Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
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FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

Turner. "Shipwreck"
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1805 Part II
Hosea Ballou: "A Treatise on Atonement"
Ballou Hosea

Hosea Ballou, (born April 30, 1771, Richmond, N.H. [now U.S.]—died June 7, 1852, Boston, Mass.), American theologian who for more than 50 years was an influential leader in the Universalist church.


Hosea Ballou
  Converted in 1789 to a belief in universal salvation, he began preaching that doctrine on a Calvinist basis, substituting for John Calvin’s concept of salvation of the “elect” a concept of salvation that included all of humanity. Ballou reexamined Calvinist tenets further, however, under the influence of Ethan Allen’s deistic Reason the Only Oracle of Man (1784), and in A Treatise on Atonement (1805) Ballou presented his own version of Universalist theology. In 1809 he became a pastor in Portsmouth, N.H.; in 1815 he moved to Salem, Mass.; and from December 1817 until his death he was pastor of the Second Universalist Church in Boston.

Stressing the use of reason in religious thinking, Ballou shifted Universalism from its belief in a three-person Godhead to a unitarian basis that did not see God as having separately personified attributes or functions. He also discarded the doctrines of original sin and vicarious atonement, believing that Christ died not to reconcile man to God but to demonstrate God’s unchanging love for man.

From 1817 Ballou held that punishment for sin is limited to earthly life and that at death the soul is purified by divine love and enters immortality.

The ensuing controversy resulted in the secession of the Restorationists, who believed in a limited period of punishment in the afterlife; Ballou gave his views in this dispute in An Examination of the Doctrine of Future Retribution (1834).

Among his many other writings are some 10,000 sermons and numerous hymns and essays. He founded and edited The Universalist Magazine (1819) and The Universalist Expositor (1830). On the Expositor (later The Universalist Quarterly and General Review) he was assisted by his nephew, also named Hosea Ballou (1796–1861), who continued the work of the Universalist church and was the first president of Tufts College, later Tufts University.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Andersen Hans Christian

Hans Christian Andersen, (born April 2, 1805, Odense, near Copenhagen, Denmark—died August 4, 1875, Copenhagen), unique master of the literary fairy tale whose stories are famous throughout the world; he is also the author of plays, novels, poems, travel books, and several autobiographies.


Painting of Andersen, 1836, by Christian Albrecht Jensen
  While many of these works are almost unknown outside Denmark, his fairy tales are among the most frequently translated works in all literary history.

Andersen was born in a slum and had a difficult battle breaking through the rigid class structure of his time. The first significant help came from Jonas Collin, one of the directors of the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, to which Andersen had gone as a youth in the vain hope of winning fame as an actor. Collin raised money to send him to school. Although school was an unhappy experience for Andersen because of an unpleasant headmaster, it allowed him to be admitted to the University of Copenhagen in 1828.

The next year Andersen produced what is considered his first important literary work, Fodrejse fra Holmens Kanal til Østpynten af Amager i aarene 1828 og 1829 (1829; “A Walk from Holmen’s Canal to the East Point of the Island of Amager in the Years 1828 and 1829”), a fantastic tale in the style of the German Romantic writer E.T.A. Hoffmann. This work was an immediate success. He then turned to playwriting. After some unsuccessful attempts, he achieved recognition for Mulatten (1840; “The Mulatto”), a play portraying the evils of slavery. The theatre, however, was not to become his field, and for a long time Andersen was regarded primarily as a novelist. Most of his novels are autobiographical; among the best-known are Improvisatoren (1835; The Improvisatore), O.T. (1836; OT: A Danish Romance), and Kun en spillemand (1837; Only a Fiddler).

Andersen’s first book of tales, Eventyr, fortalte for børn (1835; “Tales, Told for Children”), included stories such as “The Tinderbox,” “Little Claus and Big Claus,” “The Princess and the Pea,” and “Little Ida’s Flowers.” Two further installments of stories made up the first volume of Eventyr (1837); a second volume was completed in 1842, and to these was added Billedbog uden billeder (1840; A Picture-book Without Pictures). New collections appeared in 1843, 1847, and 1852. The genre was expanded in Nye eventyr og historier (1858–72; “New Fairy Tales and Stories”).

The Hanfstaengl portrait of Andersen, 1860
  These collections broke new ground in both style and content. A real innovator in his method of telling tales, Andersen used the idioms and constructions of the spoken language, thus breaking with literary tradition.

While some of his tales exhibit an optimistic belief in the ultimate triumph of goodness and beauty (e.g., “The Snow Queen”), others are deeply pessimistic and end unhappily. Indeed, one reason for Andersen’s great appeal to both children and adults is that he was not afraid of introducing feelings and ideas that were beyond a child’s immediate comprehension, yet he remained in touch with the child’s perspective.

He combined his natural storytelling abilities and great imaginative power with universal elements of folk legend to produce a body of fairy tales that relates to many cultures.

It may also be noted that part of what makes some of the tales so compelling is Andersen’s identification with the unfortunate and the outcast. A strong autobiographical element runs through his sadder tales; throughout his life he perceived himself as an outsider, and, despite the international recognition he received, he never felt completely accepted. He suffered deeply in some of his closest personal relationships.

From 1831 to 1873 Andersen spent a good deal of his time traveling throughout Europe, Asia Minor, and Africa, and his impressions are recorded in a number of travel books, notably, En digters bazar (1842; A Poet’s Bazaar), I Sverrig (1851; Pictures of Sweden), and I Spanien (1863; In Spain). Because Andersen rarely destroyed anything he wrote, his diaries and thousands of his letters are extant.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Photograph taken by Thora Hallager, 1869
  Hans Christian Andersen

"The Fairy Tales"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Schiller Friedrich d. (b. 1759)

Friedrich Schiller
  Friedrich von Schiller

"Love and Intrigue"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"

"The Lay of the Last Minstrel" (1805) is a long narrative poem by Scott Walter. ( It should not be confused with The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, also by Walter Scott, compiled three years previously.)

In the poem, Lady Margaret Scott of Buccleuch, the "Flower of Teviot" is beloved by Baron Henry of Cranstown an ally of the Ker Clan, but a deadly feud exists between the two border clans of Scott and Carr/Ker, which has resulted in the recent murder of Lady Margaret's father, Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch by the Kers on the High Street in Edinburgh. Maragaret's widowed mother – Lady Janet – hates the Ker clan as a result, and is adamant in refusing her consent to any suggestion of marriage between the lovers. The lines in its 6th Canto that begin "Breathes there the man, with soul so dead, Who never to himself hath said, This is my own, my native land!" are cited in Edward Everett Hale's famous story "The Man Without a Country" (1863). The title of the concert overture "The Land of the Mountain and the Flood" by Hamish MacCunn is also taken from the 6th Canto.


"The Poem, now offered to the Public, is intended to illustrate the customs and manners which anciently prevailed on the Borders of England and Scotland. The inhabitants living in a state partly pastoral and partly warlike, and combining habits of constant depredation with the influence of a rude spirit of chivalry, were often engaged in scenes highly susceptible of poetical ornament. As the description of scenery and manners was more the object of the Author than a combined and regular narrative, the plan of the Ancient Metrical Romance was adopted, which allows greater latitude, in this respect, than would be consistent with the dignity of a regular Poem. The same model offered other faculties, as it permits an occasional alteration of measure, which, in some degree, authorizes the change of rhythm in the text. The machinery, also, adopted from popular belief, would have seemed puerile in a Poem which did not partake of the rudeness of the old Ballad, or Metrical Romance.
First edition title page.
"For these reasons, the Poem was put into the mouth of an ancient Minstrel, the last of the race, who, as he is supposed to have survived the Revolution, might have caught somewhat of the refinement of modern poetry, without losing the simplicity of his original model. The date of the Tale itself is about the middle of the sixteenth century, when most of the personages actually flourished. The time occupied by the action is Three Nights and Three Days."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir Walter Scott

  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Robert Southey: "Madoc"

Madoc is an 1805 epic poem composed by Southey Robert . It is based on the legend of Madoc, a supposed Welsh prince who fled internecine conflict and sailed to America in the 12th century.

The origins of the poem can be traced to Southey's schoolboy days when he completed a prose version of Madoc's story.
By the time Southey was in his twenties, he began to devote himself to working on the poem in hopes that he could sell it to raise money to fulfill his ambitions to start a new life in America, where he hoped to found Utopian commune or "Pantisocracy".

Southey finally completed the poem as a whole in 1799, at the age of 25. However, he began to devote his efforts into extensively editing the work, and Madoc was not ready for publication until 1805. It was finally published in two volumes by the London publisher Longman with extensive footnotes.

The first half of the poem, Madoc in Wales, describes Madoc, a young Welsh nobleman, whose family breaks down into a series of bloody disputes over royal succession. Madoc, unwilling to participate in the struggle, decides to journey to America to start a new life. When he reaches America, he is witness to the bloody human sacrifices that the Aztec nation demands of the surrounding tribes in Aztlan.

Madoc, believing it is a defiance against God, leads the Hoamen, a local tribe, into warfare against the Aztecs. Eventually, Madoc conquers them and he is able to convert the Americans to Christianity before returning to Wales to find more recruits for his colony.
In the second part, Madoc in Aztlan, Madoc returns to find that the Aztecs have returned to their human sacrifices. After long and bloody warfare, Madoc is able to defeat the Aztecs and force them out of their homeland and into exile.

The poem contains Southey's bias against superstition, whether Catholic, Protestant, or pagan. He believed that the work itself was more historical than epic, and it contained many of Southey's political views. Critics gave the work mixed reviews, with many saying that there were beautiful scenes, but many feeling that the language fell short of being adequate for the subject matter. One review went so far to mock Southey's reliance on Welsh and Aztec names.

The basis for Southey wishing to write an epic poem came from his private reading of literature while attending Westminster School as a boy. In particular, the subject was suggested by a school friend that claimed to be a descendant of Madoc's brother, Rhodri, and Southey began to write a prose version of the story in 1789. In 1794, the 20-year old Southey was attempting to publish works to raise money to support himself and Samuel Taylor Coleridge in an expedition to America to establish a Pantisocracy, a democratic form of government that the two invented. One of the poems he sought to publish was Madoc, which was an epic that he started working on while at school but he never finished. Southey and Coleridge were able to complete the poem Joan of Arc by summer 1795 while Southey worked on Madoc. However, in his notebook he claimed on 22 February 1797. "This morning I began the study of law, this evening I began Madoc." During 1797, Southey had given up his ideas of Pantisocracy and was studying to become a lawyer. He the rest of his time working on other publications, such as a translating part of Jacques Necker's On the French Revolution. Southey continued to work on Madoc through 1798, and started his mornings by working on the poem.

It was not until mid-1799 that Southey was able to finish composing Madoc, and soon after began to work on Thalaba. Afterwards he travelled to Portugal, where he continued to work on Madoc for two more years to polish up the language. After Portugal went to war with France and Spain, Southey returned to England. While there, he travelled to Wales to get more information for his epic. He continued to travel in 1801, and worked on the epic during this time. In May 1804, Southey took the beginning of the poem to the publisher Longman, and he began to finish the second section in October. It was finished and published in two parts early in 1805, with footnotes and a preface explaining Southey's purpose. The work cost a lot of money to publish, which prompted Southey to write "By its high price, one half the edition is condemned to be furniture in expensive libraries, and the other to collect cobwebs in the publisher's warehouses. I foresee that I shall get no solid pudding by it".

Part one: Madoc in Wales

Southey intended Madoc to be a combination of the Bible, the works of Homer, and James Macpherson's Ossian poems. The story deals with Madoc, a legendary Welsh prince who supposedly colonised the Americas in the 12th century. The book is divided into two parts, which represent a reversed division between the Iliad and the Odyssey. The work focuses on colonisation, but starts in Wales during King Henry II's reign of England. This section is loosely based on the historical events following the death of Owain Gwynedd, supposedly Madoc's father, in the late 12th century. The work begins as "Owen Gwynned" is crowned king of North Wales after removing his nephew Cynetha from power. After Gwynned dies, one of his sons, David, takes the throne after killing or exiling his siblings. The youngest sibling, Madoc, leaves Britain to settle in a new land. He joins with Cadwallon, the son of Cynetha, and other Welshmen to start their journey. After discovering America, they return to recruit people to help form a new colony. Madoc stays long enough to witness fighting between his living siblings and determines that he must leave immediately.
The story follows Madoc's journey as they travel West again, contending with problems such as storms and dissent among the crew. Eventually, they reach America and are received by the natives.
Title page of the third edition, 1812
Madoc takes on one of the natives, Lincoya, as his guide when they begin to explore the area of the Mississippi River.

As they continue to travel, they soon come to Aztlan, the original homeland of the Aztec nation, and Madoc discovers that the Aztecs require human sacrifices for their gods. Madoc decides to interfere with tribal affairs and stop two children from being taken by the Aztecs to be sacrificed.
Following this, he encourages a peaceful tribe, the Hoamen, to take up arms against the Aztecs. To further protect the Hoamen, Madoc goes to the Aztec capital to deal with their king. While there, he is shown by the king how great the Aztecs are and how no one could stand against them. Madoc witnesses among the buildings and monuments piles of skulls and corpses along with other horrific scenes.

Unwilling to allow the Aztecs to continue their practices, Madoc instigates war between the Aztecs and the much smaller Hoamen nation. While the Aztecs bring a large army, Madoc is able to use Welsh technology and superior tactics to overcome them. The Hoamen are able to take many prisoners while the Aztec king contracts a mortal illness. Following the battle Madoc shocks the Aztecs by releasing the prisoners instead of sacrificing them, and provides leeches to help the Aztec king recover from his disease. This leads to a treaty between the Aztecs and the Hoamen which abolishes human sacrifice.
The Aztec priests fear to stop the practice, so the Aztec king decides that his people will abandon their religion and take up a monotheistic religion based on a God of love.

  The rest of the story involves Madoc returning to Wales to recruit more settlers for his colony. During this time, he meets with Owen Cyveilioc, a poet who tells Madoc to discuss the matter with the Congress of Bards. During the meeting, a young bard prophesies that Madoc would be like Merlin in America and that he is trying to recreate an Arthurian greatness. Afterward, he meets with Llewelyn, an individual trying to reclaim his title as Prince of Wales. Madoc tries and fails to convince him to come to America. Madoc returns to his original home, and there he stops an attempt to remove the body of Gwynned from a grave on holy ground. Instead, Madoc offers to take the corpse back with him to America where it could be buried without any worry.

The rest of Madoc's time back in Wales is spent trying to get his brother David, the king, to free another brother, Rodri, whom he has imprisoned. However, Rodri escapes after his release was promised. As Madoc sets out to return to the colony, they are met by Rodri's boat. Rodri informs Madoc that he is working with Llewelyn to overthrow David and restore the rightful king. Although Madoc is upset by the potential warfare, he leaves with the promise by Llewlyn that Britain will be fine.
Part two: Madoc in Aztlan
The second part of the poem parallels the Iliad and follows the events in America after the first part. Madoc returns to America from Wales and finds that Caermadoc, the colony, is doing well. However, there are struggles with his people and the Aztecs because the Aztecs have turned back to their pagan gods. As such, the peace between the two groups ends while a shaman of the Hoamen people starts to convince the people to also worship pagan gods. The Hoamen begin to sacrifice children for their god by feeding them to a large snake. Madoc, angry, accuses a priest leading the sacrifices of being a traitor before killing both the priest and the snake. This feat brings the Hoamen back to Christianity.

The Aztec high priest, Tezozomoc, tells the people that they will not have the favour of their gods unless they kill the foreigners. Two warriors volunteer to capture a child to please their gods, and they return with Madoc and the child Hoel. Madoc is forced to fight other condemned men, until Madoc's Welsh allies attack the city, allowing a woman, Coatel, to free Madoc and Hoel. At the same time the Aztec warrior Amalahta attacks Caermadoc, but is defeated by the Welsh women. When Madoc returns, he joins the Welsh and Hoamen forces, and the battle continues until Madoc kills the Aztec king, Coanocotzin.

The battle is followed by the Welshmen destroying the pagan temples while the Aztecs gather to appoint a new king. Games and events are established and follow after the battle. During the various events, a temple becomes covered in flames and idols to the pagan gods appear once again. This is followed by the Aztecs telling the Welsh to leave before attacking them. A battle takes place in the water surrounding the Aztec city on boats, and the superior Welsh ships are able to win. The Aztecs, unwilling to stop, turn to superstitious rituals and priests travel to a sacred mountain to make sacrifices. However, a sudden lava eruption kills the priests. This causes the Aztecs to believe that they do not have the support of their gods and they cease their fighting. Admitting defeat, the Aztecs leave the area and head south for Mexico.

During his time in Portugal, Southey cultivated a strong anti-Catholic bias, and saw Catholic rituals as superstitious and pagan-like. However, he did not limit his feelings to only Catholics, and he believed that Methodists and Calvinists were also superstitious and a political threat.

He distrusted religious enthusiasm and any alteration of the mind away from reason. Southey wrote that Madoc, in following these beliefs, was about a "gentle tribe of savages delivered from priestcraft."

With such an intent, Southey also believed that he was dealing closely with history and scholarship. The footnotes within Madoc reinforce such an intent. He did not call it an epic like some of his other works.

Instead, he argued that there was evidence that the story had a historical basis. The story, according to Southey, was that Madoc came from Britain to America to replace paganism with Christianity.

In terms of politics, Southey believed that war with the post-revolution France was inappropriate when he first started composing Madoc. By the time the poem was finished, Southey was an advocate for a war against Napoleon's government. Instead of supporting his own government in return, he was opposed to the government of Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger.

The poem is also heavily grounded in Southey's ideas on Pantisocracy, and it includes an earlier version of his democratic ideal within a mythic form. The connection between Wales and America within the poem alludes to Southey's own plans to travel from Wales to settle in America to start a new societal system.

The endings of the two poems are the same but have opposite results: they both have a sunset and an exodus from the country, but the first deals with Wales and the second with the Aztec lands.
The first is messianic and heralds a return of Wales's greatness, and the second deals with a new country being created.

Southey intended Madoc to rival the works of Homer, and Coleridge believed that the poem would be better than the Aeneid. However, Madoc received mixed reviews from critics; while one critic believed it was comparable to John Milton's Paradise Lost, another felt that it was unreadable. In letter written by William Wordsworth on 3 June 1805, he claimed that he was "highly pleased with it; it abounds in beautiful pictures and descriptions happily introduced, and there is an animation diffused through the whole story though it cannot perhaps be said that any of the characters interest you much, except perhaps young Llewllyn whose situation is highly interesting, and he appears to me the best conceived and sustained character in the piece [...] The Poem fails in the highest gifts of the poet's mind Imagination in the true sense of the word, and knowledge of human Nature and human heart. There is nothing that shows the hand of the great Master". He followed this with a letter in 29 July 1805 saying "Southey's mind does not seem strong enough to draw the picture of a Hero. The character of Madoc is often very insipid and contemptible [...] In short, according to my notion, the character is throughout languidly conceived". Dorothy Wordsworth, William's sister, wrote on 11 June 1805 to claim that "We have read Madoc with great delight [...] I had one painful feeling throughout, that I did not care as much about Madoc as the Author wished me to do, and that the characters in general are not sufficiently distinct to make them have a separate after-existence in my affection."
A review by John Ferriar in the October 1805 Monthly Review argued, "It has fallen to the lot of this writer to puzzle our critical discernment more than once [...] He has no contrived to manufacture a large quarto, which he has styled a poem, but of what description it is no easy matter to decide [...] The poem of Madoc is not didactic, nor elegiac, nor classical, in any respect [...] Respecting the manners, Mr. Southey appears to have been more successful than in his choice of the story. He has adhered to history where he could discover any facts adapted to his purpose; and when history failed him, he has had resource to probability." Ferriar continued with an attack on the Welsh names that appear within the poem: "we own that the nomenclature of his heroes has shocked what Mr. S. would call our prejudices. Georvyl and Rird and Rodri and Llaian may have charms for Cambrian ears, but who can feel an interest in Tezozomoc, Tlalala, or Ocelopan [...] how could we swallow Yuhidthiton, Coanocotzin, and, above all, the yawnings jaw-dislocating Ayayaca?—These torturing words, particularly the latter, remind us so strongly of the odious cacophony of the Nurse and Child, that they really are not to be tolerated."

An anonymous review in the Imperial Review in November 1805 stated, "something should be said of the language. This undoubtedly is not its chief excellence. The style, in many places, is trailing, flat, and uninteresting,—deficient both in strength and animation. The author seldoms avails himself of any artificial ornaments [...] Though we feel ourselves compelled to make these observations, it is hardly necessary to add, that upon the whole we think very highly of this performance." The review continues by comparing Madoc to Paradise Lost: "were the style adorned by a little artificial colouring, and enriched with all the allowable decorations of poetry, Madoc would hardly yield to Paradise Lost.

  As it stands, it is certainly the second heroic production in the English language. Its leading characteristics are not fire and sublimity, but tenderness and humanity. Milton astonishes the head—Southey touches the heart. The first we may admire—the last we can love."

Jack Simmons, in his 1945 biography, believed that the poem was "the longest, the least successful, the most tedious" of Southey's poems. In 1972, Ernest Bernhardt-Kabisch argued "Southey would perhaps have done well to have ended the poem here [at the end of part one]. In its larger framework of Welsh history, the American adventure and its clash of culture is interesting and is comparable in purpose and proportion, if not in power and dramatic nuance, to Odysses' exotic flashback narrative at the court of Phaeacia.

The Welsh narrative [...] appeals to a variety of Romantic interests – patriotic and picturesque, sentimental and libertarian. And though, as always, thought tends to be commonplace and pathos shortwinded, the quality of the writing is almost uniformly high, and there are memorable and moving passages of description and rhetoric, as well as suggestive images". He continued adding that "Southey's epic thereby becomes, in fact, the crowning effort of eighteenth-century English literature to deal poetically with the American Indian".

In 1990 Northern Irish poet Paul Muldoon published his long poem Madoc: a Mystery, inspired by Southey's work and the events surrounding it. Muldoon's work takes as its premise the idea that Southey and Coleridge actually came to America to found their ideal state, and offers a multi-layered poetic exploration of what might have happened. It won the 1992 Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

see also: Robert Southey
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Stifter Adalbert

Adalbert Stifter, (born Oct. 23, 1805, Oberplan, Austria—died Jan. 28, 1868, Linz), Austrian narrative writer whose novels of almost classical purity exalt the humble virtues of a simple life. He was the son of a linen weaver and flax merchant, and his childhood experiences in the country, surrounded by peasant craftsmen, provided the setting for his work.


Adalbert Stifter
  Stifter was educated at the Kremsmünster abbey school. He enrolled as a law student in Vienna, but for the most part he attended scientific lectures and took no degree. After many years of precarious living as a tutor, artist, and writer, in 1840 he began to publish stories, including Der Condor (1840), Feldblumen (1841; “Wildflowers”), and Die Mappe meines Urgrossvaters (1841–42; “My Greatgrandfather’s Portfolio”). In Brigitta (1844) the basic structure of his major work began to emerge: he saw that an inner unity of the landscape and people—a crucial part of life for him—must also determine the shape of his story. Collections of revised stories, Studien, 6 vol. (1844–50; “Studies”) and Bunte Steine (1853; “Colourful Stones”), brought him fame. In the important preface to the latter book, he expounded his doctrine of the “law of gentleness” as the enduring principle.
During the political turmoil of 1848–50, Stifter was deeply involved in the debate over the role of education; in 1850 he moved from Vienna to Linz, becoming an inspector of schools.
The novel Der Nachsommer (1857; “Indian Summer”), his greatest work, depicts a young man learning and growing; the work radiates a still and sun-soaked beauty and a restrained idealism, set against the landscape Stifter loved. His epic Witiko (1865–67) uses medieval Bohemian history as a symbol for the human struggle for a just and peaceful order. Other stories followed, but he was too ill to finish his project of expanding Die Mappe meines Urgrossvaters into a novel: only the first volume was completed.

Encyclopædia Britannica

  Western Literature

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Tocqueville Alexis

Alexis de Tocqueville, (born July 29, 1805, Paris, France—died April 16, 1859, Cannes), political scientist, historian, and politician, best known for Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a perceptive analysis of the political and social system of the United States in the early 19th century.


Alexis de Tocqueville
  Early life
Tocqueville was a great-grandson of the statesman Chrétien de Malesherbes (1721–94), a liberal aristocratic victim of the French Revolution and a political model for the young Tocqueville. Almost diminutive in stature, acutely sensitive, and plagued by severe bouts of anxiety since childhood, he remained close to his parents throughout his life.

Despite a frail voice in a fragile body, distaste for the daily demands of parliamentary existence, and long periods of illness and nervous exhaustion, Tocqueville chose politics as his vocation and adhered to this choice until he was driven from office. His decision in favour of a public career was made with some assurance of success. His father was a loyal royalist prefect and in 1827 was made a peer of France by Charles X. At that time, young Tocqueville moved easily into government service as an apprentice magistrate. There he prepared himself for political life while observing the impending constitutional confrontation between the Conservatives and the Liberals, with growing sympathy for the latter. He was strongly influenced by the lectures of the historian and statesman François Guizot (1787–1874), who asserted that the decline of aristocratic privilege was historically inevitable. After the manner of Liberals under the autocratic regime of the restored Bourbon kings, Tocqueville began to study English history as a model of political development. He entered public life in the company of a close friend who was to become his alter ego—Gustave de Beaumont.

Their life histories are virtual mirror images. Of similar backgrounds and positions, they were companions in their travels in America, England, and Algeria, coordinated their writings, and ultimately entered the legislature together.

The July Revolution of 1830 that put the “citizen king” Louis-Philippe of Orléans on the throne was a turning point for Tocqueville. It deepened his conviction that France was moving rapidly toward complete social equality. Breaking with the older liberal generation, he no longer compared France with the English constitutional monarchy but compared it with democratic America. Of more personal concern, despite his oath of loyalty to the new monarch, his position had become precarious because of his family ties with the ousted Bourbon king. He and Beaumont, seeking to escape from their uncomfortable political situation, asked for and received official permission to study the uncontroversial problem of prison reforms in America. They also hoped to return with knowledge of a society that would mark them as especially fit to help mold France’s political future.

Visit to the United States
Tocqueville and Beaumont spent nine months in the United States during 1831 and 1832, out of which came first their joint book, On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application in France (1833); Beaumont’s Marie; or, Slavery in the United States (1835), on America’s race problems; and the first part of Tocqueville’s Democracy in America (1835–40). On the basis of observations, readings, and discussions with a host of eminent Americans, Tocqueville attempted to penetrate directly to the essentials of American society and to highlight that aspect—equality of conditions—that was most relevant to his own philosophy. Tocqueville’s study analyzed the vitality, the excesses, and the potential future of American democracy. Above all, the work was infused with his message that a society, properly organized, could hope to retain liberty in a democratic social order.

The first part of Democracy in America won an immediate reputation for its author as a political scientist. During this period, probably the happiest and most optimistic of his life, Tocqueville was named to the Legion of Honour, the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences (1838), and the French Academy (1841). With the prizes and royalties from the book, he even found himself able to rebuild his ancestral chateau in Normandy. Within a few years his book had been published in England, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Denmark, and Sweden. Although it was sometimes viewed as having been derived from politically biased sources, it was soon accorded the status of a classic in the United States.

In 1836 Tocqueville married Mary Mottely, an Englishwoman. Tocqueville spent the next four years working on the final portion of Democracy in America, which was published in 1840. Its composition took far longer, moved farther afield, and ended far more soberly than Tocqueville originally had intended. American society slid into the background, and Tocqueville attempted to complete a picture of the influence of equality itself on all aspects of modern society. France increasingly became his principal example, and what he saw there altered the tone of his work. He observed the curtailment of liberties by the Liberals, who had come to power in 1830, as well as the growth of state intervention in economic development.

Most depressing to him was the increased political apathy and acquiescence of his fellow citizens in this rising paternalism. His chapters on democratic individualism and centralization in Democracy in America contained a new warning based on these observations. He argued that a mild, stagnant despotism was the greatest threat to democracy.

  First political career
During this period Tocqueville fulfilled his lifelong ambition to enter politics. He lost his first bid for the Chamber of Deputies in 1837 but won election two years later. Eventually, Tocqueville built up an enormous personal influence in his constituency, winning subsequent elections by more than 70 percent of the vote and becoming president of his departmental council (a local representative body). In local politics his quest for preeminence was completely fulfilled, but his need for uncompromised dignity and independence deprived him of influence in the Chamber of Deputies for a much longer time. He was not able to follow the leadership of others, nor did his oratorical style win him quick recognition as a leader. As a result, he had no major legislative accomplishment to his credit during the reign of Louis-Philippe. His speech prophesying revolution only a few weeks before it took place in France in February 1848 (part of the wider Revolutions of 1848 that befell Europe that year) fell on deaf ears. The biting sketches of friend, foe, and even himself in his Recollections (1893) reflect his feeling of the general mediocrity of political leadership before and after 1848.

Revolution of 1848
The Revolution of 1848 brought about a new political situation for France and for Tocqueville. Having decried apathy as the chief danger for France, Tocqueville recognized even before the revolution that France was faced with a politically awakened working class that might well propel French politics into socialist and revolutionary channels. Tocqueville considered economic independence as necessary to the preservation of his own intellectual independence. He thus viewed pressures of the dependent poor for state welfare and of the unemployed for state employment as the initial steps to a universal and degrading dependence on the state by all social classes. Unsympathetic to revolutionaries and contemptuous of socialists before the revolution, Tocqueville opposed the demands of the Parisian workers during the June days of 1848, when their uprising was bloodily suppressed by the military dictator General Louis Cavaignac, as well as in the debates over the constitution of 1848. The only intellectual change produced in Tocqueville by the events of 1848 was a recognition of the strength of socialist ideas and of the problematic nature of the proprietary society. Although he had sought to reconcile the aristocracy to liberal democracy in Democracy in America, he rejected social democracy as it emerged in 1848 as incompatible with liberal democracy.

Politically, Tocqueville’s own position was dramatically improved by the February Revolution. His electorate expanded from 700 to 160,000 under universal manhood suffrage. He was elected as a conservative Republican to the Constituent Assembly by 79 percent of the voters and again in 1849 by more than 87 percent.

Along with Beaumont, he was nominated to the committee that wrote the constitution of the Second Republic, and the following year he became vice president of the Assembly. A government crisis produced by French armed intervention to restore papal authority in Rome prompted his appointment as minister of foreign affairs between June and October 1849, during which time he worked cautiously to preserve the balance of power in Europe and to prevent France from extending its foreign involvements. His speeches were more successful and his self-confidence soared, but the results gave him little more durable satisfaction than those he had attained during the July monarchy under Louis-Philippe.

Shortly after his dismissal from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs by President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte in October 1849, Tocqueville suffered a physical collapse. After a slow recovery he performed a final service for the Second French Republic. As reporter for the constitutional revision committee, he attempted to avert the final confrontation between the president and the legislature, which ended with an executive seizure of dictatorial power. Briefly imprisoned for opposing Louis-Napoléon’s coup d’état on December 2, 1851, Tocqueville was deprived of all political offices for refusing his oath of loyalty to the new regime. Thrown back on a small circle of political allies and friends, he felt a deeper sense of isolation and political pessimism than ever before.

Alexis de Tocqueville
  Return to politics
Seeking to reenter politics, he reverted to the strategy of his youthful success—the publication of a book on the fundamental themes of liberty and equality. He chose as his subject the French Revolution, and, after years of research and intermittent illnesses, The Old Regime and the Revolution appeared in 1856 as the first part of his projected study. Tocqueville sought to demonstrate the continuity of political behaviour and attitudes that made postrevolutionary French society as prepared to accept despotism as that of the old regime. In this final study the traumatic events of the years 1848–51 were clearly the source of his emphasis on the durability of centralization and class hostility in French history. France seemed less the democratic society of the future he had glimpsed in America than the prisoner of its own past. Against the pessimism of his analysis of French political tendencies, The Old Regime reaffirmed the libertarian example of the Anglo-American world. The acclaim that greeted this study briefly dispelled the gloom of his last years. Once again a public figure, he made a visit to England in 1857 that culminated in an audience with the prince consort and was the last public triumph of his life. He returned to his work, but, before he could finish his study of the Revolution, he collapsed and died.

Tocqueville’s reputation in the 19th century reached its high point during the decade following his death as the great European powers accommodated themselves to universal suffrage. He died just at the onset of a revival of liberalism in France.

The nine-volume publication of his works, edited by Beaumont (1860–66), was received as the legacy of a martyr of liberty. In England his name was invoked during the franchise reform debates of the 1860s, and in Germany it was linked to controversies over liberalization and federalization in the years preceding the empire devised by Otto von Bismarck. After 1870 his influence began to decline, a process not substantially reversed by either the posthumous publication of his Recollections in 1893 or that of his correspondence with his friend, the diplomatist and philosopher Arthur de Gobineau. By the turn of the century, he was almost forgotten, and his works, which seemed too abstract and speculative for a generation that believed only in ascertained knowledge, were generally regarded as outdated classics. Moreover, Tocqueville’s prediction of democracy as a vast and uniformly leveling power seemed to have miscarried by not foreseeing both the extent of the new inequalities and conflicts produced by industrialization and those produced by European nationalisms and imperialism.

The classless society had failed to appear in Europe, and America seemed to have become European by becoming nationalist and imperialist.

Caricature by Honoré Daumier, 1849
  In France, Tocqueville’s name was too closely identified with a narrowly defined Liberal tradition, which rapidly lost influence during the Third Republic. Although his work as an innovative historian was acknowledged, it is significant that the revival of his ideas and reputation as a political sociologist owes so much to American, English, and German scholarship.

The 20th-century totalitarian challenge to the survival of liberal institutions produced by two world wars and by the Great Depression of the 1930s fostered a “Tocqueville renaissance.” The outdated facts of his books seemed less significant than the political philosophy implicit in his search to preserve liberty in public life and his strategies for analyzing latent social tendencies. His work was found to display a wealth of fruitful philosophical and sociological hypotheses. At a popular level, the renewed upsurge of social democracy in Europe after 1945 combined with the polarization of the Cold War to produce a view of Tocqueville in the West as an alternative to Marx as a prophet of social change. Again, as in the late 1850s and 1860s, Tocqueville rose to heights of popularity, especially in the 1990s in the United States, where his travels were retraced. It seems certain that Tocqueville will continue to be invoked as an authority and inspiration by those sharing his contempt of static authoritarian societies as well as his belief in the final disappearance of class divisions and in liberty as the ultimate political value.

Seymour Drescher

Encyclopædia Britannica

see also: Alexis de Tocqueville
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"

Goya Francisco. "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"

Goya Francisco. "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal" (detail)
Francisco de Goya
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Turner: "Shipwreck"

Turner. "Shipwreck"

Turner. "Shipwreck" (detail)
J.M.W. Turner
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"

Gerard Francois. Madame Recamier
Oil on canvas, 255 x 145 cm
Musйe Carnavalet, Paris

Gerard Francois. Madame Recamier. (detail)
see also: Recamier Julie
Frangois Gerard
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Fidelio (Leonore, oder Der Triumph der ehelichen Liebe: Leonore, or The Triumph of Married Love) (Op. 72) is a German opera with spoken dialogue in two acts by Ludwig van Beethoven (Beethoven Ludwig). It is his only opera. The German libretto was prepared by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly, which had been used for the 1798 opera Léonore, ou L’amour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux, and the 1804 opera Leonora by Ferdinando Paer (a score of which was owned by Beethoven).

The opera tells how Leonore, disguised as a prison guard named "Fidelio", rescues her husband Florestan from death in a political prison.


Bouilly's scenario fits Beethoven's aesthetic and political outlook: a story of personal sacrifice, heroism and eventual triumph (the usual topics of Beethoven's "middle period") with its underlying struggle for liberty and justice mirroring contemporary political movements in Europe.

As elsewhere in Beethoven's vocal music, the principal parts of Leonore and Florestan, in particular, require great vocal skill and endurance in order to project the necessary intensity, and top performances in these roles attract admiration.

Some notable moments in the opera include the "Prisoners' Chorus", an ode to freedom sung by a chorus of political prisoners, Florestan's vision of Leonore come as an angel to rescue him, and the scene in which the rescue finally takes place. The finale celebrates Leonore's bravery with alternating contributions of soloists and chorus.

Performance history
Like many other works in Beethoven's career, Fidelio went through several versions before achieving full success. The opera was first produced in a three-act version at Vienna's Theater an der Wien, on 20 November 1805, with additional performances the following two nights. The 1805 and 1806 versions are referred to, by academic convention, as Leonore in order to distinguish them from the final two-act version. However all three versions were premiered as Fidelio.

The success of these performances was greatly hindered by the fact that Vienna was under French military occupation, and most of the audience were French military officers. After this premiere, Beethoven was pressured by friends to revise and shorten the opera into just two acts, and he did so with the help of Stephan von Breuning. The composer also wrote a new overture (now known as "Leonore No. 3"; see below). In this form the opera was first performed on 29 March and 10 April 1806, with greater success. Further performances were prevented by a dispute between Beethoven and the theatre management.

In 1814 Beethoven revised his opera yet again, with additional work on the libretto by Georg Friedrich Treitschke. This version was first performed at the Kärntnertortheater on 23 May 1814, under the title Fidelio. The 17-year-old Franz Schubert was in the audience, having sold his school books to obtain a ticket. The increasingly deaf Beethoven led the performance, "assisted" by Michael Umlauf, who later performed the same task for Beethoven at the premiere of the Ninth Symphony. The role of Pizarro was taken by Johann Michael Vogl, who later became known for his collaborations with Schubert. This version of the opera was, finally, a great success for Beethoven, and Fidelio has been an important part of the operatic repertory ever since.

Fidelio, playbill of the premiere, Vienna, Kärntnertortheater, 23 May 1814

Beethoven cannot be said to have enjoyed the difficulties posed by writing and producing an opera. In a letter to Treitschke he said, "I assure you, dear Treitschke, that this opera will win me a martyr's crown. You have by your co-operation saved what is best from the shipwreck. For all this I shall be eternally grateful to you."

The opera was not published until 1826, and all three versions are known as Beethoven's Opus 72.

The first performance outside Vienna took place in Prague on 21 November 1814 and a further revival in Vienna being presented on 3 November 1822. In its two-act version, the opera was given in London on 18 May 1832 at the King's Theatre and in New York on 9 September 1839 at the Park Theatre.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Beethoven - Overture to "Fidelio"
Overture to "Fidelio",
by Ludwig van Beethoven
Wiener Philharmoniker
Claudio Abbado, conductor
Ludwig van Beethoven
  Classical Music Timeline

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Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Boccherini Luigi, Ital. composer, d. (b. 1743)
Luigi Boccherini - STABAT MATER - soprano Eva Dřízgová - Jirušová - conductor Paolo Gatto
STABAT MATER (prima versione 1781 "per una voce sola, due violini,viola, violoncello obbligato e c. basso")
soprano Eva Dřízgová - Jirušová
Janáček Chamber Orchestra
conductor Paolo Gatto 1997
Please visit the playlist: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXK-W5...
1. Stabat Mater 00:00
2. Cujus animam 04:32
3. Quae moerebat 06:20
4. Quis est homo 09:03
5. Pro peccatis 10:36
6. Eja mater 14:13
7. Tui nati 21:17
8. Virgo virginum 25:30
9. Fac ut portem 30:39
10. Fac me plagis 33:29
11. Quando corpus 35:40
Luigi Boccherini
  Classical Music Timeline

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Paganini Niccolo begins to tour Europe as violin virtuoso
Niccolo Paganini
  Classical Music Timeline

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Rockets, originally constructed by Sir William Congreve, are reintroduced as weapons into the Brit. army
Congreve William

Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet, (born May 20, 1772, London, England—died May 16, 1828, Toulouse, France), English artillery officer and inventor, best known for his military rocket, which was a significant advance on earlier black-powder rockets. It provided the impetus for an early wave of enthusiastic utilization of rockets for military purposes in Europe.


Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet, by James Lonsdale
  Congreve based his rockets on those used by the Indian prince Hyder Ali against the British in 1792 and 1799 at Seringapatam (now Shrirangapattana, Karnataka state). In 1805 he built a rocket 40.5 inches (103 cm) long, with a stabilizing stick 16 feet (4.9 metres) long and a range of 2,000 yards (1.8 km). Congreve’s rockets were used to bombard Boulogne (France), Copenhagen, and Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland) in the Napoleonic Wars—and in the British attack on Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, Maryland, in 1814, their “red glare” being one of the inspirations for Francis Scott Key’s “The Star-Spangled Banner” (now the U.S. national anthem). Congreve continued to improve his rockets’ range and accuracy, leading many European countries to form rocket corps, usually attached to artillery units. The Congreve rockets were made obsolete by improved artillery and ordnance, but they continued to find uses for flares and ship rescue. Congreve is also usually considered the first modern inventor to propose plating warships with armour (1805) to protect against artillery fire.

Upon the death of his father in 1814 (whose baronetcy he inherited), he became comptroller of the Royal Laboratory of Woolwich Arsenal. From 1818 until his death, Congreve was a member of Parliament for Plymouth, Devon.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Congreve rockets from Congreve's original work
Hamilton William Roman

Sir William Rowan Hamilton, (born August 3/4, 1805, Dublin, Ireland—died September 2, 1865, Dublin), Irish mathematician who contributed to the development of optics, dynamics, and algebra—in particular, discovering the algebra of quaternions. His work proved significant for the development of quantum mechanics.


Sir William Rowan Hamilton
  Hamilton was the son of a solicitor. He was educated by his uncle, James Hamilton, an Anglican priest with whom he lived from before the age of three until he entered college. An aptitude for languages was soon apparent: at five he was already making progress with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, broadening his studies to include Arabic, Sanskrit, Persian, Syriac, French, and Italian before he was 12.

Hamilton was proficient in arithmetic at an early age. But a serious interest in mathematics was awakened on reading the Analytic Geometry of Bartholomew Lloyd at the age of 16. (Before that, his acquaintance with mathematics was limited to Euclid, sections of Isaac Newton’s Principia, and introductory textbooks on algebra and optics.) Further reading included works of the French mathematicians Pierre-Simon Laplace and Joseph-Louis Lagrange.

Hamilton entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1823. He excelled as an undergraduate not only in mathematics and physics but also in classics, while he continued with his own mathematical investigations. A substantial paper of his on optics was accepted for publication by the Royal Irish Academy in 1827. In the same year, while still an undergraduate, Hamilton was appointed professor of astronomy at Trinity College and Royal Astronomer of Ireland. His home thereafter was at Dunsink Observatory, a few miles outside Dublin.

Hamilton was deeply interested in literature and metaphysics, and he wrote poetry throughout his life.

While touring England in 1827, he visited William Wordsworth. A friendship was immediately established, and they corresponded often thereafter. Hamilton also admired the poetry and metaphysical writings of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whom he visited in 1832. Hamilton and Coleridge were both heavily influenced by the philosophical writings of Immanuel Kant.

Hamilton’s first published mathematical paper, “Theory of Systems of Rays,” begins by proving that a system of light rays filling a region of space can be focused down to a single point by a suitably curved mirror if and only if those light rays are orthogonal to some series of surfaces. Moreover, the latter property is preserved under reflection in any number of mirrors. Hamilton’s innovation was to associate with such a system of rays a characteristic function, constant on each of the surfaces to which the rays are orthogonal, which he employed in the mathematical investigation of the foci and caustics of reflected light.
The theory of the characteristic function of an optical system was further developed in three supplements. In the third of these, the characteristic function depends on the Cartesian coordinates of two points (initial and final) and measures the time taken for light to travel through the optical system from one to the other. If the form of this function is known, then basic properties of the optical system (such as the directions of the emergent rays) can easily be obtained. In applying his methods in 1832 to the study of the propagation of light in anisotropic media, in which the speed of light is dependent on the direction and polarization of the ray, Hamilton was led to a remarkable prediction: if a single ray of light is incident at certain angles on a face of a biaxial crystal (such as aragonite), then the refracted light will form a hollow cone.

Hamilton’s colleague Humphrey Lloyd, professor of natural philosophy at Trinity College, sought to verify this prediction experimentally. Lloyd had difficulty obtaining a crystal of aragonite of sufficient size and purity, but eventually he was able to observe this phenomenon of conical refraction. This discovery excited considerable interest within the scientific community and established the reputations of both Hamilton and Lloyd.

From 1833 onward, Hamilton adapted his optical methods to the study of problems in dynamics. Out of laborious preparatory work emerged an elegant theory, associating a characteristic function with any system of attracting or repelling point particles. If the form of this function is known, then the solutions of the equations of motion of the system can easily be obtained. Hamilton’s two major papers “On a General Method in Dynamics” were published in 1834 and 1835. In the second of these, the equations of motion of a dynamical system are expressed in a particularly elegant form (Hamilton’s equations of motion). Hamilton’s approach was further refined by the German mathematician Carl Jacobi, and its significance became apparent in the development of celestial mechanics and quantum mechanics. Hamiltonian mechanics underlies contemporary mathematical research in symplectic geometry (a field of research in algebraic geometry) and the theory of dynamical systems.

  In 1835 Hamilton was knighted by the lord lieutenant of Ireland in the course of a meeting in Dublin of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Hamilton served as president of the Royal Irish Academy from 1837 to 1846.

Hamilton had a deep interest in the fundamental principles of algebra. His views on the nature of real numbers were set forth in a lengthy essay, “On Algebra as the Science of Pure Time.” Complex numbers were then represented as “algebraic couples”—i.e., ordered pairs of real numbers, with appropriately defined algebraic operations. For many years Hamilton sought to construct a theory of triplets, analogous to the couplets of complex numbers, that would be applicable to the study of three-dimensional geometry.

Then, on October 16, 1843, while walking with his wife beside the Royal Canal on his way to Dublin, Hamilton suddenly realized that the solution lay not in triplets but in quadruplets, which could produce a noncommutative four-dimensional algebra, the algebra of quaternions. Thrilled by his inspiration, he stopped to carve the fundamental equations of this algebra on a stone of a bridge they were passing.

Hamilton devoted the last 22 years of his life to the development of the theory of quaternions and related systems. For him, quaternions were a natural tool for the investigation of problems in three-dimensional geometry. Many basic concepts and results in vector analysis have their origin in Hamilton’s papers on quaternions. A substantial book, Lectures on Quaternions, was published in 1853, but it failed to achieve much influence among mathematicians and physicists. A longer treatment, Elements of Quaternions, remained unfinished at the time of his death.

In 1856 Hamilton investigated closed paths along the edges of a dodecahedron (one of the Platonic solids) that visit each vertex exactly once. In graph theory such paths are known today as Hamiltonian circuits.

David Wilkins

Encyclopædia Britannica
Park Mungo undertakes his second expedition to the Niger River

Map of Mungo Park's journeys
see also: The Mystery of the Niger


Napoleon I abandons Fr. revolutionary calendar
Total state expenditure of Great Britain: £62.8 million

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