captain Henry Blackwood RN, an eyewitness; Hudson (1994) p.222.


Engage the enemy more closely.

Horatio Nelson, last signal to the fleet during the Battle of Trafalgar; literally 'Close Action', no. 16 in the Signal Book.


'Kiss me, Hardy,' said he. The Captain now knelt down and kissed his cheek, when his Lordship said: 'Now I am satisfied; thank God, I have done my duty.'

Sir William Beatty Authentic Narrative of the Death of Lord Nelson (1807). Nelson's last words to his flag-captain, Thomas Hardy, after being mortally wounded by an enemy sharpshooter at the height of the battle. Beatty was chief surgeon in Victory and an eyewitness of Nelson's dying moments.


When the game began, I wished myself at Warnborough with my plough again; but when they had given us one duster, and I found myself snug and tight, I set to in good earnest, and thought no more about being killed than if I were at Murrell Green Fair, and I was presently as busy and as black as a collier. How my fingers got knocked overboard I don't know, but off they were, and I never missed them till I wanted them. We have taken a rare parcel of ships, but the wind is so rough we cannot bring them home, else I should roll in money, so we are busy smashing 'em, and blowing 'em up wholesale.

A seaman from Royal Sovereign, writing home after the Battle of Trafalgar; Hudson (1994) pp.237-8.


England has saved herself by her exertions, and will, I trust, save Europe by her example.

British prime minister William Pitt, 9 Nov. 1805; R. Coupland War Speeches of William Pitt (1915) p.35. The news of the victory at Trafalgar reached London on 6 Nov. This is from Pitt's speech at the Lord Mayor's banquet.


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