Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
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FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

Jacques-Louis David. Napoleon at the St. Bernard Pass. 1801
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1801 Part I
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (also known as Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass or Bonaparte Crossing the Alps) is the title given to the five versions of an oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte painted by the French artist David Jacques-Louis between 1801 and 1805. Initially commissioned by the king of Spain, the composition shows a strongly idealized view of the real crossing that Napoleon and his army made across the Alps through the Great St. Bernard Pass in May 1800.
Having taken power in France during the 18 Brumaire on 9 November 1799, Napoleon determined to return to Italy to reinforce the French troops in the country and retake the territory seized by the Austrians in the preceding years. In the spring of 1800 he led the Reserve Army across the Alps through the Great St. Bernard Pass.
The Austrian forces, under Michael von Melas, were laying siege to Masséna in Genoa and Napoleon hoped to gain the element of surprise by taking the trans-Alpine route. By the time Napoleon's troops arrived, Genoa had fallen; but he pushed ahead, hoping to engage the Austrians before they could regroup. The Reserve Army fought a battle at Montebello on 9 June before eventually securing a decisive victory at the Battle of Marengo.

The installation of Napoleon as First Consul and the French victory in Italy allowed for a rapprochement with Charles IV of Spain. While talks were underway to re-establish diplomatic relations, a traditional exchange of gifts took place. Charles received Versailles-manufactured pistols, dresses from the best Parisian dressmakers, jewels for the queen, and a fine set of armour for the newly reappointed Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy. In return Napoleon was offered sixteen Spanish horses from the royal stables, portraits of the king and queen by Goya, and the portrait that was to be commissioned from David. The French ambassador to Spain, Charles-Jean-Marie Alquier, requested the original painting from David on Charles' behalf. The portrait was to hang in the Royal Palace of Madrid as a token of the new relationship between the two countries. David, who had been an ardent supporter of the Revolution but had transferred his fervour to the new Consulate, was eager to undertake the commission.

On learning of the request, Bonaparte instructed David to produce three further versions: one for the Château de Saint-Cloud, one for the library of Les Invalides, and a third for the palace of the Cisalpine Republic in Milan. A fifth version was produced by David and remained in various of his workshops until his death.

  History of the five versions
The original painting remained in Madrid until 1812, when it was taken by Joseph Bonaparte after his abdication as King of Spain. He took it with him when he went into exile in the United States, and it hung at his Point Breeze estate near Bordentown, New Jersey.

The painting was handed down through his descendants until 1949, when his great grandniece, Eugenie Bonaparte, bequeathed it to the museum of the Château de Malmaison.

The version produced for the Château de Saint-Cloud from 1801 was removed in 1814 by the Prussian soldiers under von Blücher who offered it to the King of Prussia. It is now held in the Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin.

The 1802 copy from Les Invalides was taken down and put into storage on the Bourbon Restoration of 1814; but in 1837, under the orders of Louis-Philippe, it was rehung in his newly declared museum at the Palace of Versailles, where it remains to the present day.

The 1803 version was delivered to Milan but confiscated in 1816 by the Austrians. However, the people of Milan refused to give it up and it remained in the city until 1825. It was finally installed at the Belvedere in Vienna in 1834. It remains there today, now part of the collection of the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere.

The version kept by David until his death in 1825 was exhibited at the Bazar Bonne-Nouvelle (fr) in 1846 (where it was remarked upon by Baudelaire). In 1850 it was offered to the future Napoleon III by David's daughter, Pauline Jeanin, and installed at the Tuileries Palace. In 1979, it was given to the museum at the Palace of Versailles.


David Jacques-Louis. Napoleon at the St. Bernard Pass.
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
All five versions of the picture are of roughly the same large size (2.6 x 2.2 m). Bonaparte appears mounted in the uniform of a general in chief, wearing a gold-trimmed bicorne, and armed with a Mamluk-style sabre. He is wreathed in the folds of a large cloak which billows in the wind. His head is turned towards the viewer, and he gestures with his right hand toward the mountain summit. His left hand grips the reins of his steed. The horse rears up on its back legs, its mane and tail whipped against its body by the same wind that inflates Napoleon's cloak. In background a line of the soldiers interspersed with artillery make their way up the mountain. Dark clouds hang over the picture and in front of Bonaparte the mountains rise up sharply. In the foreground BONAPARTE, HANNIBAL and KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP. are engraved on rocks. On the breastplate yoke of the horse, the picture is signed and dated.

First Versailles version.
Second Versailles version

Charlottenburg version.
Belvedere version
Differences between the five versions
In the original version held at Malmaison (260 x 221 cm; 102⅓ x 87 in), Bonaparte has an orange cloak, the crispin (cuff) of his gauntlet is embroidered, the horse is piebald, black and white, and the tack is complete and includes a standing martingale. The girth around the horse's belly is a dark faded red. The officer holding a sabre in the background is obscured by the horse's tail. Napoleon's face appears youthful. The painting is signed in the yoke of the breastplate: L. DAVID YEAR IX.

The Charlottenburg version (260 x 226 cm; 102⅓ x 89 in) shows Napoleon in a red cloak mounted on a chestnut horse. The tack is simpler, lacking the martingale, and the girth is grey-blue. There are traces of snow on the ground. Napoleon's features are sunken with the faint hint of a smile. The picture is signed L.DAVID YEAR IX.

In the first Versailles version (272 x 232 cm; 107 x 91⅓ in), the horse is a dappled grey, the tack is identical to that of the Charlottenburg version, and the girth is blue.

  The embroidery of the gauntlet is simplified with the facing of the sleeve visible under the glove. The landscape is darker and Napoleon's expression is sterner. The picture is not signed.

The version from the Belvedere (264 x 232 cm; 104 x 91⅓ in) is almost identical to that of Versailles but is signed J.L.DAVID L.ANNO X.

The second Versailles version (267 x 230 cm; 105 x 90½ in) shows a black and white horse with complete tack but lacking the martingale. The girth is red. The cloak is orange-red, the collar is black, and the embroidery of the gauntlet is very simple and almost unnoticeable. The scarf tied around Napoleon's waist is light blue.
The officer with the sabre is again masked by the tail of the horse. Napoleon's features are older, he has shorter hair, and—as in the Charlottenburg version—there is the faint trace of a smile. The embroidery and the style of the bicorne suggest that the picture was completed after 1804. The picture is not dated but is signed L.DAVID.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jacques-Louis David
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Paxton Joseph
Sir Joseph Paxton, (born Aug. 3, 1801, near Woburn, Bedfordshire, Eng.—died June 8, 1865, Sydenham, near London), English landscape gardener and designer of hothouses, who was the architect of the Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London.

Sir Joseph Paxton
  He was originally a gardener employed by the duke of Devonshire, whose friend, factotum, and adviser he became. From 1826 he was superintendent of the gardens at Chatsworth, the duke’s Derbyshire estate; he built in iron and glass the famous conservatory there (1840) and the lily house for the duke’s rare Victoria regia (1850).

Also in 1850, after a cumbersome design had been officially accepted by the Great Exhibition’s organizers, Paxton’s inspired plan for a building of prefabricated elements of sheet glass and iron was substituted. His design, based on his earlier glass structures, covered four times the area of St. Peter’s, Rome, and the grandeur of its conception was a challenge to mid-19th-century technology.

Although it was built within six months and he was knighted for his efforts (1851), it was not until later that the structure was seen as a revolution in style. In 1852–54 its components were moved to Sydenham Hill in Upper Norwood, where they remained (reerected in a different form from the original) until destroyed by fire in 1936.

Paxton was a member of Parliament for Coventry from 1854 until his death. During the period of his glass structures, he also designed many houses in eclectic styles and laid out a number of public parks.

Encyclopædia Britannica


The 1851 Great Exhibition in Hyde Park

Mentmore Towers

Chateau de Ferrieres
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"

The Creatures of Prometheus (German: Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus), Op. 43, is a ballet composed in 1801 by Ludwig van Beethoven following the libretto of Salvatore Viganò. The ballet premiered on 28 March 1801 at the Burgtheater in Vienna and was given 28 performances.

The overture to the ballet is part of the concert repertoire. Beethoven based the fourth movement of his Eroica symphony and his Eroica Variations (piano) on the main theme of the last movement of the ballet.

Beethoven - Die Geschopfe des Prometheus Overture Op.43 by Immerseel, Anima Eterna (2009)
Anima Eterna
Jos van Immerseel, Conductor

22nd September 2009
Live at Au Concert Nobel, Bruxelles

Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"

The Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor "Quasi una fantasia", Op. 27, No. 2, popularly known as the Moonlight Sonata, is a piano sonata by Ludwig van Beethoven. Completed in 1801 and dedicated in 1802 to his pupil, Countess Giulietta Guicciardi, it is one of Beethoven's most popular compositions for the piano.

The first edition of the score is headed Sonata quasi una fantasia, a title this work shares with its companion piece, Op. 27, No. 1. Grove Music Online translates the Italian title as "sonata in the manner of a fantasy". Translated more literally, this is "sonata almost a fantasy". The name "Moonlight Sonata" comes from remarks made by the German music critic and poet Ludwig Rellstab. In 1832, five years after Beethoven's death, Rellstab likened the effect of the first movement to that of moonlight shining upon Lake Lucerne. Within ten years, the name "Moonlight Sonata" ("Mondscheinsonate" in German) was being used in German and English publications. Later in the nineteenth century, the sonata was universally known by that name.Many critics have objected to the subjective, Romantic nature of the title "Moonlight", which has at times been called "a misleading approach to a movement with almost the character of a funeral march" and "absurd". Other critics have approved of the sobriquet, finding it evocative or in line with their own interpretation of the work. Gramophone founder Compton Mackenzie found the title "harmless", remarking that "it is silly for austere critics to work themselves up into a state of almost hysterical rage with poor Rellstab", and adding, "what these austere critics fail to grasp is that unless the general public had responded to the suggestion of moonlight in this music Rellstab's remark would long ago have been forgotten."
Miniature from Beethoven's belongings,
possibly Julie Guicciardi
Beethoven - Piano Sonata Op. 27, No. 2 'Moonlight' - V. Horowitz
Horowitz's recording of Beethoven's Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor.
Rec. April 20, 1972.

I. Adagio sostenuto [0:00]
II. Allegretto [5:55]
III. Presto agitato [8:26]

Ludwig van Beethoven
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Bellini Vincenzo

Vincenzo Bellini, (born November 3, 1801, Catania, Sicily [Italy]—died September 23, 1835, Puteaux, near Paris, France), Italian operatic composer with a gift for creating vocal melody at once pure in style and sensuous in expression. His influence is reflected not only in later operatic compositions, including the early works of Richard Wagner, but also in the instrumental music of Chopin and Liszt.


Vincenzo Bellini
  Born into a family of musicians, Bellini produced his first works while still a student at the Naples Conservatory, where he had been sent by his father, an organist. Bellini gained the patronage of an important impresario, who commissioned Bianca e Fernando for the Naples opera. The success of this early work led to other commissions.

Il pirata (1827), written for La Scala, the opera house at Milan, earned him an international reputation. Bellini was fortunate in having as librettist the best Italian theatre poet of the day, Felice Romani, with whom he collaborated in his next six operas.

The most important of these were I Capuleti e i Montecchi (1830), based on Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet; La sonnambula (1831; The Sleepwalker); and Norma (1831). La sonnambula, an opera semiseria (serious but with a happy ending), became very popular, even in England, where an English version appeared. Bellini’s masterpiece, Norma, a tragedy set in ancient Gaul, achieved lasting success despite an initial failure.

Bellini lived briefly in London in 1833 and then went to Paris. There, composer Gioachino Rossini’s influence secured for him a commission to write an opera for the Théâtre-Italien.

The result was I puritani (1835), the last of Bellini’s nine operas; although handicapped by an inept libretto, it is in many ways his most ambitious and beautiful work.

Bellini’s fame was closely bound up with the bel canto style of the great singers of his day. He was not a reformer; his ideals were those of Haydn and Mozart, and he strove for clarity, elegance of form and melody, and a close union of words and music. Yet with perseverance he corrected some of the grosser abuses of opera then current. While he subordinated the orchestra accompaniment to the singers and placed upon their voices the responsibility for dramatic expression, his harmony was more enterprising than that of his contemporary Gaetano Donizetti, and his handling of the orchestra in introductions and interludes was far from perfunctory. It is, however, for the individual charm and elegance of his luminous vocal melody that Bellini is remembered.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Orchestra a Fiati
Vincenzo Bellini
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Haydn: "The Seasons"
The Seasons (German: Die Jahreszeiten) is an oratorio by Haydn Franz Joseph (H. 21/3).
Haydn was led to write The Seasons by the great success of his previous oratorio The Creation (1798), which had become very popular and was in the course of being performed all over Europe.
The libretto for The Seasons was prepared for Haydn, just as with The Creation, by Baron Gottfried van Swieten, an Austrian nobleman who had also exercised an important influence on the career of Mozart. Van Swieten's libretto was based on extracts from the long English poem "The Seasons" by James Thomson (1700–1748), which had been published in 1730.

Whereas in The Creation Swieten was able to limit himself to rendering an existing (anonymous) libretto into German, for The Seasons he had a much more demanding task. Olleson writes, "Even when Thomson's images were retained, they required abbreviation and adaptation to such an extent that usually no more than faint echoes of them can be discerned, and the libretto often loses all touch with the poem which was its starting point. Increasingly during the course of the oratorio, the words are essentially van Swieten's own or even imported from foreign sources."

Like The Creation, The Seasons was intended as a bilingual work. Since Haydn was very popular in England (particularly following his visits there in 1791–1792 and 1794–1795), he wished the work to be performable in English as well as German. Van Swieten therefore made a translation of his libretto back into English, fitting it to the rhythm of the music. Olleson notes that it is "fairly rare" that the translated version actually matches the Thomson original. Van Swieten's command of English was not perfect, and the English text he created has not always proven satisfying to listeners; for example, one critic writes, "Clinging to [the] retranslation, however, is the heavy-handed imagery of Haydn's sincere, if officious, patron. Gone is the bloom of Thomson's original." Olleson calls the English text "often grotesque", and suggests that English-speaking choruses should perform the work in German: "The Seasons is better served by the decent obscurity of a foreign language than by the English of the first version."

  Composition, premiere, and publication
The composition process was arduous for Haydn, in part because his health was gradually failing and partly because Haydn found van Swieten's libretto to be rather taxing. Haydn took two years to complete the work.

Like The Creation, The Seasons had a dual premiere, first for the aristocracy whose members had financed the work (Schwarzenberg palace, Vienna, 24 April 1801), then for the general public (Redoutensaal, Vienna, 19 May). The oratorio was considered a clear success, but not a success comparable to that of The Creation.

In the years that followed, Haydn continued to lead oratorio performances for charitable causes, but it was usually The Creation that he led, not The Seasons.

The aging Haydn lacked the energy needed to repeat the labor of self-publication that he had undertaken for The Creation and instead assigned the new oratorio to his regular publisher at that time, Breitkopf & Härtel, who published it in 1802.

The Seasons is written for a fairly large late-Classical orchestra, a chorus singing mostly in four parts, and three vocal soloists, representing archetypal country folk: Simon (bass), Lucas (tenor), and Hanne (soprano). The solo voices are thus the same three as in The Creation.

The orchestral parts are for 2 flutes (1st doubling on piccolo in one aria), 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 1 alto trombone, 1 tenor trombone and 1 bass trombone, timpani, percussion, and strings.

In addition, a fortepiano usually plays in recitatives, with or without other instruments from the orchestra.


Title page of the first edition. Translated into English it reads,
"The Seasons, after Thomson, set to music by Joseph Haydn. Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig
Musical content
The oratorio is divided into four parts, corresponding to Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, with the usual recitatives, arias, choruses, and ensemble numbers.

Among the more rousing choruses are a hunting song with horn calls, a wine celebration with dancing peasants (foreshadowing the third movement of Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony), a loud thunderstorm (ditto for Beethoven's fourth movement), and an absurdly stirring ode to toil:

The huts that shelter us,
The wool that covers us,
The food that nourishes us,
All is thy grant, thy gift,
O noble toil.

Haydn remarked that while he had been industrious his whole life long, this was the first occasion he had ever been asked to write a chorus in praise of industry.

Some especially lyrical passages are the choral prayer for a bountiful harvest, "Sei nun gnädig, milder Himmel" (Be thou gracious, O kind heaven), the gentle nightfall that follows the storm, and Hanne's cavatina on Winter.

The work is filled with the "tone-painting" that also characterized The Creation: a plowman whistles as he works (in fact, he whistles the well-known theme from Haydn's own Surprise Symphony), a bird shot by a hunter falls from the sky, there is a sunrise (evoking the one in The Creation), and so on.

  The "French trash" episode
There is some evidence that Haydn himself was not happy with van Swieten's libretto, or at least one particular aspect of tone-painting it required, namely the portrayal of the croaking of frogs, which is found during the serene movement that concludes Part II, "Summer". The version of the anecdote given below is from the work of Haydn scholar H. C. Robbins Landon.

In 1801, August Eberhard Müller (1767–1817) prepared a piano version of the oratorio's orchestra part, for purposes of rehearsal and informal performance. Haydn, whose health was in decline, did not take on this task himself, but he did look over a draft of Müller's work and wrote some suggested changes in the margins. Amid these changes appeared an off-the-cuff complaint about van Swieten's libretto:

NB! This whole passage, with its imitation of the frogs, was not my idea: I was forced to write this Frenchified trash. This wretched idea disappears rather soon when the whole orchestra is playing, but it simply cannot be included in the pianoforte reduction.
Robbins Landon continues the story as follows:

Müller foolishly showed the passage in the enclosed sheet, quoted above, to the editor of the Zeitung für die elegante Welt, who promptly included it in support of his criticism of Swieten's wretched libretto. Swieten was enraged, and [Haydn's friend] Griesinger reported that His Excellency "intends to rub into Haydn's skin, with salt and pepper, the assertion that he [Haydn] was forced into composing the croaking frogs."
A later letter of Griesinger's indicates that the rift thus created was not permanent.

The term "Frenchified trash" was almost certainly not a gesture of contempt for France or French people; Haydn in fact had friendly relationships with French musicians (see, e.g. Paris symphonies). Rather, Haydn was probably referring to an earlier attempt by van Swieten to persuade him to set the croaking of the frogs by showing him a work by the French composer André Grétry that likewise included frog-croaking.

Critical reception
Although the work has always attracted far less attention than The Creation, it nonetheless has been strongly appreciated by critics. Charles Rosen calls both oratorios "among the greatest works of the century", but judges The Seasons to be the musically more successful of the two. Daniel Heartz, writing near the end of a massive three-volume account of the Classical era, writes "The Hunting and Drinking choruses first led me to study Haydn's music more extensively beginning some forty years ago ... no music has elated me more in old age than The Seasons." Michael Steinberg writes that the work "ensure[s] Haydn's premiere place with Titian, Michelangelo and Turner, Mann and Goethe, Verdi and Stravinsky, as one of the rare artists to whom old age brings the gift of ever bolder invention."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Haydn - The Seasons (Die Jahreszeiten)
Vocals: G. Janowitz, W. Hollweg
Orchestra: Berlin Philarmonic Orchestra conducted by H. von Karajan

0:00 Spring
35:19 Summer
1:19:17 Autumn
1:57:38 Winter

Franz Joseph Haydn
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner (12 April 1801 – 14 April 1843) was an Austrian dance music composer. He is best remembered as one of the earliest Viennese composers to reform the waltz from a simple peasant dance to something that even the highest society could enjoy, either as an accompaniment to the dance, or for the music's own sake. He was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann Strauss I, who was better known outside of Austria in their day because of his concert tours abroad, in particular, to France and England.
Lanner had a lesser-known son, August Lanner, who was just as musically gifted and prodigious as his father. His daughter Katharina became a well known international ballet dancer, settling in London where she became an influential choreographer and teacher.

Joseph Lanner
Lanner was born in St. Ulrich in Vienna. Largely self-taught on the violin, he joined a small string orchestra of Michael Pamer at about the same time as Johann Strauss I did, although he decided to venture into the music business himself and partnered with Karl and Johann Drahanek, forming a quartet that bore his name.

The success of this string quartet led to its gradual expansion, and in 1824 Lanner was able to conduct a small string orchestra playing Viennese dance music. Such was the success of his orchestra that it was a regular feature in many Vienna carnivals, popularly known in the local dialect as the Fasching. It was in 1832 that Lanner allowed his soon-to-be rival Johann Strauss I to deputise in a second, smaller orchestra that was formed that year to meet the busy schedule of the Carnival activities.

Lanner was already gaining a reputation at the end of the 1825 Carnival season and Strauss I was frustrated at having to deputise when necessary and as a result, his works were not getting the recognition he thought they deserved. In the same year, Strauss I parted company with Lanner after a concert at one of the Viennese dance establishments, Zum Schwarzen Bock (The Black Ram).

Although many press reports stated a furious encounter between the two composers including a rumor that Strauss forcibly departed the orchestra with a few of Lanner's talented musicians, these remained largely unsubstantiated as Lanner had earlier dedicated a waltz to Strauss entitled "Trennungs-Walzer" ("Separation Waltz"), Op. 19, which indicated a decent level of goodwill and respect for the craft of the two composers.

Further, Lanner and Strauss I worked together often despite having severed their partnership and even gave a benefit concert for their former employer, Michael Pamer who was taken ill in 1826 at the same establishment where they separated. For their charity work Strauss and Lanner also accepted the honorary citizenship of Vienna in 1836 and jointly took the Citizen's Oath.

Joseph Lanner
  The music-loving Viennese however were championing both of these two popular dance music composers, and individuals generally identified themselves as Lannerianer or Straussianer. In fact, it was believed that the ruling Habsburg dynasty was anxious to divert its Viennese populace from politics and the revolutionary ideas that were feverishly sweeping Europe, with many cities preparing to overthrow any unpopular monarch.

The answer would be to distract the population with music and entertainment, and the musical positions that both Lanner and Strauss held were soon seen to be very important. Lanner himself was appointed to the coveted post of Musik-Direktor of the Redoutensäle in the Hofburg Imperial Palace of which his primary duties were to conduct concerts held in honor of the nobility and to compose new works for the Court orchestra.

Strauss' popularity soon overshadowed Lanner in the early 1840s. Strauss was eager to undertake extensive lucrative tours abroad including England, whereas Lanner held on in Vienna unconvinced that the other nationalities were prepared to listen to Viennese music. Lanner succumbed to a typhus infection that racked Vienna in 1843 and died at Döbling on Good Friday, 14 April in the same year.

The famous rivalry with Strauss I had ended; Lanner's death marked the beginning of a period where the Strauss family was to dominate the Viennese dance music scene for well over a half a century and concluded an era of interesting and exciting developments for the waltz and other popular dance music.


Among Lanner's more popular works are the "Pesther-Walzer", Op. 93, "Hofballtänze Walzer", Op. 161, "Die Werber" Waltz, Op. 103, "Die Romantiker" Waltz, Op. 167, and probably his most well-known work, "Die Schönbrunner" Walzer, Op. 200, probably the most famous of all waltzes before "The Blue Danube" by Johann Strauss II in the mid-1860s. Most of Lanner's waltzes were dedicated to members of the nobility as evidenced from the titles which was part of the nature of Lanner's position at that time. His "Styrian Dances" (Steyrische-Tänze), Op. 165, was also played occasionally at the Vienna New Year's Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Lortzing Albert
Albert Lortzing, in full Gustav Albert Lortzing (born Oct. 23, 1801, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]—died Jan. 21, 1851, Berlin), composer who established the 19th-century style of light German opera that remained in favour until the mid-20th century.

Albert Lortzing
  Lortzing’s parents were actors, and he was largely self-taught as a musician.
He produced a one-act vaudeville, Ali Pascha von Janina, in 1828; a play with music, Der Pole und sein Kind (1832; “The Pole and His Child”); and in 1832 wrote (but did not produce) Szenen aus Mozarts Leben (“Scenes of Mozart’s Life”), with music selected from the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
From 1833 to 1844 he sang as a tenor in Leipzig.

His most successful opera was Zar (originally Czaar) und Zimmermann (1837; “Tsar and Carpenter”), based on an episode from the life of Peter the Great. Other operas include Undine (1845), a romantic opera in the style of Carl Maria von Weber and Heinrich August Marschner, Der Waffenschmied (1846; “The Military Blacksmith”), and Rolands Knappen (1849).

His style derives from that of the German Singspiel and from the early 19th-century French opéra comique, which enjoyed a great vogue in Germany.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Radio-Symphonie-Orchester Berlin
Christoph Stepp, conductor
Albert Lortzing
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
M. F. X. Bichat: "Anatomie generale"
Bichat Marie François Xavier

Marie-François-Xavier Bichat, (born Nov. 11/14, 1771, Thoirette, France—died July 22, 1802, Lyon), French anatomist and physiologist whose systematic study of human tissues helped found the science of histology.


Marie-François-Xavier Bichat
  Bichat studied anatomy and surgery under Marc-Antoine Petit, chief surgeon at the Hôtel Dieu in Lyon. In 1793 he became a pupil, then assistant, of Pierre-Joseph Desault, surgeon and anatomist in Paris. After his teacher’s death in 1795, Bichat completed the fourth volume of Desault’s Journal de chirurgie, adding a biographical memoir of its author.
In addition to his observations at the bedsides of patients at the Hôtel Dieu, Bichat studied the postmortem changes induced in various organs by disease. Without knowledge of the cell as the functional unit of living things, he was among the first to visualize the organs of the body as being formed through the differentiation of simple, functional units, or tissues. This view he developed in Traité des membranes (1800; “Treatise on Membranes”). Although Bichat did not use the microscope, he distinguished 21 kinds of tissues that enter into different combinations in forming the organs of the body. His Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la mort (1800; “Physiological Researches on Life and Death”) was followed by Anatomie générale (1801). He published the first two volumes of Anatomie descriptive in 1801–03, and the third was completed by his pupils after his death. By order of Napoleon his bust, along with that of Desault, was placed in the Hôtel Dieu.

Encyclopædia Britannica

American civil engineer Robert Fulton produces the first submarine "Nautilus"
Fulton Robert

Robert Fulton, (born Nov. 14, 1765, Lancaster county, Pa. [U.S.]—died Feb. 24, 1815, New York, N.Y.), American inventor, engineer, and artist who brought steamboating from the experimental stage to commercial success. He also designed a system of inland waterways, a submarine, and a steam warship.


Robert Fulton
  Fulton was the son of Irish immigrants. When their unproductive farm was lost by mortgage foreclosure in 1771, the family moved to Lancaster, where Fulton’s father died in 1774 (not 1786 as is generally written). Having learned to read and write at home, Fulton was sent at age eight to a Quaker school; later he became an apprentice in a Philadelphia jewelry shop, where he specialized in the painting of miniature portraits on ivory for lockets and rings.

After settling his mother on a small farm in western Pennsylvania in 1786, Fulton went to Bath, Va., to recover from a severe cough. There the paintings by the young man—tall, graceful, and an engaging conversationalist—were admired by people who advised him to study in Europe. On returning to Philadelphia, Fulton applied himself to painting and the search for a sponsor. Local merchants, eager to raise the city’s cultural level, financed his passage to London in 1787.

Although Fulton’s reception in London was cordial, his paintings made little impression; they showed neither the style nor the promise required to provide him more than a precarious living. Meanwhile, he became acquainted with new inventions for propelling boats: a water jet ejected by a steam pump and a single, mechanical paddle. His own experiments led him to conclude that several revolving paddles at the stern would be most effective.

Beginning in 1794, however, having admitted defeat as a painter, Fulton turned his principal efforts toward canal engineering.

His Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation, in 1796, dealt with a complete system of inland-water transportation based on small canals extending throughout the countryside. He included details on inclined planes for raising boats—he did not favour locks—aqueducts for valley crossings, boats for specialized cargo, and bridge designs featuring bowstring beams to transmit only vertical loads to the piers. A few bridges were built to his design in the British Isles, but his canal ideas were nowhere accepted.
Undaunted, he travelled in 1797 to Paris, where he proposed the idea of a submarine, the “Nautilus,” to be used in France’s war with Britain; it would creep under the hulls of British warships and leave a powder charge to be exploded later. The French government rejected the idea, however, as an atrocious and dishonourable way to fight. In 1800 he was able to build the “Nautilus” at his own expense; he conducted trials on the Seine and finally obtained government sanction for an attack, but wind and tide enabled two British ships to elude his slow vessel.

In 1801 Fulton met Robert R. Livingston, a member of the committee that drafted the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Before becoming minister to France, Livingston had obtained a 20-year monopoly of steamboat navigation within the state of New York. The two men decided to share the expense of building a steamboat in Paris using Fulton’s design—a side paddlewheel, 66-foot- (20-metre-) long boat, with an eight-horsepower engine of French design. Although the engine broke the hull, they were encouraged by success with another hull. Fulton ordered parts for a 24-horsepower engine from Boulton and Watt for a boat on the Hudson, and Livingston obtained an extension on his monopoly of steamboat navigation.

Returning to London in 1804, Fulton advanced his ideas with the British government for submersible and low-lying craft that would carry explosives in an attack. Two raids against the French using his novel craft, however, were unsuccessful. In 1805, after Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar, it was apparent that Britain was in control of the seas without the aid of Fulton’s temperamental weapons. In the same year, the parts for his projected steamboat were ready for shipment to the United States, but Fulton spent a desperate year attempting to collect money he felt the British owed him.

  Arriving in New York in December 1806, Fulton at once set to work supervising the construction of the steamboat that had been planned in Paris with Livingston. He also attempted to interest the U.S. government in a submarine, but his demonstration of it was a fiasco.
By early August 1807 a 150-foot- (45-metre-) long “Steamboat,” as Fulton called it, was ready for trials. Its single-cylinder condensing steam engine (24-inch bore and four-foot stroke) drove two 15-foot-diameter side paddlewheels; it consumed oak and pine fuel, which produced steam at a pressure of two to three pounds per square inch. The 150-mile (240-kilometre) trial run from New York to Albany required 32 hours (an average of almost 4.7 miles [7.6 kilometres] per hour), considerably better time than the four miles per hour required by the monopoly. The passage was epic because sailing sloops required four days for the same trip.

After building an enginehouse, raising the bulwark, and installing berths in the cabins of the now-renamed “North River Steamboat,” Fulton began commercial trips in September. He made three round trips fortnightly between New York and Albany, carrying passengers and light freight. Problems, however, remained: the mechanical difficulties, for example, and the jealous sloopboatmen, who through “inadvertence” would ram the unprotected paddlewheels of their new rivals. During the first winter season he stiffened and widened the hull, replaced the cast-iron crankshaft with a forging, fitted guards over the wheels, and improved passenger accommodations. These modifications made it a different boat, which was registered in 1808 as the “North River Steamboat of Clermont,” soon reduced to “Clermont” by the press.

In 1808 Fulton married his partner’s niece, Harriet Livingston, by whom he had a son and three daughters.

In 1811 the Fulton-designed, Pittsburgh-built “New Orleans” was sent south to validate the Livingston–Fulton steamboat monopoly of the New Orleans Territory. The trip was slow and perilous, river conditions being desperate because of America’s first recorded, and also largest, earthquake, which had destroyed New Madrid just below the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Fulton’s low-powered vessel remained at New Orleans, for it could go no farther upstream than Natchez. He built three boats for Western rivers that were based at New Orleans, but none could conquer the passage to Pittsburgh.

Submarine ("Submarine Vessel, Submarine Bombs and Mode of Attack") for the United States government. Submarine vessel, longitudinal section. Scan from original engineering design in pencil, ink, and watercolor. 1806.
Fulton was a member of the 1812 commission that recommended building the Erie Canal. With the English blockade the same year, he insisted that a mobile floating gun platform be built—the world’s first steam warship—to protect New York Harbor against the British fleet. The “Demologos,” or “Fulton,” as the ship was alternately called, incorporated new and novel ideas: two parallel hulls, with paddlewheel between; the steam engine in one hull, and boilers and stacks in the other. It weighed 2,745 displacement tons and measured 156 feet (48 metres) in length; a slow vessel, its speed did not exceed 6 knots (6 nautical miles, or 11 kilometres, per hour). Launched in October 1814, the heavily gunned and armoured steamship underwent successful sea trials but was never used in battle; when peace came in December, it was transferred to the Brooklyn Navy Yard, where it was destroyed by an accidental explosion in 1829.

By 1810 three of Fulton’s boats served the Hudson and Raritan rivers. His steamboats also replaced the horse ferries that were used for heavily travelled river crossings in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. He retained the typical broad double-ended hulls that needed no turning for the return passage. Manhattan’s crosstown Fulton Street, named in 1816, was the principal thoroughfare connecting the two river terminals.

  Fulton spent much of his wealth in litigations involving the pirating of patents relating to steamboats and in trying to suppress rival steamboat builders who found loopholes in the state-granted monopoly. His wealth was further depleted by his unsuccessful submarine projects, investments in paintings, and financial assistance to farmer kin and young artists. After testifying at a legal hearing in Trenton, early in 1815, he became chilled en route home to New York, where he died. His family made claims on the U.S. government for services rendered. A bill of $100,000 for the relief of the heirs finally passed the Congress in 1846 but was reduced to $76,300, with no interest.

A Hudson–Fulton Celebration in 1909 commemorated the success of the “North River Steamboat of Clermont” and the discovery in 1609 of the North River by the English navigator who was the first to sail upstream to Albany.

A “Robert Fulton” commemorative stamp was issued in 1965, the bicentenary of his birth, and the two-story farmhouse, his birthplace, was acquired and restored by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Richard S. Hartenberg

Encyclopædia Britannica

Fulton's "Nautilus"
Fulton's "Nautilus"

Fulton built the first Nautilus of copper sheets over iron ribs at the Perrier boatyard in Rouen. It was 21 ft 3 in (6.48 m) long and 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) in the beam. Propulsion was provided by a hand-cranked screw propeller. The hollow iron keel was the vessels ballast tank, flooded and emptied to change buoyancy. Two horizontal fins, diving planes in modern terms, on the stubby horizontal rudder controlled angle of dive. Overall, Nautilus resembled a modern research submarine, such as the NR-1, having a long teardrop hull. The design included an observation dome, somewhat similar in appearance, if not function, to the conning tower of later submarines. When surfaced, a fan-shaped collapsible sail, reminiscent of those popular on Chinese ships, could be deployed. Air, beyond that enclosed within the vessel, could be provided by a snorkel constructed of waterproofed leather.

Nautilus was designed from the start to carry what Fulton called a "carcass", a naval mine intended to be dragged into contact with an enemy ship. A device on the top of the dome drove a spiked eye into the enemy's wooden hull. The submarine then released its mine on a line that went through the eye. The submarine sped away. When the long line had paid out the mine would strike the target hull and explode by a detonator. These "carcasses" were variously sized copper cylinders carrying between ten and two hundred pounds of gunpowder. Contact with the hull triggered a gunlock mechanism.
Nautilus first test dives were the Seine at Rouen, in the Saint-Gervais dock, beginning July 29, 1800. These tests were all successful, but the river current interfered with some tests, Fulton took the boat to Le Havre to work in the quiet salt water of the harbor. He tested endurance with a candle lit, and found the flame did not challenge the air capacity of the snorkel. He also tested the speed of his two men cranking against that of two men rowing on the surface. Nautilus covered the 360 ft (110 m) course two minutes faster than the rowing crew. During this time he changed the screw propeller to one with four vanes, like a windmill, and modified the rudder.

Through friends like Gaspard Monge and Pierre-Simon Laplace, Fulton obtained an interview with Napoleon, but was unable to garner support for his vessel. However, Fulton's friends pushed the Minister of Marine into appointing a scholarly panel, to consist of Volney, Monge, and Laplace, to assess the submarine.

  On July 3, 1801, at Le Havre, Fulton took the revised Nautilus down to the then-remarkable depth of 25 feet (7.6 m). With his three crewmen and two candles burning he remained for an hour without difficulty.

Adding a copper "bomb" (globe) containing 200 ft3 (5.7m3) of air extended the time underwater for the crew for at least four and a half hours. However, one of the renovations included a 1.5-inch-diameter (38 mm) glass in the dome, whose light he found sufficient for reading a watch, making candles during daylight activities unnecessary.
Speed trials put Nautilus at two knots on the surface, and covering 400 m in 7 minutes. He also discovered that compasses worked underwater exactly as on the surface.

The first trial of a "carcass" destroyed a 40-foot sloop provided by the Admiralty. Fulton suggested that not only should they be used against specific ships by submarines, but be set floating into harbors and into estuaries with the tide to wreak havoc at random.

The overseeing committee enthusiastically recommended the building of two brass subs, 36 ft (11 m) long, 12 ft (3.7 m) wide, with a crew of eight, and air for eight hours of submersion.

In September, Napoleon expressed interest in seeing the Nautilus, only to find that, as it had leaked badly, Fulton had her dismantled and the more important bits destroyed at the end of the tests.

Despite the many reports of success by reliable witnesses, like the Prefect Marine of Brest, Napoleon decided Fulton was a swindler and charlatan. The French navy had no enthusiasm for a weapon they considered suicidal for the crews even though Fulton had had no problems and despite evidence it would be overwhelmingly destructive against conventional ships.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

J. J. Lalande catalogues 47,390 stars
Lalande Jerome

Jérôme Lalande, in full Joseph-Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande, Lefrançais also spelled Le Français, Lefrançois, or Le François (born July 11, 1732, Bourg-en-Bresse, France—died April 4, 1807, Paris), French astronomer whose tables of planetary positions were considered the best available until the end of the 18th century.


Jérôme Lalande
  A law student in Paris, Lalande became interested in astronomy while he was lodging at the Hôtel de Cluny, where the noted astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle had his observatory.

In 1751 Lalande went to Berlin to make lunar observations in concert with the work of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille at the Cape of Good Hope. The success of this task and the subsequent calculation of the Moon’s distance secured for Lalande, before he reached the age of 21, admission to the Academy of Berlin and the post of adjunct astronomer to the Academy of Paris.

Lalande then devoted himself to the improvement of planetary theory, publishing in 1759 a corrected edition of the tables of Halley’s Comet.

He helped organize international collaboration in observing the transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769; the data obtained made possible the accurate calculation of the distance between Earth and the Sun.

In 1762 Lalande was appointed to the chair of astronomy in the Collège de France, Paris, a position that he held for 46 years.
A popularizer of astronomy, he instituted the Lalande Prize in 1802 for the chief astronomical contribution of each year.

Among his voluminous works are Traité d’astronomie (1764; “Treatise on Astronomy”), Histoire céleste française (1801; “French Celestial History”), and Bibliographie astronomique (1803; “Astronomical Bibliography”), which is still a valuable resource for historians of 18th-century astronomy.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Flinders Matthew
Matthew Flinders, (born March 16, 1774, Donington, Lincolnshire, England—died July 19, 1814, London), English navigator who charted much of the Australian coast.

Matthew Flinders
  Flinders entered the Royal Navy in 1789 and became a navigator. In 1795 he sailed to Australia, where he explored and charted its southeast coast and circumnavigated the island of Tasmania.

As commander of the Investigator, he again sailed from England for Australia in 1801. On this visit he surveyed the entire southern coast, from Cape Leeuwin, in the southwest, to the Bass Strait, which separates mainland Australia from Tasmania.

On July 22, 1802, he sailed from Sydney (on Port Jackson) and charted the east coast of Australia and the Gulf of Carpentaria on the north coast. Continuing westward and southward, he circumnavigated Australia and again reached Port Jackson on June 9, 1803.

In December, on the voyage back to England, the condition of his ship required him to stop at the Île de France (now Mauritius) in the western Indian Ocean.

There he was interned by the French authorities and was not allowed to leave for England until 1810. His Voyage to Terra Australis appeared shortly before his death.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Voyage of Matthew Flinders
The British in Australia
Cook's discover)" in 1770 of New South Wales was timely for the British because the success of the American colonists in fighting to gain their independence in 1781 meant that convicts could no longer be sent to North America. The land described by Cook appeared to be an acceptable alternative, and in May 1787 the First Fleet, consisting of 11 ships, set sail carrying nearly 800 convicts. Also on board were the first Governor, Captain Arthur Phillip, a large number of sailors and marines (plus families, in some cases), and stores for two years. After a trouble-free journey, the fleet arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 and then moved north to establish a settlement where there was better farming land, at Port Jackson or, as it was to be called, Sydney Harbour.

An air of fantasy hovers around this operation and the marvel is that, despite severe hardship, the settlement somehow survived and eventually prospered. The Governor and his men knew virtually nothing about the continent to which they had been summarily despatched, neither the land nor the Aborigines who had inhabited it for some 50,000 years.

Voyage of
Matthew Flinders
In 1788, when the First Fleet arrived, the Aborigines probably numbered more than 300,000. They were divided into many different groups, speaking different languages, and occupying distinct regions marked by natural features such as rivers and mountain ranges. They lived in close affinity with nature and understood their own land in a profound, mystical way that was beyond the ken of Europeans. They also knew a great deal about its geography, for although they lived within their own clearly defined territories, there were many contacts between different groups, and long journeys were undertaken for trading or cultural purposes.

The beleaguered settlers at first made little effort at exploration. Some years passed before anyone reached the Blue Mountains, 37 miles (60 kilometers) away, many more before the interior was understood. Exploring the coasts was more urgent, as the French were showing interest in New Holland and the British wished to lay claim to the whole continent. The task was undertaken by Matthew Flinders, an explorer in the Cook tradition -intelligent, humane, and determined.
  Flinders's first voyage
Flinders, a midshipman, arrived in Sydney in 1796 on the same ship as his friend George Bass. At 21, he was already an experienced sailor. With the Governor's encouragement, Flinders and Bass sailed in a sloop to discover if, as was widely suspected, Tasmania was an island. They sailed through what was subsequently named Bass Strait and circumnavigated Tasmania, exploring the valleys of the Tamar and Derwent.

Flinders's second voyage

In 1800 Flinders returned to England, where he gamed the support of Sir Joseph Banks for a projected exploration of the whole coast of New Holland. At Banks's urging, the Admiralty issued the relevant order and provided Flinders with a ship, the Investigator. She was an ex-collier, like Cook's Endeavour, but proved abominably leaky despite her refit. Several scientists and other experts sailed with him, but the astronomer, a martyr to seasickness, left at Cape Town with the result that Flinders and his brother Samuel made all the astronomical observations. In the process, they added significantly to the science of navigation, most notably to knowledge of magnetic variation.

This sketch map of Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, was made by one of the convicts deported there in 1788. The First Fleet is shown at anchor in the bay.
Along the south coast
From Cape Leeuwm, the Investigator made a six-month cruise along the south coast, hugging the shore, most of it virgin. Flinders sometimes walked 20 miles (30 kilometers) to a suitable hill from which to take bearings.

They explored Spencer Gulf, which turned out not to be a strait, as some believed, dividing New South Wales and New Holland. Soon after, the Investigator encountered Nicolas Baudin in the Geographe, exploring the coast between Bass Strait and Encounter Bay on behalf of France.

Despite language problems, they exchanged information amicably. Both missed the Murray River; in fact Flinders failed to spot the outlets of any of the great rivers, encouraging speculation that they drained into a huge inland lake.

After ten weeks' recuperation at Port Jackson, Flinders set out north along the east coast. He narrowly beat the monsoon to Torres Strait, and found a new route through that notoriously hazardous waterway.
  His belief that it would become a valuable short cut between the Pacific and Indian Oceans failed to take account of the fact that few captains possessed his navigational skills.

In the Gulf of Carpentaria which, like Spencer Gulf, offered no strait, the state of the ship was found to be desperate. Nevertheless, Flinders continued up the western shore, hitting rocks now and again, and along Arnhem Land. Though he made ever)' effort not to antagonize the Aborigines, an attack on Groote Eylandt, in which a sailor was speared, was repelled by guns and one man was killed. Off Arnhem Land, in one of those encounters that reminds us that European explorers often went where others had long been accustomed to go before, they came across a group of Malay fishermen. Flinders named an island Pabassoo, after their leader.

Flinders had come to the reluctant conclusion that to continue his survey would invite disaster, and in March 1803 he sailed from Arnhem Bay to Timor for stores, thence back to Sydney, completing his circumnavigation.

The discovery, by Matthew Flinders and George Bass, that Tasmania was an island, took a week off the voyage time from the Cape to New South Wales.
Return to England
He sailed for England, but was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef and returned to Sydney, where he was given a 30-ton schooner, the Cumberland. He set out once more, via Torres Strait, which he passed through in three days. Forced into Mauritius for repairs, he was imprisoned by the French Governor. (Although the Investigator had a safe-conduct from the French, who were at war with the British, the Governor deemed it not to cover the Cumberland.) Flinders remained in captivity for over six years, not reaching England until 1810. In poor health, he managed to complete his account of A Voyage to Terra Australis, dying the day it was published in 1814.
Lamarck Jean-Baptiste: "Systeme des animaux sans vertebres"

Lamarck: "Systeme des animaux sans vertebres"
European population statistics: Italy 17.2 million; Spain 10.5 million; Britain 10.4 million; London 864,000; Paris 547,000; Vienna 231,000; Berlin 183,000
First iron trolley tracks, Croydon-Wandsworth, England
The Union Jack becomes official flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britan and Ireland
Union Jack

The earliest form of the flag of Great Britain, developed in 1606 and used during the reigns of James I (1603–25) and Charles I (1625–49), displayed the red cross of England superimposed on the white cross of Scotland, with the blue field of the latter.


Red, white, and blue flag in which are combined the Crosses of St. George (England), St. Andrew (Scotland), and St. Patrick (Ireland). Initially the flag was called a jack only when it was flown at the bowsprit of British naval vessels. It was commonly called the Union Jack by the late 17th century, and that name became official in the late 19th century. The Union Jack is flown on land for government and military purposes, and at sea it serves as a flag for the Royal Navy. The general public uses it unofficially as a civil flag.
Because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible, the red cross had to be bordered with white, its own correct field. During the Commonwealth and Protectorate period (1649–60), the Irish harp was incorporated in the Union Jack, but the flag resumed its original form on the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Thus did the “Union Flag,” or “Great Union,” continue in use until January 1, 1801, the effective date of the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland. In order to incorporate the Cross of St. Patrick (a red diagonal cross on white) while preserving the individual entities of the three crosses, the heraldic advisers to the sovereign found an elegant solution. The existing white Cross of St. Andrew was divided diagonally, with the red appearing below the white on the hoist half of the flag and above it on the fly half. To avoid having the red cross touch the blue background, which would be contrary to heraldic law, a fimbriation (narrow border) of white was added to the red cross.   In the centre, a white fimbriation also separated the Cross of St. Patrick from the red Cross of St. George.

The Union Jack is the most important of all British flags and is flown by representatives of the United Kingdom all the world over. In certain authorized military, naval, royal, and other uses, the Union Jack may be incorporated into another flag.

For example, it forms the canton of both the British Blue Ensign and the British Red Ensign. It is part of the flags of such Commonwealth nations as Australia, New Zealand, and Tuvalu, as well as of the U.S. state of Hawaii, the Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia), and three Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario).

Encyclopædia Britannica


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