Napoleon Crossing the Alps
(also known as Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass or
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps) is the title given to the five
versions of an oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon
Bonaparte painted by the French artist
between 1801 and 1805. Initially commissioned by the king of
Spain, the composition shows a strongly idealized view of
the real crossing that Napoleon and his army made across the
Alps through the Great St. Bernard Pass in May 1800.
Having taken power in France during the 18 Brumaire on 9
November 1799, Napoleon determined to return to Italy to
reinforce the French troops in the country and retake the
territory seized by the Austrians in the preceding years. In
the spring of 1800 he led the Reserve Army across the Alps
through the Great St. Bernard Pass.
The Austrian forces,
under Michael von Melas, were laying siege to Masséna in
Genoa and Napoleon hoped to gain the element of surprise by
taking the trans-Alpine route. By the time Napoleon's troops
arrived, Genoa had fallen; but he pushed ahead, hoping to
engage the Austrians before they could regroup. The Reserve
Army fought a battle at Montebello on 9 June before
eventually securing a decisive victory at the Battle of
The installation of
Napoleon as First Consul and the French victory in Italy
allowed for a rapprochement with Charles IV of Spain. While
talks were underway to re-establish diplomatic relations, a
traditional exchange of gifts took place. Charles received
Versailles-manufactured pistols, dresses from the best
Parisian dressmakers, jewels for the queen, and a fine set
of armour for the newly reappointed Prime Minister, Manuel
Godoy. In return Napoleon was offered sixteen Spanish horses
from the royal stables, portraits of the king and queen by
Goya, and the portrait that was to be commissioned from
David. The French ambassador to Spain, Charles-Jean-Marie
Alquier, requested the original painting from David on
Charles' behalf. The portrait was to hang in the Royal
Palace of Madrid as a token of the new relationship between
the two countries. David, who had been an ardent supporter
of the Revolution but had transferred his fervour to the new
Consulate, was eager to undertake the commission.
On learning of the request,
Bonaparte instructed David to produce three further
versions: one for the Château de Saint-Cloud, one for the
library of Les Invalides, and a third for the palace of the
Cisalpine Republic in Milan. A fifth version was produced by
David and remained in various of his workshops until his
History of the five
The original painting remained in Madrid until 1812, when it
was taken by Joseph Bonaparte after his abdication as King
of Spain. He took it with him when he went into exile in the
United States, and it hung at his Point Breeze estate near
Bordentown, New Jersey.
The painting was handed down through
his descendants until 1949, when his great grandniece,
Eugenie Bonaparte, bequeathed it to the museum of the
Château de Malmaison.
The version produced for
the Château de Saint-Cloud from 1801 was removed in 1814 by
the Prussian soldiers under von Blücher who offered it to
the King of Prussia. It is now held in the Charlottenburg
Palace in Berlin.
The 1802 copy from Les
Invalides was taken down and put into storage on the Bourbon
Restoration of 1814; but in 1837, under the orders of
Louis-Philippe, it was rehung in his newly declared museum
at the Palace of Versailles, where it remains to the present
The 1803 version was
delivered to Milan but confiscated in 1816 by the Austrians.
However, the people of Milan refused to give it up and it
remained in the city until 1825. It was finally installed at
the Belvedere in Vienna in 1834. It remains there today, now
part of the collection of the Österreichische Galerie
The version kept by David
until his death in 1825 was exhibited at the Bazar
Bonne-Nouvelle (fr) in 1846 (where it was remarked upon by
Baudelaire). In 1850 it was offered to the future Napoleon
III by David's daughter, Pauline Jeanin, and installed at
the Tuileries Palace. In 1979, it was given to the museum at
the Palace of Versailles.
All five versions of the picture are of roughly the same
large size (2.6 x 2.2 m). Bonaparte appears mounted in the
uniform of a general in chief, wearing a gold-trimmed
bicorne, and armed with a Mamluk-style sabre. He is wreathed
in the folds of a large cloak which billows in the wind. His
head is turned towards the viewer, and he gestures with his
right hand toward the mountain summit. His left hand grips
the reins of his steed. The horse rears up on its back legs,
its mane and tail whipped against its body by the same wind
that inflates Napoleon's cloak. In background a line of the
soldiers interspersed with artillery make their way up the
mountain. Dark clouds hang over the picture and in front of
Bonaparte the mountains rise up sharply. In the foreground
BONAPARTE, HANNIBAL and KAROLVS MAGNVS IMP. are engraved on
rocks. On the breastplate yoke of the horse, the picture is
signed and dated.
First Versailles version.
Second Versailles version
Differences between the
In the original version held at Malmaison (260 x 221 cm;
102⅓ x 87 in), Bonaparte has an orange cloak, the crispin
(cuff) of his gauntlet is embroidered, the horse is piebald,
black and white, and the tack is complete and includes a
standing martingale. The girth around the horse's belly is a
dark faded red. The officer holding a sabre in the
background is obscured by the horse's tail. Napoleon's face
appears youthful. The painting is signed in the yoke of the
breastplate: L. DAVID YEAR IX.
The Charlottenburg version
(260 x 226 cm; 102⅓ x 89 in) shows Napoleon in a red cloak
mounted on a chestnut horse. The tack is simpler, lacking
the martingale, and the girth is grey-blue. There are traces
of snow on the ground. Napoleon's features are sunken with
the faint hint of a smile. The picture is signed L.DAVID
In the first Versailles
version (272 x 232 cm; 107 x 91⅓ in), the horse is a dappled
grey, the tack is identical to that of the Charlottenburg
version, and the girth is blue.
The embroidery of the
gauntlet is simplified with the facing of the sleeve
visible under the glove. The landscape is darker and
Napoleon's expression is sterner. The picture is not
The version from the
Belvedere (264 x 232 cm; 104 x 91⅓ in) is almost identical
to that of Versailles but is signed J.L.DAVID L.ANNO X.
The second Versailles
version (267 x 230 cm; 105 x 90½ in) shows a black and white
horse with complete tack but lacking the martingale. The
girth is red. The cloak is orange-red, the collar is black,
and the embroidery of the gauntlet is very simple and almost
unnoticeable. The scarf tied around Napoleon's waist is
The officer with the sabre is again masked by
the tail of the horse. Napoleon's features are older, he has
shorter hair, and—as in the Charlottenburg version—there is
the faint trace of a smile. The embroidery and the style of
the bicorne suggest that the picture was completed after
1804. The picture is not dated but is signed L.DAVID.
Sir Joseph Paxton,
(born Aug. 3, 1801, near Woburn, Bedfordshire, Eng.—died
June 8, 1865, Sydenham, near London), English landscape
gardener and designer of hothouses, who was the
architect of the Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition
of 1851 in London.
He was originally a
gardener employed by the duke of Devonshire, whose
friend, factotum, and adviser he became. From 1826
he was superintendent of the gardens at Chatsworth,
the duke’s Derbyshire estate; he built in iron and
glass the famous conservatory there (1840) and the
lily house for the duke’s rare Victoria regia
Also in 1850, after a cumbersome design had been
officially accepted by the Great Exhibition’s
organizers, Paxton’s inspired plan for a building of
prefabricated elements of sheet glass and iron was
substituted. His design, based on his earlier glass
structures, covered four times the area of St.
Peter’s, Rome, and the grandeur of its conception
was a challenge to mid-19th-century technology.
Although it was built within six months and he was
knighted for his efforts (1851), it was not until
later that the structure was seen as a revolution in
style. In 1852–54 its components were moved to
Sydenham Hill in Upper Norwood, where they remained
(reerected in a different form from the original)
until destroyed by fire in 1936.
Paxton was a member of Parliament for Coventry from
1854 until his death. During the period of his glass
structures, he also designed many houses in eclectic
styles and laid out a number of public parks.
The Creatures of
Prometheus (German: Die Geschöpfe des
Prometheus), Op. 43, is a ballet composed in 1801 by
Ludwig van Beethoven following the libretto of Salvatore
Viganò. The ballet premiered on 28 March 1801 at the
Burgtheater in Vienna and was given 28 performances.
The overture to the
ballet is part of the concert repertoire. Beethoven
based the fourth movement of his Eroica symphony and his
Eroica Variations (piano) on the main theme of the last
movement of the ballet.
Beethoven - Die Geschopfe
des Prometheus Overture Op.43 by Immerseel, Anima Eterna
Jos van Immerseel, Conductor
22nd September 2009
Live at Au Concert Nobel, Bruxelles
The Piano Sonata No.
14 in C-sharp minor "Quasi una fantasia", Op. 27, No. 2,
popularly known as the Moonlight Sonata, is a piano
sonata by Ludwig van Beethoven. Completed in 1801 and
dedicated in 1802 to his pupil, Countess Giulietta
Guicciardi, it is one of Beethoven's most popular
compositions for the piano.
the score is
27, No. 1.
Later in the
which has at
in line with
of the work.
that "it is
up into a
to grasp is
Miniature from Beethoven's belongings,
possibly Julie Guicciardi
Beethoven - Piano Sonata
Op. 27, No. 2 'Moonlight' - V. Horowitz
Horowitz's recording of
Beethoven's Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor.
Rec. April 20, 1972.
I. Adagio sostenuto [0:00]
II. Allegretto [5:55]
III. Presto agitato [8:26]
Vincenzo Bellini, (born November 3,
1801, Catania, Sicily [Italy]—died September 23, 1835, Puteaux, near
Paris, France), Italian operatic composer with a gift for creating
vocal melody at once pure in style and sensuous in expression. His
influence is reflected not only in later operatic compositions,
including the early works of Richard Wagner, but also in the
instrumental music of Chopin and Liszt.
Born into a family of musicians,
Bellini produced his first works while still a student at the Naples
Conservatory, where he had been sent by his father, an organist.
Bellini gained the patronage of an important impresario, who
commissioned Bianca e Fernando for the Naples opera. The success of
this early work led to other commissions.
Il pirata (1827), written
for La Scala, the opera house at Milan, earned him an international
reputation. Bellini was fortunate in having as librettist the best
Italian theatre poet of the day, Felice Romani, with whom he
collaborated in his next six operas.
The most important of these
were I Capuleti e i Montecchi (1830), based on Shakespeare’s Romeo
and Juliet; La sonnambula (1831; The Sleepwalker); and Norma (1831).
La sonnambula, an opera semiseria (serious but with a happy ending),
became very popular, even in England, where an English version
appeared. Bellini’s masterpiece, Norma, a tragedy set in ancient
Gaul, achieved lasting success despite an initial failure.
Bellini lived briefly in London in
1833 and then went to Paris. There, composer Gioachino Rossini’s
influence secured for him a commission to write an opera for the
The result was I puritani (1835), the last of
Bellini’s nine operas; although handicapped by an inept libretto, it
is in many ways his most ambitious and beautiful work.
Bellini’s fame was closely bound up
with the bel canto style of the great singers of his day. He was not
a reformer; his ideals were those of Haydn and Mozart, and he strove
for clarity, elegance of form and melody, and a close union of words
and music. Yet with perseverance he corrected some of the grosser
abuses of opera then current. While he subordinated the orchestra
accompaniment to the singers and placed upon their voices the
responsibility for dramatic expression, his harmony was more
enterprising than that of his contemporary Gaetano Donizetti, and
his handling of the orchestra in introductions and interludes was
far from perfunctory. It is, however, for the individual charm and
elegance of his luminous vocal melody that Bellini is remembered.
Haydn was led to write The Seasons by the great success of
his previous oratorio The Creation (1798), which had become
very popular and was in the course of being performed all
The libretto for The Seasons was prepared for Haydn, just as
with The Creation, by Baron Gottfried van Swieten, an
Austrian nobleman who had also exercised an important
influence on the career of Mozart. Van Swieten's libretto
was based on extracts from the long English poem "The
Seasons" by James Thomson (1700–1748), which had been
published in 1730.
Whereas in The Creation
Swieten was able to limit himself to rendering an existing
(anonymous) libretto into German, for The Seasons he had a
much more demanding task. Olleson writes, "Even when
Thomson's images were retained, they required abbreviation
and adaptation to such an extent that usually no more than
faint echoes of them can be discerned, and the libretto
often loses all touch with the poem which was its starting
point. Increasingly during the course of the oratorio, the
words are essentially van Swieten's own or even imported
from foreign sources."
Like The Creation, The
Seasons was intended as a bilingual work. Since Haydn was
very popular in England (particularly following his visits
there in 1791–1792 and 1794–1795), he wished the work to be
performable in English as well as German. Van Swieten
therefore made a translation of his libretto back into
English, fitting it to the rhythm of the music. Olleson
notes that it is "fairly rare" that the translated version
actually matches the Thomson original. Van Swieten's command
of English was not perfect, and the English text he created
has not always proven satisfying to listeners; for example,
one critic writes, "Clinging to [the] retranslation,
however, is the heavy-handed imagery of Haydn's sincere, if
officious, patron. Gone is the bloom of Thomson's original."
Olleson calls the English text "often grotesque", and
suggests that English-speaking choruses should perform the
work in German: "The Seasons is better served by the decent
obscurity of a foreign language than by the English of the
The composition process was arduous for Haydn, in part
because his health was gradually failing and partly because
Haydn found van Swieten's libretto to be rather taxing.
Haydn took two years to complete the work.
Like The Creation, The
Seasons had a dual premiere, first for the aristocracy whose
members had financed the work (Schwarzenberg palace, Vienna,
24 April 1801), then for the general public (Redoutensaal,
Vienna, 19 May). The oratorio was considered a clear
success, but not a success comparable to that of The
In the years that followed, Haydn continued to
lead oratorio performances for charitable causes, but it was
usually The Creation that he led, not The Seasons.
The aging Haydn lacked the
energy needed to repeat the labor of self-publication that
he had undertaken for The Creation and instead assigned the
new oratorio to his regular publisher at that time,
Breitkopf & Härtel, who published it in 1802.
The Seasons is written for a fairly large late-Classical
orchestra, a chorus singing mostly in four parts, and three
vocal soloists, representing archetypal country folk: Simon
(bass), Lucas (tenor), and Hanne (soprano). The solo voices
are thus the same three as in The Creation.
The orchestral parts are
for 2 flutes (1st doubling on piccolo in one aria), 2 oboes,
2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3
trumpets, 1 alto trombone, 1 tenor trombone and 1 bass
trombone, timpani, percussion, and strings.
In addition, a fortepiano
usually plays in recitatives, with or without other
instruments from the orchestra.
Title page of the first edition. Translated into English it
"The Seasons, after Thomson, set to music by Joseph Haydn.
Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig
The oratorio is divided into four parts, corresponding to
Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, with the usual
recitatives, arias, choruses, and ensemble numbers.
Among the more rousing
choruses are a hunting song with horn calls, a wine
celebration with dancing peasants (foreshadowing the third
movement of Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony), a loud
thunderstorm (ditto for Beethoven's fourth movement), and an
absurdly stirring ode to toil:
The huts that shelter us,
The wool that covers us,
The food that nourishes us,
All is thy grant, thy gift,
O noble toil.
Haydn remarked that while he had been industrious his whole
life long, this was the first occasion he had ever been
asked to write a chorus in praise of industry.
Some especially lyrical
passages are the choral prayer for a bountiful harvest, "Sei
nun gnädig, milder Himmel" (Be thou gracious, O kind
heaven), the gentle nightfall that follows the storm, and
Hanne's cavatina on Winter.
The work is filled with the
"tone-painting" that also characterized The Creation: a
plowman whistles as he works (in fact, he whistles the
well-known theme from Haydn's own Surprise Symphony), a bird
shot by a hunter falls from the sky, there is a sunrise
(evoking the one in The Creation), and so on.
The "French trash"
There is some evidence that Haydn himself was not happy with
van Swieten's libretto, or at least one particular aspect of
tone-painting it required, namely the portrayal of the
croaking of frogs, which is found during the serene movement
that concludes Part II, "Summer". The version of the
anecdote given below is from the work of Haydn scholar H. C.
In 1801, August Eberhard
Müller (1767–1817) prepared a piano version of the
oratorio's orchestra part, for purposes of rehearsal and
informal performance. Haydn, whose health was in decline,
did not take on this task himself, but he did look over a
draft of Müller's work and wrote some suggested changes in
the margins. Amid these changes appeared an off-the-cuff
complaint about van Swieten's libretto:
NB! This whole passage,
with its imitation of the frogs, was not my idea: I was
forced to write this Frenchified trash. This wretched idea
disappears rather soon when the whole orchestra is playing,
but it simply cannot be included in the pianoforte
Robbins Landon continues the story as follows:
Müller foolishly showed the
passage in the enclosed sheet, quoted above, to the editor
of the Zeitung für die elegante Welt, who promptly
included it in support of his criticism of Swieten's
wretched libretto. Swieten was enraged, and [Haydn's friend]
Griesinger reported that His Excellency "intends to rub into
Haydn's skin, with salt and pepper, the assertion that he
[Haydn] was forced into composing the croaking frogs."
A later letter of Griesinger's indicates that the rift thus
created was not permanent.
The term "Frenchified
trash" was almost certainly not a gesture of contempt for
France or French people; Haydn in fact had friendly
relationships with French musicians (see, e.g. Paris
symphonies). Rather, Haydn was probably referring to an
earlier attempt by van Swieten to persuade him to set the
croaking of the frogs by showing him a work by the French
composer André Grétry that likewise included frog-croaking.
Although the work has always attracted far less attention
than The Creation, it nonetheless has been strongly
appreciated by critics. Charles Rosen calls both oratorios
"among the greatest works of the century", but judges The
Seasons to be the musically more successful of the two.
Daniel Heartz, writing near the end of a massive
three-volume account of the Classical era, writes "The
Hunting and Drinking choruses first led me to study Haydn's
music more extensively beginning some forty years ago ... no
music has elated me more in old age than The Seasons."
Michael Steinberg writes that the work "ensure[s] Haydn's
premiere place with Titian, Michelangelo and Turner, Mann
and Goethe, Verdi and Stravinsky, as one of the rare artists
to whom old age brings the gift of ever bolder invention."
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Haydn - The
Seasons (Die Jahreszeiten)
Janowitz, W. Hollweg
Orchestra: Berlin Philarmonic Orchestra conducted by H. von
Joseph Lanner (12 April 1801 –
14 April 1843) was an Austrian dance music composer. He is
best remembered as one of the earliest Viennese composers to
reform the waltz from a simple peasant dance to something
that even the highest society could enjoy, either as an
accompaniment to the dance, or for the music's own sake. He
was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann
Strauss I, who was better known outside of Austria in their
day because of his concert tours abroad, in particular, to
France and England.
Lanner had a lesser-known
son, August Lanner, who was just as musically gifted and
prodigious as his father. His daughter Katharina became a
well known international ballet dancer, settling in London
where she became an influential choreographer and teacher.
Lanner was born in St. Ulrich in Vienna. Largely self-taught
on the violin, he joined a small string orchestra of Michael
Pamer at about the same time as Johann Strauss I did,
although he decided to venture into the music business
himself and partnered with Karl and Johann Drahanek, forming
a quartet that bore his name.
The success of this string
quartet led to its gradual expansion, and in 1824 Lanner was
able to conduct a small string orchestra playing Viennese
dance music. Such was the success of his orchestra that it
was a regular feature in many Vienna carnivals, popularly
known in the local dialect as the Fasching. It was in 1832
that Lanner allowed his soon-to-be rival Johann Strauss I to
deputise in a second, smaller orchestra that was formed that
year to meet the busy schedule of the Carnival activities.
Lanner was already gaining
a reputation at the end of the 1825 Carnival season and
Strauss I was frustrated at having to deputise when
necessary and as a result, his works were not getting the
recognition he thought they deserved. In the same year,
Strauss I parted company with Lanner after a concert at one
of the Viennese dance establishments, Zum Schwarzen Bock
(The Black Ram).
Although many press reports stated a
furious encounter between the two composers including a
rumor that Strauss forcibly departed the orchestra with a
few of Lanner's talented musicians, these remained largely
unsubstantiated as Lanner had earlier dedicated a waltz to
Strauss entitled "Trennungs-Walzer" ("Separation Waltz"),
Op. 19, which indicated a decent level of goodwill and
respect for the craft of the two composers.
Further, Lanner and Strauss I worked together often despite
having severed their partnership and even gave a benefit
concert for their former employer, Michael Pamer who was taken ill in 1826 at
the same establishment where they separated. For their
charity work Strauss and Lanner also accepted the honorary
citizenship of Vienna in 1836 and jointly took the Citizen's
The music-loving Viennese
however were championing both of these two popular dance
music composers, and individuals generally identified
themselves as Lannerianer or Straussianer. In fact, it was
believed that the ruling Habsburg dynasty was anxious to
divert its Viennese populace from politics and the
revolutionary ideas that were feverishly sweeping Europe,
with many cities preparing to overthrow any unpopular
The answer would be to distract the population with
music and entertainment, and the musical positions that both
Lanner and Strauss held were soon seen to be very important.
Lanner himself was appointed to the coveted post of Musik-Direktor of the Redoutensäle in the Hofburg Imperial
Palace of which his primary duties were to conduct concerts
held in honor of the nobility and to compose new works for
the Court orchestra.
Strauss' popularity soon
overshadowed Lanner in the early 1840s. Strauss was eager to
undertake extensive lucrative tours abroad including
England, whereas Lanner held on in Vienna unconvinced that
the other nationalities were prepared to listen to Viennese
music. Lanner succumbed to a typhus infection that racked
Vienna in 1843 and died at Döbling on Good Friday, 14 April
in the same year.
The famous rivalry with Strauss I had
ended; Lanner's death marked the beginning of a period where
the Strauss family was to dominate the Viennese dance music
scene for well over a half a century and concluded an era of
interesting and exciting developments for the waltz and
other popular dance music.
Among Lanner's more popular works are the "Pesther-Walzer",
Op. 93, "Hofballtänze Walzer", Op. 161, "Die Werber" Waltz,
Op. 103, "Die Romantiker" Waltz, Op. 167, and probably his
most well-known work, "Die Schönbrunner" Walzer, Op. 200,
probably the most famous of all waltzes before "The Blue
Danube" by Johann Strauss II in the mid-1860s. Most of
Lanner's waltzes were dedicated to members of the nobility
as evidenced from the titles which was part of the nature of
Lanner's position at that time. His "Styrian Dances" (Steyrische-Tänze),
Op. 165, was also played occasionally at the Vienna New
Year's Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.
Albert Lortzing, in
full Gustav Albert Lortzing (born Oct. 23, 1801, Berlin,
Prussia [Germany]—died Jan. 21, 1851, Berlin), composer
who established the 19th-century style of light German
opera that remained in favour until the mid-20th
were actors, and he was largely self-taught as a
He produced a one-act vaudeville, Ali Pascha von
Janina, in 1828; a play with music, Der Pole und
sein Kind (1832; “The Pole and His Child”); and in
1832 wrote (but did not produce) Szenen aus Mozarts
Leben (“Scenes of Mozart’s Life”), with music
selected from the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
From 1833 to 1844 he sang as a tenor in Leipzig.
His most successful opera was Zar (originally Czaar)
und Zimmermann (1837; “Tsar and Carpenter”), based
on an episode from the life of Peter the Great.
Other operas include Undine (1845), a romantic opera
in the style of Carl Maria von Weber and Heinrich
August Marschner, Der Waffenschmied (1846; “The
Military Blacksmith”), and Rolands Knappen (1849).
His style derives from that of the German Singspiel
and from the early 19th-century French opéra comique,
which enjoyed a great vogue in Germany.
Marie-François-Xavier Bichat, (born Nov. 11/14, 1771,
Thoirette, France—died July 22, 1802, Lyon), French
anatomist and physiologist whose systematic study of
human tissues helped found the science of histology.
Bichat studied anatomy
and surgery under Marc-Antoine Petit, chief surgeon
at the Hôtel Dieu in Lyon. In 1793 he became a
pupil, then assistant, of Pierre-Joseph Desault,
surgeon and anatomist in Paris. After his teacher’s
death in 1795, Bichat completed the fourth volume of
Desault’s Journal de chirurgie, adding a
biographical memoir of its author.
In addition to his observations at the bedsides of
patients at the Hôtel Dieu, Bichat studied the
postmortem changes induced in various organs by
disease. Without knowledge of the cell as the
functional unit of living things, he was among the
first to visualize the organs of the body as being
formed through the differentiation of simple,
functional units, or tissues. This view he developed
in Traité des membranes (1800; “Treatise on
Membranes”). Although Bichat did not use the
microscope, he distinguished 21 kinds of tissues
that enter into different combinations in forming
the organs of the body. His Recherches
physiologiques sur la vie et la mort (1800;
“Physiological Researches on Life and Death”) was
followed by Anatomie générale (1801). He published
the first two volumes of Anatomie descriptive in
1801–03, and the third was completed by his pupils
after his death. By order of Napoleon his bust,
along with that of Desault, was placed in the Hôtel
American civil engineer Robert Fulton produces the first
Robert Fulton, (born
Nov. 14, 1765, Lancaster county, Pa. [U.S.]—died Feb.
24, 1815, New York, N.Y.), American inventor, engineer,
and artist who brought steamboating from the
experimental stage to commercial success. He also
designed a system of inland waterways, a submarine, and
a steam warship.
Fulton was the son of
Irish immigrants. When their unproductive farm was
lost by mortgage foreclosure in 1771, the family
moved to Lancaster, where Fulton’s father died in
1774 (not 1786 as is generally written). Having
learned to read and write at home, Fulton was sent
at age eight to a Quaker school; later he became an
apprentice in a Philadelphia jewelry shop, where he
specialized in the painting of miniature portraits
on ivory for lockets and rings.
After settling his
mother on a small farm in western Pennsylvania in
1786, Fulton went to Bath, Va., to recover from a
severe cough. There the paintings by the young
man—tall, graceful, and an engaging
conversationalist—were admired by people who advised
him to study in Europe. On returning to
Philadelphia, Fulton applied himself to painting and
the search for a sponsor. Local merchants, eager to
raise the city’s cultural level, financed his
passage to London in 1787.
reception in London was cordial, his paintings made
little impression; they showed neither the style nor
the promise required to provide him more than a
precarious living. Meanwhile, he became acquainted
with new inventions for propelling boats: a water
jet ejected by a steam pump and a single, mechanical
paddle. His own experiments led him to conclude that
several revolving paddles at the stern would be most
Beginning in 1794,
however, having admitted defeat as a painter, Fulton
turned his principal efforts toward canal
His Treatise on the
Improvement of Canal Navigation, in 1796, dealt with a
complete system of inland-water transportation based on
small canals extending throughout the countryside. He
included details on inclined planes for raising boats—he did
not favour locks—aqueducts for valley crossings, boats for
specialized cargo, and bridge designs featuring bowstring
beams to transmit only vertical loads to the piers. A few
bridges were built to his design in the British Isles, but
his canal ideas were nowhere accepted.
in 1797 to
the idea of
to be used
charge to be
1800 he was
at his own
but wind and
a member of
state of New
parts for a
Watt for a
boat on the
Arriving in New York
in December 1806, Fulton at once set to work
supervising the construction of the steamboat that
had been planned in Paris with Livingston. He also
attempted to interest the U.S. government in a
submarine, but his demonstration of it was a fiasco.
By early August 1807 a 150-foot- (45-metre-) long
“Steamboat,” as Fulton called it, was ready for
trials. Its single-cylinder condensing steam engine
(24-inch bore and four-foot stroke) drove two
15-foot-diameter side paddlewheels; it consumed oak
and pine fuel, which produced steam at a pressure of
two to three pounds per square inch. The 150-mile
(240-kilometre) trial run from New York to Albany
required 32 hours (an average of almost 4.7 miles
[7.6 kilometres] per hour), considerably better time
than the four miles per hour required by the
monopoly. The passage was epic because sailing
sloops required four days for the same trip.
After building an
enginehouse, raising the bulwark, and installing
berths in the cabins of the now-renamed “North River
Steamboat,” Fulton began commercial trips in
September. He made three round trips fortnightly
between New York and Albany, carrying passengers and
light freight. Problems, however, remained: the
mechanical difficulties, for example, and the
jealous sloopboatmen, who through “inadvertence”
would ram the unprotected paddlewheels of their new
rivals. During the first winter season he stiffened
and widened the hull, replaced the cast-iron
crankshaft with a forging, fitted guards over the
wheels, and improved passenger accommodations. These
modifications made it a different boat, which was
registered in 1808 as the “North River Steamboat of
Clermont,” soon reduced to “Clermont” by the press.
In 1808 Fulton
married his partner’s niece, Harriet Livingston, by
whom he had a son and three daughters.
In 1811 the Fulton-designed,
Pittsburgh-built “New Orleans” was sent south to validate
the Livingston–Fulton steamboat monopoly of the New Orleans
Territory. The trip was slow and perilous, river conditions
being desperate because of America’s first recorded, and
also largest, earthquake, which had destroyed New Madrid
just below the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi
rivers. Fulton’s low-powered vessel remained at New Orleans,
for it could go no farther upstream than Natchez. He built
three boats for Western rivers that were based at New
Orleans, but none could conquer the passage to Pittsburgh.
Submarine ("Submarine Vessel, Submarine Bombs and Mode of
Attack") for the United States government. Submarine vessel,
longitudinal section. Scan from original engineering design
in pencil, ink, and watercolor. 1806.
Fulton was a
fleet. The “Demologos,”
as the ship
in one hull,
miles, or 11
where it was
Fulton spent much of
his wealth in litigations involving the pirating of
patents relating to steamboats and in trying to
suppress rival steamboat builders who found
loopholes in the state-granted monopoly. His wealth
was further depleted by his unsuccessful submarine
projects, investments in paintings, and financial
assistance to farmer kin and young artists. After
testifying at a legal hearing in Trenton, early in
1815, he became chilled en route home to New York,
where he died. His family made claims on the U.S.
government for services rendered. A bill of $100,000
for the relief of the heirs finally passed the
Congress in 1846 but was reduced to $76,300, with no
Celebration in 1909 commemorated the success of the
“North River Steamboat of Clermont” and the
discovery in 1609 of the North River by the English
navigator who was the first to sail upstream to
A “Robert Fulton” commemorative stamp was issued in
1965, the bicentenary of his birth, and the
two-story farmhouse, his birthplace, was acquired
and restored by the Pennsylvania Historical and
Fulton built the
first Nautilus of copper sheets over iron ribs at the
Perrier boatyard in Rouen. It was 21 ft 3 in (6.48 m)
long and 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) in the beam. Propulsion was
provided by a hand-cranked screw propeller. The hollow
iron keel was the vessels ballast tank, flooded and
emptied to change buoyancy. Two horizontal fins, diving
planes in modern terms, on the stubby horizontal rudder
controlled angle of dive. Overall, Nautilus resembled a
modern research submarine, such as the NR-1, having a
long teardrop hull. The design included an observation
dome, somewhat similar in appearance, if not function,
to the conning tower of later submarines. When surfaced,
a fan-shaped collapsible sail, reminiscent of those
popular on Chinese ships, could be deployed. Air, beyond
that enclosed within the vessel, could be provided by a
snorkel constructed of waterproofed leather.
A device on
the top of
mine on a
the eye. The
had paid out
explode by a
the Seine at
the boat to
Le Havre to
work in the
water of the
speed of his
of two men
360 ft (110
this time he
On July 3, 1801,
at Le Havre, Fulton took the revised Nautilus
down to the then-remarkable depth of 25 feet (7.6
m). With his three crewmen and two candles burning
he remained for an hour without difficulty.
Adding a copper "bomb" (globe) containing 200 ft3
(5.7m3) of air extended the time underwater for the
crew for at least four and a half hours. However,
one of the renovations included a 1.5-inch-diameter
(38 mm) glass in the dome, whose light he found
sufficient for reading a watch, making candles
during daylight activities unnecessary.
Speed trials put Nautilus at two knots on the
surface, and covering 400 m in 7 minutes. He also
discovered that compasses worked underwater exactly
as on the surface.
The first trial of a
"carcass" destroyed a 40-foot sloop provided by the
Admiralty. Fulton suggested that not only should
they be used against specific ships by submarines,
but be set floating into harbors and into estuaries
with the tide to wreak havoc at random.
committee enthusiastically recommended the building
of two brass subs, 36 ft (11 m) long, 12 ft (3.7 m)
wide, with a crew of eight, and air for eight hours
Napoleon expressed interest in seeing the Nautilus,
only to find that, as it had leaked badly, Fulton
had her dismantled and the more important bits
destroyed at the end of the tests.
Despite the many reports of
success by reliable witnesses, like the Prefect Marine of
Brest, Napoleon decided Fulton was a swindler and charlatan.
The French navy had no enthusiasm for a weapon they
considered suicidal for the crews even though Fulton had had
no problems and despite evidence it would be overwhelmingly
destructive against conventional ships.
Jérôme Lalande, in
full Joseph-Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande, Lefrançais
also spelled Le Français, Lefrançois, or Le François
(born July 11, 1732, Bourg-en-Bresse, France—died April
4, 1807, Paris), French astronomer whose tables of
planetary positions were considered the best available
until the end of the 18th century.
A law student in
Paris, Lalande became interested in astronomy while
he was lodging at the Hôtel de Cluny, where the
noted astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle had his
In 1751 Lalande went to Berlin to make lunar
observations in concert with the work of Nicolas
Louis de Lacaille at the Cape of Good Hope. The
success of this task and the subsequent calculation
of the Moon’s distance secured for Lalande, before
he reached the age of 21, admission to the Academy
of Berlin and the post of adjunct astronomer to the
Academy of Paris.
devoted himself to the improvement of planetary
theory, publishing in 1759 a corrected edition of
the tables of Halley’s Comet.
He helped organize international collaboration in
observing the transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769;
the data obtained made possible the accurate
calculation of the distance between Earth and the
In 1762 Lalande was appointed to the chair of
astronomy in the Collège de France, Paris, a
position that he held for 46 years.
A popularizer of astronomy, he instituted the
Lalande Prize in 1802 for the chief astronomical
contribution of each year.
Among his voluminous works are
Traité d’astronomie (1764; “Treatise on Astronomy”),
Histoire céleste française (1801; “French Celestial
History”), and Bibliographie astronomique (1803;
“Astronomical Bibliography”), which is still a valuable
resource for historians of 18th-century astronomy.
Matthew Flinders, (born
March 16, 1774, Donington, Lincolnshire, England—died
July 19, 1814, London), English navigator who charted
much of the Australian coast.
Flinders entered the
Royal Navy in 1789 and became a navigator. In 1795
he sailed to Australia, where he explored and
charted its southeast coast and circumnavigated the
island of Tasmania.
As commander of the Investigator, he again sailed
from England for Australia in 1801. On this visit he
surveyed the entire southern coast, from Cape
Leeuwin, in the southwest, to the Bass Strait, which
separates mainland Australia from Tasmania.
On July 22, 1802, he sailed from Sydney (on Port
Jackson) and charted the east coast of Australia and
the Gulf of Carpentaria on the north coast.
Continuing westward and southward, he
circumnavigated Australia and again reached Port
Jackson on June 9, 1803.
In December, on the
voyage back to England, the condition of his ship
required him to stop at the Île de France (now
Mauritius) in the western Indian Ocean.
There he was interned by the French authorities and
was not allowed to leave for England until 1810. His
Voyage to Terra Australis appeared shortly before
Cook's discover)" in 1770 of
New South Wales was timely for the British because the
success of the American colonists in fighting to gain their
independence in 1781 meant that convicts could no longer be
sent to North America. The land described by Cook appeared
to be an acceptable alternative, and in May 1787 the First
Fleet, consisting of 11 ships, set sail carrying nearly 800
convicts. Also on board were the first Governor, Captain
Arthur Phillip, a large number of sailors and marines (plus
families, in some cases), and stores for two years. After a
trouble-free journey, the fleet arrived at Botany Bay in
January 1788 and then moved north to establish a settlement
where there was better farming land, at Port Jackson or, as
it was to be called, Sydney Harbour.
An air of fantasy hovers around this operation and the
marvel is that, despite severe hardship, the settlement
somehow survived and eventually prospered. The Governor and
his men knew virtually nothing about the continent to which
they had been summarily despatched, neither the land nor the
Aborigines who had inhabited it for some 50,000 years.
land in a
knew a great
37 miles (60
lay claim to
The task was
Flinders, a midshipman, arrived in Sydney in 1796 on
the same ship as his friend George Bass. At 21, he
was already an experienced sailor. With the
Governor's encouragement, Flinders and Bass sailed
in a sloop to discover if, as was widely suspected,
Tasmania was an island. They sailed through what was
subsequently named Bass Strait and circumnavigated
Tasmania, exploring the valleys of the Tamar and
Flinders's second voyage
In 1800 Flinders returned to England, where he gamed
the support of Sir Joseph Banks for a projected
exploration of the whole coast of New Holland. At
Banks's urging, the Admiralty issued the relevant
order and provided Flinders with a ship, the
Investigator. She was an ex-collier, like Cook's
Endeavour, but proved abominably leaky despite her
refit. Several scientists and other experts sailed
with him, but the astronomer, a martyr to
seasickness, left at Cape Town with the result that
Flinders and his brother Samuel made all the
astronomical observations. In the process, they
added significantly to the science of navigation,
most notably to knowledge of magnetic variation.
This sketch map of Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, was made by
one of the convicts deported there in 1788. The First Fleet
is shown at anchor in the bay.
not to be a
any of the
found a new
His belief that it
would become a valuable short cut between the
Pacific and Indian Oceans failed to take account of
the fact that few captains possessed his
In the Gulf of Carpentaria which, like Spencer Gulf,
offered no strait, the state of the ship was found
to be desperate. Nevertheless, Flinders continued up
the western shore, hitting rocks now and again, and
along Arnhem Land. Though he made ever)' effort not
to antagonize the Aborigines, an attack on Groote
Eylandt, in which a sailor was speared, was repelled
by guns and one man was killed. Off Arnhem Land, in
one of those encounters that reminds us that
European explorers often went where others had long
been accustomed to go before, they came across a
group of Malay fishermen. Flinders named an island
Pabassoo, after their leader.
Flinders had come to the reluctant conclusion that
to continue his survey would invite disaster, and in
March 1803 he sailed from Arnhem Bay to Timor for
stores, thence back to Sydney, completing his
The discovery, by Matthew Flinders and George Bass, that
Tasmania was an island, took a week off the voyage time from
the Cape to New South Wales.
Return to England
He sailed for England, but was wrecked on the Great Barrier
Reef and returned to Sydney, where he was given a 30-ton
schooner, the Cumberland. He set out once more, via Torres
Strait, which he passed through in three days. Forced into
Mauritius for repairs, he was imprisoned by the French
Governor. (Although the Investigator had a safe-conduct from
the French, who were at war with the British, the Governor
deemed it not to cover the Cumberland.) Flinders remained in
captivity for over six years, not reaching England until
1810. In poor health, he managed to complete his account of
A Voyage to Terra Australis, dying the day it was published
The earliest form of
the flag of Great Britain, developed in 1606 and used
during the reigns of James I (1603–25) and Charles I
(1625–49), displayed the red cross of England
superimposed on the white cross of Scotland, with the
blue field of the latter.
Red, white, and blue
flag in which are combined the Crosses of St. George
(England), St. Andrew (Scotland), and St. Patrick (Ireland).
Initially the flag was called a jack only when it was flown
at the bowsprit of British naval vessels. It was commonly
called the Union Jack by the late 17th century, and that
name became official in the late 19th century. The Union
Jack is flown on land for government and military purposes,
and at sea it serves as a flag for the Royal Navy. The
general public uses it unofficially as a civil flag.
red on blue
cross had to
in the Union
form on the
II in 1660.
Thus did the
date of the
the Cross of
with the red
white on the
of the flag
and above it
on the fly
added to the
In the centre, a white
fimbriation also separated the Cross of St. Patrick
from the red Cross of St. George.
The Union Jack is the most important of all British
flags and is flown by representatives of the United
Kingdom all the world over. In certain authorized
military, naval, royal, and other uses, the Union
Jack may be incorporated into another flag.
For example, it forms the canton of both the British
Blue Ensign and the British Red Ensign. It is part
of the flags of such Commonwealth nations as
Australia, New Zealand, and Tuvalu, as well as of
the U.S. state of Hawaii, the Australian states (New
South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania,
Victoria, and Western Australia), and three Canadian
provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario).