Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
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FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

George Morland. The Anglers' Repast
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1804 Part II
Morland George

George Morland (London 26 June 1763 – 29 October 1804 Brighton) was an English painter of animals and rustic scenes.


George Morland by Henry Robert Morland
  George Morland, (born June 26, 1763, London, Eng.—died Oct. 29, 1804, London), English genre, landscape, and animal painter whose work was much imitated in England during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

At age 10, Morland exhibited sketches at the Royal Academy and was apprenticed from 1777 to 1784 to his father, Henry Robert Morland, a painter and picture restorer. In 1780 his first signed engraving was published, and in 1781 his first oil painting, “A Hovel With Asses,” was exhibited at the Academy. He studied briefly at the Royal Academy schools and held his first one-man show of paintings on private premises. In July 1786 he married Anne Ward, sister to William Ward, the engraver.

After settling in London, Morland soon abandoned portraiture for sentimental rustic genre, which, through Ward’s engravings, satisfied a steady public demand for the picturesque. Morland’s best work occurred between 1787 and 1794, after which his painting deteriorated, and he alternated between periods of dissipation and concentrated work until his arrest for debt in 1799.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Two men hunting rabbits with their dog
George Morland
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Schwind Moritz

Moritz von Schwind, (born Jan. 21, 1804, Vienna, Austria—died Feb. 8, 1871, Munich, Ger.), Austrian-born German painter who was a leading early Romantic portrayer of an idealized Austria and Germany—of knights, castles, and the provincial charm of his own time.


Moritz von Schwind
  Schwind was something of a bohemian in his youth. He joined the composer Franz Schubert’s circle of friends, roomed with him for a while, and painted the composer and his piano soirees. Like Schubert, he was neglected in his native city. Often in arrears, he once painted a signboard for a coffee house to settle his debts there.

After a fit of despair, and with the encouragement of the painter Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Schwind moved in 1828 to Munich, where his work quickly fetched high prices. In 1847 he became a professor at the Munich Academy, painting a set of historical cartoons for the famed Wartburg Castle and a triptych for the Church of Our Lady at Munich. His travels abroad were followed by a commission to paint the windows of the Glasgow Cathedral.

Schwind is best known, however, for his pictures of honeymooners, leave-takers, musing wanderers, and the like. In these, sentimentality is tempered by genuine lyricism, sturdy craftsmanship, and a flair for precise detail.

Schwind’s closing years brought more commissions than he could handle; but this period was blighted by failing vision and by the sorrows of the Franco-German War, in which two of his nephews died in a single day.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Apparition in the Woods
Moritz von Schwind
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Royal Watercolour Society

The Royal Watercolour Society (originally called the Society of Painters in Water Colours, briefly the Society of Painters in Oil and Watercolours, and for much of its existence the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours) is an English institution of painters working in watercolours. It should not be confused with the separate organisation, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours.

Its members, or associates, use the postnominal initials RWS. Members are elected annually by the membership: there were 6 new members elected in 2009, and 3 in 2010. The current president of the Royal Watercolour Society is Thomas Plunkett, who was elected in April 2012.
The society was founded as the Society of Painters in Water Colours (sometimes referred to as the Old Water Colour Society, and just Old Society) in 1804 by William Frederick Wells and its original membership was: William Sawrey Gilpin, Robert Hills, John Claude Nattes, John Varley, Cornelius Varley, Francis Nicholson, Samuel Shelley, William Henry Pyne and Nicholas Pocock. The members seceded from the Royal Academy where they felt that their work commanded insufficient respect and attention.

In 1812, the Society reformed as the Society of Painters in Oil and Watercolours, reverting to its original name in 1820. The Society obtained its Royal charter 1881 under the presidency of Sir John Gilbert as the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours. In 1988, it changed its name again to the Royal Watercolour Society, by which it had always previously been generally known.

Current members include Sonia Lawson, Elizabeth Blackadder and David Remfry.

  The Royal Watercolour Society was founded to promote watercolour as a medium in all its applications. The Society defines a 'watercolour' as a work made in any water based paint on paper. The RWS holds regular exhibitions presenting the finest in British contemporary works on paper. Exhibitions are held at Bankside Gallery and also tour outside London. The 75 Members choose new Associates each year in a rigorous Election procedure. Full membership is granted following a show of hands at an AGM.

The Society's Education programme includes practical courses tutored by Members and drop in family events days as well as talks and discussions. The Archive and Diploma Collection is available for research. As all Members are recorded here, the provenance of any painting purchased from the RWS can be assured. The current president Thomas Plunkett was elected in 2012.

It is a separate organisation from the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Opus 55 (also Italian Sinfonia Eroica, Heroic Symphony) is a structurally rigorous composition of great emotional depth, which marked the beginning of the creative middle-period of the composer Beethoven Ludwig.

Beethoven began composing the third symphony soon after Symphony No. 2 in D major, Opus 36; he completed the composition in early 1804, and the first public performance of Symphony No. 3 was on 7 April 1805 in Vienna.

Symphony No. 3 is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in B-flat, two bassoons, three horns (the 1st in E-flat, C, and F; the 2nd in E-flat and C; and the 3rd in E-flat), two trumpets in E-flat and C, timpani in E-flat and B-flat (in the 1st, 3rd, and 4th movements) and in C and G (in the 2nd movement), and strings.

The work is in four movements:

1. Allegro con brio (12 – 18 min.)
2. Marcia funebre: Adagio assai in C minor (14 – 18 min.)
3. Scherzo: Allegro vivace (5 – 6 min.)
4. Finale: Allegro molto (10 – 14 min.)
Depending upon the conductor's style, the performance time is between forty-one and fifty-six minutes.

Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55 ("Eroica"):
The title page shows Beethoven's erasure of his
dedication of the work to Napoleon Bonaparte.
First movement: Allegro con brio
The first movement, in 3/4 time, is in sonata form. The movement opens with two large E-flat major chords played, by the whole orchestra, thus firmly establishing the tonality of the movement. The first theme is introduced by the cellos, and, by the fifth bar of the melody, a chromatic note (C♯) is introduced, thus establishing the harmonic tension of the composition. The melody is finished by the first violins, with a syncopated series of Gs (which forms a tritone with C♯ of the cellos). After the first theme is played, by the various instruments, the movement transits to a calmer, second theme that leads to the development section. Like the rest of the movement, the development is characterized by remarkable harmonic and rhythmic tension, from dissonant chords and long passages of syncopated rhythm. Most remarkable, Beethoven introduces a new theme in the development section, thus breaking with the tradition of classical composition – that the development section works only with existing material.

Thematically, the development section leads back to the recapitulation; notably, the horns appear to come in early with the tonic melody, while the strings continue playing the dominant chord; and concludes in a long coda that reintroduces the new theme first presented in the development section; the first movement is between 12 and 18 minutes long.

  Second movement: Marcia Funebre – Adagio assai
The second movement is a funeral march in C minor with a trio in C major, and comprises multiple fugatos.

Musically, the thematic solemnity of the second movement lends it use as a funeral march proper; the movement is between 14 and 18 minutes long.

Third movement: Allegro vivace
The third movement is a lively scherzo that features hunting calls from the three horns; it is between 5 and 6 minutes long.

Fourth movement: Allegro molto
The fourth movement is a set of variations on a theme, which Beethoven had used in earlier compositions; as the finale of the ballet The Creatures of Prometheus, Op. 43 (1801); then as the theme of the Variations and Fugue for Piano in E♭ major, Op. 35 (1802), also called the Eroica Variations.

The subtitle Eroica Variations of Opus 35 derives from the occurrence of the themes in the fourth movement of this symphony. In the symphony proper, the thematic variations are structured like the piano variations of Opus 35; the bass line of the theme first appears and then is subjected to a series of strophic variations that lead to the full appearance of the theme proper; the fourth movement is between 10 and 14 minutes long.


The theme of the fourth movement, and its bass line

Dedication and premiere performance

Ludwig van Beethoven originally dedicated the third symphony to Napoleon Buonaparte, whom he believed embodied the democratic and anti-monarchical ideals (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity) of the French Revolution (1789–1799). In autumn of 1804, Beethoven withdrew his dedication of the third symphony to Napoleon, lest it cost the composer's fee paid him by a royal patron; so, Beethoven re-dedicated his third symphony to Prince Joseph Franz Maximilian Lobkowitz – nonetheless, despite such a bread-and-butter consideration, the politically idealistic Beethoven titled the work "Buonaparte". Later, about the composer's response to Napoleon having proclaimed himself Emperor of the French (14 May 1804), Beethoven's secretary, Ferdinand Ries said that:

In writing this symphony, Beethoven had been thinking of Buonaparte, but Buonaparte while he was First Consul. At that time Beethoven had the highest esteem for him, and compared him to the greatest consuls of Ancient Rome. Not only I, but many of Beethoven's closer friends, saw this symphony on his table, beautifully copied in manuscript, with the word "Buonaparte" inscribed at the very top of the title-page and "Ludwig van Beethoven" at the very bottom ... I was the first to tell him the news that Buonaparte had declared himself Emperor, whereupon he broke into a rage and exclaimed, "So he is no more than a common mortal! Now, too, he will tread under foot all the rights of Man, indulge only his ambition; now he will think himself superior to all men, become a tyrant!" Beethoven went to the table, seized the top of the title-page, tore it in half and threw it on the floor. The page had to be recopied, and it was only now that the symphony received the title Sinfonia eroica.

An extant copy of the score bears two scratched-out, hand-written sub-titles; initially, the Italian phrase Intitolata Bonaparte ("Titled Bonaparte"), secondly, the German phrase Geschriben auf Bonaparte ("Written for Bonaparte"), four lines below the Italian sub-title. Three months after retracting his initial Napoleonic dedication of the symphony, the Beethoven informed his music publisher that "The title of the symphony is really Bonaparte". In 1806, the score was published under the Italian title Sinfonia Eroica ... composta per festeggiare il sovvenire di un grande Uomo ("Heroic Symphony, Composed to celebrate the memory of a great man").

When informed of the death of Napoleon (5 May 1821), Beethoven said, "I wrote the music for this sad event seventeen years ago", referring to the funereal second movement.

Composed from the autumn of 1803 until the spring of 1804, the premiere performance of the third symphony was private – for Beethoven's royal patron, Prince Lobkowitz, at the castle Eisenberg (Jezeří) in Bohemia. The first public performance was on 7 April 1805, at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna; for which concert the announced (theoretical) key for the symphony was Dis (D-sharp major, 9 sharps).

  Horn-solo anecdote
During the initial rehearsal, in the first movement the solo horn entered with the main theme four bars before the true recapitulation; about which, Beethoven's secretary, Ferdinand Ries said that:

The first rehearsal of the symphony was terrible, but the hornist did, in fact, come in on cue. I was standing next to Beethoven and, believing that he had made a wrong entrance, I said, "That damned hornist! Can't he count? It sounds frightfully wrong." I believe I was in danger of getting my ears boxed. Beethoven did not forgive me for a long time.

Musical characteristics
The work is a milestone work of classical-style composition; it is twice as long as the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – the first movement is almost as long as a typical Classical symphony (with repetition of the exposition). Thematically, it covers more emotional ground than had Beethoven's earlier symphonies, and thus marks the beginning of the Romantic period in classical music.

The second movement especially displays a great emotional range, from the misery of the funeral march theme, to the relative solace of happier, major-key episodes. The finale displays a similar emotional range, and is given a thematic importance then unheard of. In earlier symphonies, the finale was a quick and breezy conclusion; here, the finale is a lengthy set of variations and fugue on a theme from Beethoven's music for the ballet The Creatures of Prometheus (1801).

Compositionally, the opening theme of Sinfonia Eroica resembles that of the overture to the comic opera Bastien und Bastienne (1768), composed by twelve-year-old W. A. Mozart. It was unlikely that Beethoven knew of that unpublished composition. A possible explanation is that Mozart and Beethoven each coincidentally heard and learned the theme from elswhere.

Critical opinion
In the Treatise on Instrumentation and Orchestration (1844, 1855), Hector Berlioz discussed Beethoven's orchestral use and applications of the horn and of the oboe in this symphony.
In Metamorphosen, Study for 23 Solo Strings (1945), Richard Strauss presents themes similar to the funeral march of the Sinfonia Eroica; near the conclusion of the Metamorphoses, the bass quotes the funeral march proper fom the Sinfonia Eroica. Academics speculate that Strauss's sub-title "In Memoriam" refers to Ludwig van Beethoven.
The music critic Harold C. Schonberg said that “Musical Vienna was divided on the merits of the Eroica. Some called it Beethoven's masterpiece. Others said that the work merely illustrated a striving for originality that did not come off.” Moreover, included to the same program of the concert featuring the Sinfonia Eroica, there was the premiere performance of a Symphony in E-flat major by Anton Eberl (1765–1807), that received better reviews than did Beethoven's symphony.

The critic J. W. N. Sullivan said that the first movement expresses Beethoven's courage in confronting deafness, the scond movement, slow and dirge-like, communicates his despair, the third movement, the scherzo, is an "indomitable uprising of creative energy", and the fourth movement is an exuberant outpouring of energy.
In the article, "Beethoven's Cry of Freedom" (2003), the Marxist critic Gareth Jenkins said that in the Sinfonia Eroica "Beethoven was doing for music what Napoleon was doing for society – turning tradition upside down", and so embodied the "sense of human potential and freedom" that first appeared during the French Revolution.
In the recording Eroica (1953) and in the book The Infinite Variety of Music (1966), the conductor and composer Leonard Bernstein said that the first and second movements are "perhaps the greatest two movements in all symphonic music".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

L.v. Beethoven Symphony No.3 Op.55 in E flat major Eroica
I. Allegro con brio 0:00
II. Marcia funebre. Adagio assai 17:00
III. Scherzo. Allegro vivace - Trio 32:17
IV. Finale. Allegro molto 38:26

New York Philharmonic Orchestra
Leonard Bernstein Conductor

Ludwig van Beethoven
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Glinka Mikhail

Mikhail Glinka, in full Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (born May 21 [June 1, New Style], 1804, Novospasskoye, Russia—died February 3 [February 15], 1857, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]), the first Russian composer to win international recognition, and the acknowledged founder of the Russian nationalist school.


Mikhail Glinka in 1856
  Glinka first became interested in music at age 10 or 11, when he heard his uncle’s private orchestra. He studied at the Chief Pedagogic Institute at St. Petersburg (1818–22) and took piano lessons with the Irish pianist and composer John Field. He worked for four years in the Ministry of Communications but was uninterested in an official career. As a dilettante he composed songs and a certain amount of chamber music. Three years in Italy brought him under the spell of the composers Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti, though ultimately homesickness led him to the idea of writing music “in Russian.”
He studied composition seriously for six months in Berlin, where he began his Sinfonia per l’orchestra sopra due motive russe (1834; “Symphony for Orchestra on Two Russian Motifs”). Recalled to Russia by his father’s death, he married and began to compose the opera that first won him fame, A Life for the Tsar (later renamed Ivan Susanin), produced in 1836. During this period, Glinka composed some of his best songs, and in 1842 his second opera, Ruslan and Lyudmila, was produced. The exotic subject and boldly original music of Ruslan won neither favour nor popular acclaim, although Franz Liszt was struck by the novelty of the music.

Disgruntled, and with his marriage broken, Glinka left Russia in 1844.

He had the satisfaction of hearing excerpts from both his operas performed in Paris under Hector Berlioz (1845, as the first performance of Russian music in the West) and other conductors. From Paris he went to Spain, where he stayed until May 1847, collecting the materials used in his two “Spanish overtures,” the capriccio brillante on the Jota aragonesa (1845; “Aragonese Jota”) and Summer Night in Madrid (1848). Between 1852 and 1854 he was again abroad, mostly in Paris, until the outbreak of the Crimean War drove him home again. He then wrote his highly entertaining Zapiski (Memoirs; first published in St. Petersburg, 1887), which give a remarkable self-portrait of his indolent, amiable, hypochondriacal character. His last notable composition was Festival Polonaise for Tsar Alexander II’s coronation ball (1855).

Glinka has been described as a dilettante of genius. His slender output is considered the foundation of most later Russian music of value. Ruslan and Lyudmila provided models of lyrical melody and colourful orchestration on which Mily Balakirev, Aleksandr Borodin, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov formed their styles. Glinka’s orchestral composition Kamarinskaya (1848) was said by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to be the acorn from which the oak of later Russian symphonic music grew.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Ilya Repin's portrait of Glinka was painted thirty years after the composer's death
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Strauss Johann, the Elder

Johann Strauss I (Johann Baptist Strauß, Johann Strauss (Vater); also Johann Baptist Strauss, Johann Strauss, Sr., the Elder, the Father; March 14, 1804 – September 25, 1849) was an Austrian Romantic composer. He was famous for his waltzes, and he popularized them alongside Joseph Lanner, thereby setting the foundations for his sons to carry on his musical dynasty. His most famous piece is the Radetzky March (named after Joseph Radetzky von Radetz).


Johann Strauss I, 1835 lithograph by Josef Kriehuber
  Johann Strauss, the Elder, (born March 14, 1804, Vienna, Austria—died Sept. 24, 1849, Vienna), one of the principal composers of Viennese waltzes. Strauss became a viola player in the dance orchestra of Michael Pamer, a composer of light music. Later he conducted the orchestra of Josef Lanner and in 1826 performed at the gardens of the “Zwei Tauben” the Täuberl-walzer, the first of many sets of Viennese waltzes named for the places where they were first played.

He established his reputation as a composer of Viennese waltzes in 1830 by conducting at the “Sperl,” a popular dance hall in the Leopoldstadt. There he was idolized to the extent of becoming known in the musical world as “the Austrian Napoleon.” In 1834 he was appointed bandmaster to the 1st Vienna Militia Regiment and the following year was made director of the imperial court balls. He embarked in 1833 on the first of his many European tours, visiting London in 1838. Of his 18 marches, the Radetzky March became particularly popular.

Strauss’s complete works, including—besides waltzes—galops, polkas, quadrilles, and other dances, were published by his son Johann the Younger in 1889. His works are remarkable for their rhythmic verve and charm of melodic design, and they represent the style of Viennese dance music at its best.

Strauss’s other sons, Josef (1827–70) and Eduard (1835–1916), became known as conductors, as did Eduard’s son Johann. Josef was also a composer of waltzes.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"

A History of British Birds is a natural history book by Bewick Thomas, published in two volumes. Volume 1, "Land Birds", appeared in 1797. Volume 2, "Water Birds", appeared in 1804. A supplement was published in 1821. The text in "Land Birds" was written by Ralph Beilby, while Bewick took over the text for the second volume. The book is admired mainly for the beauty and clarity of Bewick's Wood engravings, which are widely considered his finest work, and among the finest in that medium.

British Birds has been compared to works of poetry and literature. It plays a recurring role in Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre. William Wordsworth praised Bewick in the first lines of his poem "The Two Thieves": "Oh now that the genius of Bewick were mine, And the skill which he learned on the banks of the Tyne."

The book was effectively the first "field guide" for non-specialists. Bewick provides an accurate illustration of each species, from life if possible, or from skins. The common and scientific name(s) are listed, citing the naming authorities. The bird is described, with its distribution and behaviour, often with extensive quotations from printed sources or correspondents. Those who provided skins or information are acknowledged. The species are grouped into families such as "Of the Falcon", using the limited and conflicting scientific sources of the time. The families of land birds are further grouped into birds of prey, omnivorous birds, insectivorous birds, and granivorous birds, while the families of water birds are simply listed, with related families side by side.

Each species entry begins on a new page; any spaces at the ends of entries are filled with tail-pieces, small, often humorous woodcuts of country life. British Birds remains in print, and has attracted the attention of authors such as Jenny Uglow. Critics note Bewick's skill as a naturalist as well as an engraver.

The preface states that "while one of the editors [Thomas Bewick] of this work was engaged in preparing the cuts, which are faithfully drawn from Nature, and engraved upon wood, the compilation of the descriptions .. (of the Land Birds) was undertaken by the other [Ralph Beilby], subject, however, to the corrections of his friend, whose habits had led him to a more intimate acquaintance with this branch of Natural History", and goes on to mention that the compilation of text was the "production of those hours which could be spared from a laborious employment", namely the long hours of work engraving the minutely detailed wood printing blocks. What the preface does not say is the reason for this statement about the "editors", which was an angry stand-off between Bewick and Beilby, caused by Beilby's intention to have an introduction which merely thanked Bewick for his "assistance", and a title page naming Beilby as the sole author. Bewick's friend (and his wife's godfather) Thomas Hornby heard of this, and informed Bewick. An informal trade panel met to judge the matter, and the preface was the result; and Beilby's name did not appear on the title page.

Each species of bird is presented in a few pages (generally between two and four; occasionally, as with the Mallard or "Common Wild Duck", a few more). First is a woodcut of the bird, always either perched or standing on the ground, even in the case of water birds – such as the Smew – that (as winter visitors) do not nest in Britain, and consequently are rarely seen away from water there.

Title page of 1847 edition
Bewick then presents the name, with variations, and the Latin and French equivalents. For example "The Musk Duck" is also named on the line below as "Cairo, Guinea, or Indian Duck", and the next line "(Anas moschata, Linn.—Le Canard Musque, Buff.)" provides the scholarly references to the giving of the Latin binomial by Linn[aeus] and a French description by Buff[on].

"Sabine's Snipe", added to later editions, was described by Vigors in 1825.
The text begins by stating the size of the bird. Bewick then describes the bird, typically in one paragraph, naming any notable features such as the colour of the eyes ("irides"), the bill, the legs, and plumage on each part of the body. Next, the origin and distribution of the species are discussed, with notes or quotations from authorities such as John Ray, Gilbert White and Buffon.
Bewick then mentions any other facts of interest about the bird; in the case of the Musk Duck, this concerns its "musky smell, which arises from the liquor secreted in the glands on the rump". If the bird hybridizes with other species, this is described, along with whether the hybrids are fertile ("productive").

Finally, Bewick acknowledges anyone who helped. The Musk Duck is stated to have been drawn from a "living specimen" which was however "excepting the head, entirely white", unlike the "general appearance" shown in the woodcut; the bird "was lent to this work by William Losh, Esq., of Point Pleasant, near Newcastle". Losh, one of Bewick's many collaborators, was a wealthy partner in Losh, Wilson and Bell, manufacturers of chemicals and iron. Many of the birds, especially the rarer species, were necessarily illustrated from skins rather than from life. For example, for the Sabine's Snipe, "The author was favoured by N. A. Vigors, Esq., [who had described the supposed species] with a preserved specimen, from which the above figure is taken." In A Memoir (posthumously published in 1862), Bewick states that he intended to "stick to nature as closely as I could", but admits that he had "in several cases" to rely on the stuffed "preserved skins" of his neighbour Richard Routledge Wingate.
  The grouping of species gave Bewick difficulty, as the scientific sources of the time did not agree on how to arrange the species in families, or on a sequence or grouping of those families. Bewick for example uses family groups like "Of the Falcon", in which he includes buzzards and sparrowhawks as well as what are now called falcons.

The families of land birds are further grouped into birds of prey, omnivorous birds, insectivorous birds, and granivorous birds, while the families of water birds are simply listed, with what seemed to be related families, such as "Of the Anas" (ducks) and "Of the Mergus" (sawbill ducks), side by side.

In this way the book takes the form of, and sets a precedent for, modern field guides. Indeed, the French naturalist François Holandre (1753–1830) assembled a field guide using Bewick's woodcuts as early as 1800.

Each account is closed with a miniature woodcut known from its position in the text as a tail-piece. These small artworks depict aspects of country life, often with humorous subjects, but all with Bewick's eye for detail, style, and precision. Some add to the illustration of the bird in question, as for example the Heron, where the tail-piece shows one heron catching an eel, and another flying away.

The tail-piece for Sabine's Snipe, a gamebird, shows a hunter firing, and a small bird falling to the ground. There is no exclusion of human life from the images: one tail-piece depicts a works complete with smoking chimney beside a river.


Hanging Washing with Pigs and Chickens: an uncaptioned tail-piece in Volume 1: Land Birds. Like many others, this has a humorous touch, with a bird leaving muddy footprints on a newly laundered shirt.
Land birds
The first volume "containing the History and Description of Land Birds" begins with a preface, an introduction, and a list of technical terms illustrated with Bewick's woodcuts. The introduction begins:

In no part of the animal creation are the wisdom, the goodness, and the bounty of Providence displayed in a more lively manner than in the structure, formation, and various endowments of the feathered tribes.
The birds are divided into granivorous (grain eating) and carnivorous groups, which are explained in some detail. The speed, senses, flight, migration, pairing behaviour and feeding of birds are then discussed, with observations from Spallanzani and Gilbert White, whose Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne was published in 1789. The pleasure of watching birds is mentioned:

To the practical ornithologist there arises a considerable gratification in being able to ascertain the distinguishing characters of birds as they appear at a distance, whether at rest, or during their flight; for not only every genus has something peculiar to itself, but each species has its own appropriate marks, by which a judicious observer may discriminate almost with certainty. Bewick also mentions conservation, in the context of the probable local extinction of a valuable resource: Both this and the Great Bustard are excellent eating, and would well repay the trouble of domestication; indeed, it seems surprising, that we should suffer these fine birds to be in danger of total extinction, although, if properly cultivated, they might afford as excellent a repast as our own domestic poultry, or even as the Turkey, for which we are indebted to distant countries.
The 1847 edition, revised with additional woodcuts and descriptions, is organized as follows, with the species grouped into families such as the shrikes:

Birds of Prey
Of the Falcon (includes Buzzard, Sparrowhawk)
Of the Owl
Omnivorous Birds
Insectivorous Birds
Of the Shrike
Of the Flycatchers
Of the Warblers
Of the Wagtail
Granivorous Birds
Of the Lark
Of the Titmouse
Of the Bunting
Of the Finch
Of the Woodpecker
Of the Swallow
Of the Gallinaceous kind (gamebirds)
Of the Grouse
Of the Bustard

Woodcut of "The Great Bustard". A horseman and greyhound gallop after another bustard in the background.
Water birds
The second volume "containing the History and Description of Water Birds" begins with its own preface, and its own introduction.
Bewick discusses the question of where many seabirds go to breed, revisits the subject of migration, and concludes with reflections on "an all-wise Providence" as shown in Nature.
The 1847 edition is organized as follows:

Of the Oyster Catcher
Of the Plover
Of the Heron
Of the Avoset (1 sp.)
Of the Spoonbill (1 sp.)
Of the Ibis (1 sp.)
Of the Curlew
Of the Sandpiper
Of the Godwit
Of the Snipe
Of the Rail
Of the Gallinule
Of the Coot
Of the Phalarope
Of the Grebes
Of the Terns
Of the Gull
Of the Predatory Gulls (the skuas)
Of the Petrel
Of the Anas (ducks, geese and swans)
Of the Mergus (sawbill ducks)
Of the Cormorant
Of the Gannet (1 sp.)
Of the Divers
Of the Guillemot
Of the Auk

"The Heron. Common Heron, Heronsewgh, or Heronshaw. (Ardea cinerea, Lath.—Héron cendré, Temm.)" woodcut
Foreign Birds
The 'foreign birds' are not grouped but just listed directly as species, from Bearded Vulture to Mino. Fifteen birds are included, with no description, and despite their placement in the table of contents, they appear at the front of the volume as an 'Appendix'.

"The Sparrow-Hawk" shows textures Bewick achieved with engraving tools on the end-grain of hard boxwood
In 1805, the British Critic wrote that it was "superfluous to expatiate much on the merits of a work" that everyone liked because of "the aptness of its descriptions, the accuracy of its figures, the spirit of its wood engravings, and the ingenious variety of its vignettes."

Ibis, reviewing the Memoir of Thomas Bewick, written by himself in 1862, compares the effect of Bewick and Gilbert White, writing "It was the pages of Gilbert White and the woodcuts of Bewick which first beguiled the English schoolboy to the observation of our feathered friends", and "how few of our living naturalists but must gratefully acknowledge their early debt to White's 'History' and to the life-like woodcuts of Bewick!" The reviewer judges that "Probably we shall not wrong the cultivated annalist of Selborne by giving the first place to Bewick." However, comparing them as people, "Bewick has not the slightest claim to rank with Gilbert White as a naturalist. White was what Bewick never was, a man of science; but, if no naturalist, Bewick was a lover of nature, a careful observer, and a faithful copier of her ever-varying forms. In this, and in this alone, lies his charm."

The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica's entry on Thomas Bewick describes "the British Birds" as "his great achievement, that with which his name is inseparably associated", observing that "Bewick, from his intimate knowledge of the habits of animals acquired during his constant excursions into the country, was thoroughly qualified to do justice to this great task."

British Birds, reviewing a "lavishly illustrated" British Library book on Bewick, writes that "No ornithologist will ever regard Thomas Bewick, known primarily for The History of British Birds (1797–1804), as a naturalist of the same standing as contemporaries such as Edward Donovan, John Latham and James Bolton", noting however that Bewick helped to define "a certain English Romantic sensibility". More directly, the review notes that "Bewick was aware that his role was to offer a modest guide to birds that the common man not only could afford but would also want to possess." Bewick was not "a scientist, but he was a perfectionist". The book's text was written by "failed author" Ralph Beilby, but the text is "almost extraneous" given Bewick's masterpiece.

The Tate Gallery writes that Bewick's " best illustrations ... are in his natural history books. The History of British Birds (2 vols, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1797–1804) reveals Bewick's gifts as a naturalist as well as an engraver (the artist was responsible for the text as well as the illustrations in the second volume)." The article notes that the book makes "extensive use of narrative tailpieces: vignettes in which manifold aspects of north-country life are expressed with affection, humour and a genuine love of nature. In later years these miniature scenes came to be more highly regarded than the figures they accompany."

  Dissenting from the general tone of praise for Bewick, Jacob Kainen cites claims that "many of the best tailpieces in the History of British birds were drawn by Robert Johnson, and that "the greater number of those contained in the second volume were engraved by Clennell."

Granted that the outlook and the engraving style were Bewick's, and that these were notable contributions, the fact that the results were so close to his own points more to an effective method of illustration than to the outpourings of genius." Kainen argues that while competent, Bewick "was no Holbein, no Botticelli—it is absurd to think of him in such terms—but he did develop a fresh method of handling wood engraving."

The Linnean Society writes that the History "shows that he was also an excellent naturalist, a meticulous observer of birds and animals in their habitats."

The University of Maryland writes that "The Birds is specific to those species indigenous to Britain and is incredibly accurate due to Bewick's personal knowledge of the habits of birds in the wild acquired during his frequent bird-watching expeditions." It adds that "Bewick's woodcarvings are considered a pinnacle example of the medium."

Jenny Uglow, writing in The Guardian, notes that "An added delight was the way he filled the blank spaces with 'tail-pieces', tiny, witty, vivid scenes of ordinary life." She describes the importance of Birds in Jane Eyre, and ends "He worked with precision and insight, in a way that we associate with poets such as Clare and Wordsworth, Gerard Manley Hopkins and Elizabeth Bishop. To Bewick, nature was the source of joy, challenge and perpetual consolation. In his woodcuts of birds and animals as well as his brilliant tail-pieces, we can still feel this today."

However, in her biography of Bewick, she adds that "The country might be beautiful but it also stank: in his vignettes men relieve themselves in hedges and ruins, a woman holds her nose as she walks between the cowpats, and a farmyard privy shows that men are as filthy as the pigs they despise."

Hilary Spurling, reviewing Uglow's biography of Bewick in The Observer, writes that when Birds appeared, people all over Britain "became his pupils". Spurling cites Charles Kingsley's story of his father's hunting friends from the New Forest mocking him for buying "a book 'about dicky-birds", until, astonished, they saw the book and discovered "things they had known all their lives and never even noticed".

John Brewer, writing in the London Review of Books, says that for his Birds, "Bewick had acquired national renown as the artist who most truthfully depicted the flora and fauna of the British countryside." He adds that "Bewick's achievement was both technical and aesthetic."


Bewick's woodcut of "The Yellow Wagtail" shows the bird in its habitat by fresh water, with a detailed illustration including figures in the background.
In his view, Bewick "reconciled nature, science and art. His engravings of British birds, which represent his work at its finest, are almost all rendered with the precision of the ornithologist: but they also portray the animals in their natural habitat – the grouse shelters in his covert, the green woodpecker perches on a gnarled branch, waders strut by streams ..." He observes that "Most of the best engravings include a figure, incident or building which draws the viewer's eye beyond and behind the animal profile in the foreground. Thus the ploughboy in the distant field pulls our gaze past the yellow wagtail ..."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Priestley Joseph, Eng. chemist, d. (b. 1733)

Joseph Priestley
British scientist W. H. Wollaston finds palladium in platinum
Wollaston William Hyde

William Hyde Wollaston, (born August 6, 1766, East Dereham, Norfolk, England—died December 22, 1828, London), British scientist who enhanced the techniques of powder metallurgy to become the first to produce and market pure, malleable platinum. He also made fundamental discoveries in many areas of science and discovered the elements palladium (1802) and rhodium (1804).

Early life and education
Wollaston was the seventh of 17 children born to Althea Hyde and Francis Wollaston. Theirs was a financially comfortable family, which was well positioned in British scientific and religious circles. His great-grandfather William Wollaston was a well-known theological author; his uncle Charlton Wollaston had been physician to the queen’s household; and his father was a vicar of the Church of England, a competent astronomer, and a fellow of the Royal Society of London. Wollaston was raised in an intellectually vibrant household, schooled at Charterhouse School in London, and studied medicine at Caius College, Cambridge. He obtained a medical degree from Cambridge in 1793 and practiced medicine in rural England until 1797, when he moved to London. He had been unhappy as a physician, because of both the constant demands on his time and the physician’s inability to do much to alleviate patients’ suffering. Thus, upon receiving a large sum of money from his older brother George in 1799, Wollaston abandoned medicine to pursue his much stronger interests in science, particularly chemistry.

William Hyde Wollaston
  Platinum and new metals
In 1800 Wollaston formed a cost-sharing partnership with Smithson Tennant, whom he had befriended at Cambridge, to produce and market chemical products. Although Tennant achieved only limited success in his independent endeavours, Wollaston was spectacularly successful. He set about trying to produce platinum in a pure malleable form, something that had been attempted unsuccessfully by others before him. After a few years of research, he was able to perfect a chemical process for converting inexpensive granular platinum ore smuggled out of New Granada (now Colombia) into platinum powder of high purity and of consolidating the powder into malleable ingots, which he sold at substantial profit over the next 20 years. The pure metal, which had properties similar to gold but sold at one-quarter the price, found many scientific and technological uses. He kept the details of his process secret, and, by purchasing all of the available platinum ore, he became wealthy as a result of being the sole supplier of pure platinum in England. He published the details of his process only at the time of his death.

Careful chemical analysis of the metals that dissolved with platinum in the first step of his purification process led Wollaston to the discovery of two new metallic elements, palladium and rhodium. Tennant undertook the analysis of the less-soluble constituents of the platinum ore and discovered two other new metals, osmium and iridium.

The discovery of these rare elements established the reputations of both men as gifted experimental chemists. Wollaston, especially, became famous for his ability to analyze small quantities of substances, and he was continually called upon by mineralogists to determine the chemical components of new minerals. The mineral wollastonite was named in his honour for his many contributions to crystallography and mineral analysis.
Other scientific achievements
Wollaston never married. Although he had a wide circle of friends, he was most contented when pursuing his scientific interests in the quiet of his own home. He had a remarkably acute and imaginative mind and made, in addition to his chemical work, significant contributions to the fields of botany, mechanics, electrochemistry, astronomy, crystallography, physiology, optics, and scientific instrumentation. He obtained a patent for a new form of spectacle lens (1804), and he patented the camera lucida (1806) and published a book on its design (1807). In 1809 he invented the reflective goniometer, an instrument that accurately gives the angles between the faces of crystals. With his discovery of multiple combining proportions in acid salts in 1808, he also supplied crucial support for the English scientist John Dalton’s atomic theory, and he invented a widely used slide rule of chemical equivalents in 1813. In 1820 he reported the inability of most humans to hear the high-pitched notes of bats and insects, and in 1824, while investigating the possible physiological basis for his own recurring visual problems (now known as hemianopia), he deduced the correct anatomical arrangement of human optic nerves. His breadth and depth of scientific knowledge led his close scientific friends to call him the “pope of science,” and the great English philosopher William Whewell claimed that a conversation with Wollaston was “like talking to pure intelligence.”
Wollaston was an extremely influential member of the Royal Society from the time he was elected in 1793 until his death.
  He served for many years on the Council of the Society as secretary or vice president, and he even held the presidency in 1820 between the terms of naturalist Joseph Banks and chemist Humphry Davy. In 1814 Wollaston recommended adoption of the British imperial gallon to the House of Commons Select Committee of Weights and Measures, and from 1818 to 1828 he served on the government’s Board of Longitude.

Later years
Wollaston closed down his platinum business in 1820 when supplies of crude platinum ore dried up. Although he continued to publish scientific papers, he spent more time traveling and visiting friends after closing his business. In 1828 Wollaston began to suffer transient periods of partial paralysis and reacted by methodically but quickly dictating the last of his scientific papers, selecting mementos for his closest friends, and distributing his wealth among his many brothers and sisters. An autopsy revealed that he died of a brain tumour, which he had earlier suspected as the cause of his declining health.

Wollaston, physician and physicist Thomas Young, and Davy all died within six months of each other, and the loss of three of Britain’s leading scientists caused several contemporaries to claim that their passing signaled a perceptible decline in British science.

Melvyn C. Usselman

Encyclopædia Britannica

Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, departing in May, 1804 from near St. Louis on the Mississippi River, making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast.

The expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, consisting of a select group of U.S. Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark. Their perilous journey lasted from May 1804 to September 1806.
The primary objective was to explore and map the newly acquired territory, find a practical route across the Western half of the continent, and establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it.

The campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, and geography, and establish trade with local Indian tribes. With maps, sketches and journals in hand, the expedition returned to St. Louis to report their findings to Jefferson.

Lewis Meriwether
Meriwether Lewis, (born Aug. 18, 1774, near Charlottesville, Va. [U.S.]—died Oct. 11, 1809, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.), American explorer, who with William Clark led the Lewis and Clark Expedition through the uncharted American interior to the Pacific Northwest in 1804–06. He later served as governor of Upper Louisiana Territory.

Meriwether Lewis
  Born to William Lewis and Lucy Meriwether, Meriwether Lewis grew up on Locust Hill, the family’s plantation in Ivy Creek, Va.—near Monticello, home of the future U.S. president Thomas Jefferson. Lewis’s father died while serving in the Continental Army in 1779. His mother then married John Marks and relocated her family to Georgia before being widowed again by 1792. Returning to Virginia, Lewis began managing Locust Hill under his uncle’s supervision. He joined the Virginia militia in 1794 to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania. The following year he enlisted in the army at the time of the Northwest Indian War against Miami Chief Little Turtle and served for a brief time in William Clark’s Chosen Rifle Company. Lewis’s military career advanced rapidly from ensign (1795) to lieutenant (1799) to captain (1800), and he served as an army recruiter and paymaster. In 1801 President Jefferson asked Lewis to be his personal secretary and aide-de-camp.
In 1803 Jefferson appointed Lewis commander of an expedition to explore the American territory newly acquired in the Louisiana Purchase. His considerable frontier skills, military service, physical endurance, intellectual prowess, and literary skills made him an excellent choice. Lewis traveled to Philadelphia to study astronomy, botany, zoology, and medicine with some of the country’s brightest scientists and doctors. He also began making preparations, recruiting men, and purchasing equipment, boats, and supplies for the expedition.
When Jefferson informed Lewis of the numerous commercial, scientific, and diplomatic purposes of the venture, Captain Lewis invited his good friend Clark to co-command the expedition. Although Clark was officially a lieutenant and second in command because the U.S. secretary of war refused him the same status as Lewis, the expedition leaders referred to each other as “captain” to mask this bureaucratic distinction.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition spanned 8,000 mi (13,000 km) and three years (1804–06), taking the Corps of Discovery, as the expedition party was known, down the Ohio River, up the Missouri River, across the Continental Divide, and to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis served as the field scientist, chronicling botanical, zoological, meteorological, geographic, and ethnographic information. He also gathered specimens—plant, animal, and mineral—to send back East for further study. Although there are several time lapses in Lewis’s journal entries, the expedition’s records are a national treasure. The co-commanders advanced the American fur trade by documenting the river systems and fur resources in the West. They met Indian leaders, distributed trade goods, delivered speeches, invited Indian delegations to travel to Washington, and conducted peace, friendship, and trade negotiations. Moreover, they announced the sovereignty of the United States and left calling cards of empire such as medals, flags, and certificates.

Upon the conclusion of the expedition, Congress rewarded Lewis with double pay and 1,600 acres (650 hectares) of public land. In 1807 Jefferson appointed his protégé governor of the Territory of Upper Louisiana. Post-expedition endeavours—preparing a three-volume narrative of the expedition for publication, courting women, reporting back to Jefferson on the treason trial of his former vice president Aaron Burr, and attending to family business—delayed Lewis from assuming his post until March 1808. Trying to govern the territory from the East proved impractical, and Lewis’s absence empowered the territorial secretary, Frederick Bates, who undermined Lewis’s authority by setting his own regulations on trading and mining licenses and filling positions through favouritism. When Lewis arrived in Missouri, he clashed with Bates over the administration of Indian and territorial affairs, which resulted in an irreparable rift between them.

  Lewis authorized the construction of Fort Madison on the Mississippi River and Fort Osage on the Missouri River. His attention was also demanded by the Osage Indians, who protested treaties and whose land had been encroached upon by emigrant tribes such as the Cherokee. Lewis faced additional pressures from his superiors regarding his infrequent correspondence and his handling of land claims, mining disputes, unlicensed traders, intertribal warfare, and the delayed return of Mandan Chief Sheheke (who had traveled with Lewis to Washington, D.C.) to his village. Secretary of War William Eustis refused to honour some of Lewis’s expense vouchers, which destroyed Lewis’s credit and sullied his reputation. Nonetheless, Lewis had been successful in publishing territorial laws, supporting St. Louis’s inaugural newspaper, and establishing the first Masonic lodge in Missouri.

In 1809 Lewis, age 35, embarked for Washington, D.C., to explain his public expenditures and to clear his name. Leaving the Mississippi River at Chickasaw Bluffs (Memphis, Tenn.), he set out along the Natchez Trace, stopping for the evening at Grinder’s Stand near present-day Hohenwald, Tenn., about 70 mi (110 km) from Nashville. There on October 11 Lewis died a violent and mysterious death from gunshot wounds to the head and chest; the circumstances have fueled a long-standing debate over whether his death was a suicide or murder. Many scholars believe Lewis took his own life as a result of depression, alcohol abuse, or failing to marry or to publish. Others assert that thieves, opportunists, or political opponents murdered him. Another explanation suggests it may have been accidental. In 1848 Tennessee erected a grave-site marker that in 1925 became the Meriwether Lewis National Monument. See also Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Jay H. Buckley

Encyclopædia Britannica

Clark William
William Clark, (born Aug. 1, 1770, Caroline county, Va. [U.S.]—died Sept. 1, 1838, St. Louis, Mo.), American frontiersman who won fame as an explorer by sharing with Meriwether Lewis the leadership of their epic expedition to the Pacific Northwest (1804–06). He later played an essential role in the development of the Missouri Territory and was superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis.

William Clark
  The ninth of John and Ann (Rogers) Clark’s 10 children, Clark was born on the family’s tobacco plantation in Virginia. In 1785 the family relocated to Louisville, Ky., lured there by tales of the Ohio Valley told by William Clark’s older brother, George Rogers Clark, one of the military heroes of the American Revolution. Like his brother, William Clark was swept up into the American Indian conflicts of the Ohio frontier, joining the militia in 1789 before enlisting in the regular army. In 1792 U.S. President George Washington commissioned him a lieutenant of infantry. Under General Anthony Wayne, Clark helped build and supply forts along the Ohio River and commanded the Chosen Rifle Company, which participated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794).
Clark resigned his commission in 1796 and returned home to regain his health and to manage his aging parents’ estate. In 1803 he received an invitation to greatness from his friend Meriwether Lewis, to help him lead an expedition through uncharted American territory west to the Pacific Ocean. Although Lewis’s promise of equal rank for Clark was denied by the War Department, the leaders kept it secret from the other expedition members by calling each other captain. Clark’s preparations for the expedition included modifying the keelboat they were to use, engaging the participation of several Kentuckians, and drilling the men during their winter camp. The Corps of Discovery (which included Clark’s slave York) departed on May 14, 1804, with Clark operating as the expedition’s principal waterman and cartographer.
His monumental maps of the West (1810–14) represented the best available until the 1840s. Moreover, he kept one of the most faithful journals on the trip, and his imaginative spelling is well known.

The 52-month expedition established U.S. claims to the Great Plains and Pacific Northwest. Clark gained an appreciation for the tremendous diversity of native cultures and was often more skillful than Lewis in Indian negotiations. He liked Native Americans, and they seemed to like him; the Shoshone interpreter Sacagawea and her family spent the majority of their time with Clark. He also formed a lasting friendship with the Nez Percé and may have fathered a son, Daytime Smoker, with the daughter of Chief Red Grizzly Bear.
At the conclusion of the expedition in 1806, the U.S. Congress awarded Clark double pay and 1,600 acres (650 hectares) of land for his efforts. In 1807 President Thomas Jefferson appointed Clark brigadier general of militia for the Louisiana (later Missouri) Territory and a federal Indian agent for western tribes. Clark supported the “factory system,” or government trading houses, which sought to put the government rather than individuals at the forefront of trade with Indians. He also oversaw the construction of Fort Osage on the Missouri River and promoted commercial fur trade activities farther abroad, joining Manuel Lisa in the St. Louis Missouri Fur Company in 1809. During the War of 1812, President James Monroe commissioned Clark territorial governor of Missouri, a position he held from 1813 to 1820. In this role Clark protected settlements and conducted the peace-seeking Treaty of Portage des Sioux in 1815. Later he supervised the removal of tribes located within the Missouri and Arkansas territories. Clark attempted to broker amicable relations between the settlers and the Indians, but Missourians viewed him as too sympathetic to Native Americans.

In Missouri’s inaugural gubernatorial election following its attainment of statehood, Alexander McNair defeated Clark. President Monroe appointed Clark superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis in 1822. In that capacity Clark exercised jurisdiction over existing western tribes and eastern nations being removed west of the Mississippi River. He expressed sympathy for those uprooted tribes and promoted their interests as he understood them. Nevertheless, he agreed with and implemented the policy of Indian removal, negotiating 37, or one-tenth, of all ratified treaties between American Indians and the United States.

  Over the course of his career, millions of acres passed from Indian to U.S. ownership by Clark’s hand.

Among his duties, Clark issued trading licenses, removed unauthorized persons from Indian country, and confiscated illegal alcohol. He extended patronage to American fur traders, artists, and explorers who, in turn, assisted him in his mission by establishing friendly relations with numerous tribes. Clark and Secretary of War Lewis Cass wrote a report that resulted in the revision of the Trade and Intercourse Acts and the reorganization of the entire Indian Bureau in 1834. Clark was also a patron of the arts, and he supported the establishment of schools, the growth of banks, and the incorporation of cities. He invested in real estate and railroads, maintained one of the first museums in the West, and promoted other economic and cultural endeavours in the St. Louis area.

Clark was a devoted family man and a valued friend. He and his wife, Julia Hancock, had five children. (He named his eldest son Meriwether Lewis.) The year after his wife’s death in 1820, Clark married Harriet Kennerly Radford, a widow with three children, and fathered two more sons. A generous man, Clark served as legal guardian for Sacagawea’s children, cared for numerous relatives, and offered assistance to religious groups, missionaries, explorers, and travelers. On the other hand, Clark treated his slave York harshly upon their return from the expedition, although he claimed to have eventually freed him. See also Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Jay H. Buckley

Encyclopædia Britannica


Famous map of Lewis and Clark's expedition. It changed mapping of northwest America by providing the first accurate depiction of the relationship of the sources of the Columbia and Missouri Rivers, and the Rocky Mountains around 1814.
Surveying the West
President Thomas Jefferson had contemplated the exploration of the West even before the American Government's purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France extended the size of the USA by over 800,000 square miles (2 million square kilometers). He had the men to do it — his private secretary, a young ex-army officer named Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark, a friend of Lewis from army days. The other members of what we now know as the Lewis and Clark expedition were mainly soldiers, some enlisted for the purpose and chosen from "good hunters, stout, healthy, unmarried young men, accustomed to the woods."
Up the Missouri
Explorers had been sponsored by governments before, but the Lewis and Clark expedition was the first in the New World that could be called a national enterprise. The main purpose was to find a route from the Mississippi to the Pacific, and roughly the first half of the journey — up the Missouri - was well known.

The explorers knew they would ultimately encounter mountains, but hoped the Missouri might flow through them. The Rockies turned out to be a more formidable barrier than they anticipated.

In fact, the expedition was to prove that no route such as Jefferson hoped for existed, but it fulfilled other purposes, the chief one being to make contact with more than 50 native tribes and nations. Science was not ignored, and the expedition sent back numerous specimens of hitherto unclassified plants and animals. In an otherwise well-organized enterprise, it was perhaps strange to take no qualified scientists, nor a doctor, though Lewis undertook an intensive study of botany and zoology before they left, and both he and Clark coped with medical problems admirably.

They could do nothing about a ruptured appendix, however, which killed Sgt Charles Floyd.
He was their only casualty, although Lewis suffered a flesh wound in Montana when one of his men mistook him for an elk.
  After spending the winter of 1803-4 in training at St Louis, the expedition paddled upstream to the Mandan villages, where they spent the following winter. They hired two guides from the voyagcurs (French-Canadian hunter-traders) in the Mandan villages, one of whom was married to a 16-year-old, heavily pregnant Shoshone girl, who came along too. Her name was Sacajawea, and she was to prove the most valuable member of the entire party. She could not only communicate with many of the unknown peoples they encountered, but she also had some knowledge of the passes through the Bitterroot Range into Shoshone country. It was with the help of her people, and others, that the ''Western Expedition" eventually reached the Columbia River, via the Clearwater and the Snake. However, they had been forced to make long portages, and their canoes, made on the spot, had to negotiate some intimidating rapids.

On November 7, Clark wrote in his diary, "Great joy m the camp. We are in view of the Ocean." They arrived at the site of Astoria (founded by Jacob Astor's fur traders in 1811) a few days later. That was approximately the date anticipated, but they were forced to winter there, relying on their own resources - building a substantial log cabin (Fort Clatsop), making flour from arrowroot and candles from a stranded whale. Although it had been far from certain at the outset where they would strike the coast, it seems surprising that no supply ship was sent to keep watch.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.
The expedition that was led in 1802-4 by Mehwether Lewis
and William Clark was essentially of a military nature,
although not the least of its achievements was to do almost no fighting.
The way back
The return journey began on March 23, 1806. After crossing the mountains, they separated, Clark following the Yellowstone River to the Missouri while Lewis took the shorter, more northerly route, via Great Falls and through Blacktoot country. This led to trouble, when a hunting party, camped nearby, tried to steal guns and horses during the night. In the fracas, two men were killed. Lewis and his party then rode without stopping for 62 miles (100 kilometers) to put themselves out of reach of possible pursuers. They met Clark below the mouth of the Yellowstone and reached the Mandan villages a few days later. There Sacajawea left them.

On September 23. 1806, the expedition arrived at St Louis, to "a harty welcom" (spelling was one of the few skills Clark had no talent for). They had traveled nearly 8000 miles (over 12,000 kilometers), much of it through unknown country, and revealed the river system of the northwest. They had also observed the cultural degradation of coastal peoples, after a few years of contact with Europeans, compared with the proud and vigorous communities of the mountains and the plains.

The Oregon Trail was one of a number of trails to the West that were opened up
by explorers and traders following in the footsteps of the Indians through
whose territory they traveled.
Zebulon Pike
Jefferson encouraged other military forays, notably that of Lt Zebulon Pike, another army acquaintance of Lewis, to investigate the upper Mississippi in 1805. Having accomplished this mission successfully (though he failed to identify the great river's source), he departed again from St Louis, three months before Lewis and Clark returned, this time bound for the southwest. With a party of 20, he followed the Arkansas River into the Rockies, discovering Pikes Peak, which he considered unclimbable, then turned south to the Sangre dc Christo range and was arrested by the Spanish authorities in New Mexico in 1807. They eventually returned him to US territory, but not before he had noted the weakness of the Spanish capital. Santa Fe, and the economic opportunities in the southwest that were to attract US pioneers into Texas.

Other official, usually military, explorers of the early 19th century included Stephen Long, who surveyed the area between the Platte and Canadian rivers in 1817-20, and the controversial John C. Fremont, future presidential candidate of the Republican Party, who carried out extensive surveys in the West in the 1840s.

Trappers and hunters led an isolated existence and many adopted Indian customs.
Their travels frequently resulted in geographical discoveries.
The mountain men
His great fame notwithstanding, Fremont discovered little if any unknown territory in the course of his extensive travels between the Mississippi and the Pacific. Apart from the native inhabitants, whose knowledge of the country was, in general, much greater and wider ranging than is often assumed, the old western trails were first followed by travelers who left few records of their movements.

The mountain men were trappers and hunters who, for one reason or another, disliked the society from which they sprang and preferred a solitary life in the wilderness. They made many incidental geographical discoveries, and some deserve to be remembered as genuine explorers. Jedediah Smith discovered the South Pass and pioneered the route to California over the Sierra Nevada; he was later killed by Comanches when leading a wagon train on the Santa Fe trail in 1831. Jim Uridger, in 1824, was the first white man to see the Great Salt Lake. Its saltiness made him think it must be an arm of the ocean. Mountain men had a reputation for spinning extremely tall stories, but Bndger complained that people called him a liar for accurately describing natural features like the geysers of Yellowstone National Park.
In the 1830s there may have been as many as 3000 mountain men roaming the West. Their numbers fell during the 1840s with the decline of the fur trade and increasing settlement.
F. W. A. Sarturner isolates morphine
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam

Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner (19 June 1783 – 20 February 1841) was a German pharmacist, who discovered morphine in 1804.


Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner
He was born on 19 June 1783 in Neuhaus (now part of Paderborn). As a pharmacist's apprentice in Paderborn, he was the first to isolate morphine from opium. He called the isolated alkaloid "morphium" after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. It was not only the first alkaloid to be extracted from opium, but the first ever alkaloid to be isolated from any plant. Thus he became the first person to isolate the active ingredient associated with a medicinal plant or herb.

In the years following, he investigated the effects of morphine. However, it only became widely used after 1815. In 1809, Sertürner opened his first own pharmacy in Einbeck. In 1822, he bought the main pharmacy in Hamelin (Rathaus Apotheke), where he worked until his death in 1841.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first dahlias in England

Dahlia is a genus of bushy, tuberous, herbaceous perennial plants native mainly in Mexico, but also Central America, and Colombia. A member of the Asteraceae (or Compositae), dicotyledonous plants, related species include the sunflower, daisy, chrysanthemum and zinnia. There are 42 species of dahlia, with hybrids commonly grown as garden plants. Flower forms are variable, with one head per stem; these can be as small as 2 in (5.1 cm) diameter or up to 1 ft (30 cm) ("dinner plate"). This great variety results from dahlias being octoploids—that is, they have eight sets of homologous chromosomes, whereas most plants have only two. In addition, dahlias also contain many transposons—genetic pieces that move from place to place upon an allele—which contributes to their manifesting such great diversity.


Dahlia pinnata
The stems are leafy, ranging in height from as low as 12 in (30 cm) to more than 6–8 ft (1.8–2.4 m). The majority of species do not produce scented flowers or cultivars. Like most plants that do not attract pollinating insects through scent, they are brightly colored, displaying most hues, with the exception of blue.

The dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963.[5] The tubers were grown as a food crop by the Aztecs, but this use largely died out after the Spanish Conquest. Attempts to introduce the tubers as a food crop in Europe were unsuccessful.


Early history

Spaniards reported finding the plants growing in Mexico in 1525, but the earliest known description is by Francisco Hernández, physician to Philip II, who was ordered to visit Mexico in 1570 to study the "natural products of that country". They were used as a source of food by the indigenous peoples, and were both gathered in the wild and cultivated. The Aztecs used them to treat epilepsy, and employed the long hollow stem of the (Dahlia imperalis) for water pipes. The indigenous peoples variously identified the plants as "Chichipatl" (Toltecs) and "Acocotle" or "Cocoxochitl" (Aztecs). From Hernandez' perception of Aztec, to Spanish, through various other translations, the word is "water cane", "water pipe", "water pipe flower", "hollow stem flower" and "cane flower". All these refer to the hollowness of the plants' stem.

Hernandez described two varieties of dahlias (the pinwheel-like Dahlia pinnata and the huge Dahlia imperialis) as well as other medicinal plants of New Spain. Francisco Dominguez, a Hidalgo gentleman who accompanied Hernandez on part of his seven-year study, made a series of drawings to supplement the four volume report. Three of his drawings showed plants with flowers: two resembled the modern bedding dahlia, and one resembled the species Dahlia merki; all displayed a high degree of doubleness. In 1578 the manuscript, entitled Nova Plantarum, Animalium et Mineralium Mexicanorum Historia, was sent back to the Escorial in Madrid; they were not translated into Latin by Francisco Ximenes until 1615. In 1640, Francisco Cesi, President of the Academia Linei of Rome, bought the Ximenes translation, and after annotating it, published it in 1649-1651 in two volumes as Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus Seu Nova Plantarium, Animalium et Mineraliuím Mexicanorum Historia. The original manuscripts were destroyed in a fire in the mid-1600s.

Dahlia coccinea, parent of European "single" dahlias (i.e., displaying a single row of petals)
European introduction
In 1787, the French botanist Nicolas-Joseph Thiéry de Menonville, sent to Mexico to steal the cochineal insect valued for its scarlet dye, reported the strangely beautiful flowers he had seen growing in a garden in Oaxaca. In 1789, Vicente Cervantes, Director of the Botanical Garden at Mexico City, sent "plant parts" to Abbe Antonio José Cavanilles, Director of the Royal Gardens of Madrid. Cavanilles flowered one plant that same year, then the second one a year later. In 1791 he called the new growths "Dahlia" for Anders Dahl. The first plant was called Dahlia pinnata after its pinnate foliage; the second, Dahlia rosea for its rose-purple color. In 1796 Cavanilles flowered a third plant from the parts sent by Cervantes, which he named Dahlia coccinea for its scarlet color.
In 1798, Cavanilles sent D. Pinnata seeds to Parma, Italy. That year, the Marchioness of Bute, wife of The Earl of Bute, the English Ambassador to Spain, obtained a few seeds from Cavanilles and sent them to Kew Gardens, where they flowered but were lost after two to three years.

The Dahlia Garden at Holland House in 1907
In the following years Madrid sent seeds to Berlin and Dresden in Germany, and to Turin and Thiene in Italy. In 1802, Cavanilles sent tubers of "these three" (D. pinnata, D. rosea, D. coccinea) to Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle at University of Montpelier in France, Andre Thouin at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris and Scottish botanist William Aiton at Kew Gardens. That same year, John Fraser, English nurseryman and later botanical collector to the Czar of Russia, brought D. coccinea seeds from Paris to the Apothecaries Gardens in England, where they flowered in his greenhouse a year later, providing Botanical Magazine with an illustration.
In 1804, a new species, Dahlia sambucifolia, was successfully grown at Holland House, Kensington. Whilst in Madrid in 1804, Lady Holland was given either dahlia seeds or tubers by Cavanilles. She sent them back to England, to Lord Holland's librarian Mr Buonaiuti at Holland House, who successfully raised the plants. A year later, Buonaiuti produced two double flowers. The plants raised in 1804 did not survive; new stock was brought from France in 1815. In 1824, Lord Holland sent his wife a note containing the following verse:

"The dahlia you brought to our isle
Your praises for ever shall speak;
Mid gardens as sweet as your smile,
And in colour as bright as your cheek."

In 1805, German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt sent more seeds from Mexico to Aiton in England, Thouin in Paris, and Christoph Friedrich Otto, director of the Berlin Botanical Garden. More significantly, he sent seeds to botanist Carl Ludwig Willdenow in Germany. Willdenow now reclassified the rapidly growing number of species, changing the genus from Dahlia to Georgina; after naturalist Johann Gottlieb Georgi. He combined the Cavanilles species D. pinnata and D. rosea under the name of Georgina variabilis; D. coccinea was still held to be a separate species, which he renamed Georgina coccinea.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dahlia sambucifolia
Hobart, Tasmania, founded
Hobart, largest city, chief port, and capital of Tasmania, Australia. Located in the southeastern corner of the state on the west bank of the Derwent River estuary (2 mi [3 km] wide), 12 mi above its mouth, the city ranges along steep foothills with Mt. Wellington (4,167 ft [1,270 m]), often snow-covered, in the near background. Hobart is Australia’s most southerly city.

Hobart area from Bellerive
The British navigator George Bass explored the estuary in 1798 and was much impressed with the setting. Five years later, Philip Gidley King, governor of New South Wales, in an attempt to prevent French incursions into districts not yet under direct British control, dispatched a lieutenant to establish a settlement at Risdon Cove on the Derwent. It was named Hobart Town after Robert Hobart, 4th earl of Buckinghamshire, then secretary of state for the colonies. In 1804 the settlement was moved to the city’s present site, Sullivans Cove. By the mid-19th century the community had become a major port for ships whaling in the southern oceans, but its development was being arrested by the limited resources that the Tasmanian island offered in comparison to the mainland. It was gazetted an episcopal city in 1842, a municipality in 1852, and a secular city in 1857.

Hobart has an excellent deepwater port unhampered by tidal changes; this, coupled with rail lines (freight only) to the north and northwest, the junction of the Channel, Midland, Huon, and Tasman highways, and an airport, makes it a focus of communications and trade.

  Local industries include an electrolytic zinc refinery at Risdon, newsprint mills, and textile, confectionery, tool, furniture, fruit-processing, motor-body, and paint plants. On Feb. 7, 1967, major bush fires penetrated deep into the city.

The city has Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals and the oldest Jewish synagogue in Australia (1843–45).

It is the site of the University of Tasmania (1890), several other colleges, Parliament House, and the state library, museum, and art gallery. Nearby recreation areas include Wrest Point Casino (the first legal casino in Australia), Mt. Wellington, the Nelson Range (southwest), and the beach resort of Bellerive.

Suburbs have spread up the west shore of the estuary and also to the east shore, to which the city is linked by the Tasman Bridge (1965) and the Bowen Bridge (1984). Pop. (2001) urban centre, 126,048; urban agglom., 191,169.

Encyclopædia Britannica

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