Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY



1800 - 1899
1800-09 1810-19 1820-29 1830-39 1840-49 1850-59 1860-69 1870-79 1880-89 1890-99
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
1802 1812 1822 1832 1842 1852 1862 1872 1882 1892
1803 1813 1823 1833 1843 1853 1863 1873 1883 1893
1804 1814 1824 1834 1844 1854 1864 1874 1884 1894
1805 1815 1825 1835 1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895
1806 1816 1826 1836 1846 1856 1866 1876 1886 1896
1807 1817 1827 1837 1847 1857 1867 1877 1887 1897
1808 1818 1828 1838 1848 1858 1868 1878 1888 1898
1809 1819 1829 1839 1849 1859 1869 1879 1889 1899
  BACK-1800 Part I NEXT-1801 Part I    
FitzGerald Edward
1800 - 1809
History at a Glance
1800 Part I
Battle of Heliopolis
Battle of Marengo
Siege of Malta
Battle of the Malta Convoy
United States presidential election
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Moltke Helmuth
Pius VII
Heeren Arnold Hermann Ludwig
Macaulay Thomas Babington
1800 Part II
Edgeworth Maria
Jean Paul: "Titan"
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"
David: "Mme. Recamier"
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"
Gall Franz Joseph
Trevithick Richard
Voltaic pile
Richmond Bill
1801 Part I
Act of Union
Treaty of Luneville
Alexander I
Battle of Copenhagen
Gauss: "Disquisitiones arithmeticae"
Newman John Henry
Chateaubriand: "Atala"
Grabbe Christian Dietrich
Nestroy Johann
Schiller: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans"
Robert Southey: "Thalaba the Destroyer"
1801 Part II
David: "Napoleon Crossing the Alps"
Paxton Joseph
Beethoven: "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Beethoven: Piano Sonata 14 "Moonlight Sonata"
Bellini Vincenzo
Vincenzo Bellini - Norma : Sinfonia dell'Opera
Vincenzo Bellini
Haydn: "The Seasons"
Lanner Joseph
Joseph Lanner - Hofball-Tanze
Joseph Lanner
Lortzing Albert
Lortzing "Overture" Der Waffenschmied
Albert Lortzing
Bichat Marie François Xavier
Fulton Robert
Fulton's "Nautilus"
Lalande Jerome
Flinders Matthew
The British in Australia
Union Jack
1802 Part I
Napoleon president of Italian Republic
Legion of Honour
Napoleon as First Consul for life
Treaty of Amiens
Battle of San Domingo
Kossuth Lajos
Grotefend Georg Friedrich
Dumas Alexandre, pere
Alexandre Dumas
"The Three Musketeers"
Hauff Wilhelm
Hugo Victor
Victor Hugo
"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" 
Lenau Nikolaus
De Stael Germaine
Mme de Stael
"Corinne, Or Italy"
Chateaubriand: "Rene"
1802 Part II
Canova: "Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker";
Beethoven: Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36
Forkel Johann Nikolaus
Treviranus Gottfried Reinhold
Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in Britain
1803 Part I
Act of Mediation
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)
Emmet Robert
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
Battle of Assaye
Korais Adamantios
Emerson Ralph Waldo
Lancaster Joseph
Bulwer-Lytton Edward George
Merimee Prosper
Porter Jane
Schiller: "Die Braut von Messina"
Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich
1803 Part II
Decamps Alexandre-Gabriel
Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Henry Raeburn: "The Macnab"
Semper Gottfried
Turner J.M.W.
J.M.W. Turner
Adam Adolphe
Adolphe Adam   - Giselle
Adolphe Adam
Beethoven: "Kreutzer Sonata"
Berlioz Hector
Berlioz - Harold In Italy
Hector Berlioz
Sussmayr Franz Xaver
Carnot Lazare
Shrapnel Henry
Shrapnel shells
1804 Part I
Duc d'Enghien
Yashwantrao Holkar
Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Action of 5 October 1804
Disraeli Benjamin
British and Foreign Bible Society
Code Napoleon
Brown Thomas
Feuerbach Ludwig
Sainte-Beuve Charles-Augustin
Hawthorne Nathaniel
Morike Eduard
Sand George
Schiller: "Wilhelm Tell"
1804 Part II
Morland George
George Morland
Schwind Moritz
Moritz von Schwind
Royal Watercolour Society
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica")
Glinka Mikhail
Glinka "Waltz-Fantasia"
Mikhail Glinka
Strauss Johann, the Elder
Johann Strauss Vater - Lorelei Rhein Klänge Op. 154
Johann Strauss I
Thomas Bewick "History of British Birds"
Wollaston William Hyde
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis Meriwether
Clark William
 Surveying the West
Serturner Friedrich Wilhelm Adam
1805 Part I
Treaty of St. Petersburg
War of the Third Coalition 1805
Mazzini Giuseppe
Battle of Austerlitz
Peace of Pressburg
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Battle of Trafalgar
1805 Part II
Ballou Hosea
Andersen Hans Christian
Hans Christian Andersen
"The Fairy Tales"
Walter Scott: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
Robert Southey: "Madoc"
Stifter Adalbert
Tocqueville Alexis
Goya: "Dona Isabel Cobos de Procal"
Turner: "Shipwreck"
Gerard: "Madame Recamier"
Beethoven: "Fidelio"
Congreve William
Hamilton William Roman
1806 Part I
Battle of Blaauwberg
Fox Charles James
Bonaparte Joseph
Bonaparte Louis
War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt
Continental System
Greater Poland Uprising of 1806
Confederation of Rhine
The End of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Poznan
1806 Part II
Adelung Johann Christoph
Mill John Stuart
Jewish consistory
Browning Elizabeth Barrett
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 
"Sonnets from the Portuguese"
Kleist: "Der zerbrochene Krug"
Laube Heinrich
Thorvaldsen: "Hebe"
David Wilkie: "Village Politicians"
Beethoven: Symphony No. 4
Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op. 61
Arriaga Juan
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga - "Agar dans le désert"
Juan Arriaga
Latreille Pierre Andre
1807 Part I
Battle of Eylau
Battle of Friedland
Treaty of Tilsit
Bonaparte Jerome
Mustafa IV
Chesapeake–Leopard Affair
Embargo Act
Garibaldi Giuseppe
Stein Karl
Gunboat War (1807-1814)
Invasion of Portugal
1807 Part II
Albright Jacob
Hegel: "Phanomenologie des Geistes"
Hufeland Gottlieb
Charles and Mary Lamb: "Tales from Shakespeare"
Longfellow Henry Wadsworth
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"The Song of Hiawatha"
Vischer Friedrich Theodor
Wordsworth: "Ode on Intimations of Immortality"
1807 Part III
David: "Coronation of Napoleon"
Zeshin Shibata
Beethoven: Coriolan Overture
Beethoven: "Leonora Overture" No. 3
Beethoven: "Appassionata"
Etienne Nicolas Mehul: "Joseph"
Spontini Gaspare
Spontini - La vestale
Gaspare Spontini
Bell Charles
Bonpland Aime Jacques Alexandre
Thompson David
Ascot Gold Cup
Slave Trade Act 1807
1808 Part I
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves
Peninsular War (1807–1814)
1808 Part II
Erfurt Congress
Napoleon III
Fries Jakob Friedrich
Goethe: "Faust"
Kleist: "Das Katchen von Heilbronn"
Walter Scott: "Marmion"
Arnim and Brentano: "Des Knaben Wunderhorn"
Achim Ludwig
1808 Part III
Daumier Honore
Honore Daumier
Caspar Friedrich: "The Cross on the Mountains"
Goya: "Execution of the Citizens of Madrid"
Ingres: "Oedipus and the Sphinx"
Spitzweg Carl
Carl Spitzweg
Philipp Otto Runge: "The Morning"
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 5
Beethoven: Symphonies No. 6 "Pastoral"
Gay-Lussac Joseph-Louis
Goethe and Napoleon meet at Erfurt
Robinson Henry Crabb
1809 Part I
Treaty of Dardanelles
Invasion of Martinique
War of the Fifth Coalition
Battle of Wagram
Peace of Schonbrunn
Gladstone William Ewart
Charles XIII
Treaty of Amritsar
Napoleon annexes Papal States
Lincoln Abraham
Abraham Lincoln
1809 Part II
Darwin Charles
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species by Natural selection
Ricardo David
Campbell Thomas
Thomas Campbell: "Gertrude of Wyoming"
FitzGerald Edward
Goethe: "The Elective Affinities"
Gogol Nikolai
Krylov Ivan
Рое Edgar Allan
Edgar Allan Poe
"The Raven"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
Tennyson Alfred
Alfred Tennyson
"Idylls of the King"
"Lady of Shalott", "Sir Galahad"
1809 Part III
Caspar Friedrich: "Monk by the Sea"
Flandrin Jean-Hippolyte
Hippolyte Flandrin
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5
Mendelssohn Felix
Mendelssohn - String Symphony No. 10 in B minor
Felix Mendelssohn
Spontini: "Fernand Cortez"
Maclure William
Sommerring Samuel Thomas
Braille Louis
Seton Elizabeth

Jacques-Louis David. Madame Recamier. 1800
YEAR BY YEAR:  1800 - 1899
1800 Part II
Cowper William, Eng. poet, d. (b. 1731)

William Cowper by Lemuel Francis Abbott, 1792.
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Maria Edgeworth: "Castle Rackrent," Gothic novel
Edgeworth Maria

Maria Edgeworth, (born Jan. 1, 1767, Blackbourton, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died May 22, 1849, Edgeworthstown, Ire.), Anglo-Irish writer, known for her children’s stories and for her novels of Irish life.


Maria Edgeworth by John Downman, 1807
  She lived in England until 1782, when the family went to Edgeworthstown, County Longford, in midwestern Ireland, where Maria, then 15 and the eldest daughter, assisted her father in managing his estate. In this way she acquired the knowledge of rural economy and of the Irish peasantry that was to be the backbone of her novels. Domestic life at Edgeworthstown was busy and happy. Encouraged by her father, Maria began her writing in the common sitting room, where the 21 other children in the family provided material and audience for her stories. She published them in 1796 as The Parent’s Assistant. Even the intrusive moralizing, attributed to her father’s editing, does not wholly suppress their vitality, and the children who appear in them, especially the impetuous Rosamond, are the first real children in English literature since Shakespeare. Her first novel, Castle Rackrent (1800), written without her father’s interference, reveals her gift for social observation, character sketch, and authentic dialogue and is free from lengthy lecturing. It established the genre of the “regional novel,” and its influence was enormous; Sir Walter Scott acknowledged his debt to Edgeworth in writing Waverley. Her next work, Belinda (1801), a society novel unfortunately marred by her father’s insistence on a happy ending, was particularly admired by Jane Austen.
Edgeworth never married. She had a wide acquaintance in literary and scientific circles. Between 1809 and 1812 she published her Tales of Fashionable Life in six volumes.
They include one of her best novels, The Absentee, which focused attention on a great contemporary abuse in Irish society: absentee English landowning.

Before her father’s death in 1817 she published three more novels, two of them, Patronage (1814) and Ormond (1817), of considerable power. After 1817 she wrote less. She completed her father’s Memoirs (1820) and devoted herself to the estate. She enjoyed a European reputation and exchanged cordial visits with Scott. Her last years were saddened by the Irish famine of 1846, during which she worked for the relief of stricken peasants.

The feminist movement of the 1960s led to the reprinting of her Moral Tales for Young People, 5 vol. (1801) and Letters for Literary Ladies (1795) in the 1970s. Her novels continued to be regularly reprinted in the 20th century.

Encyclopædia Britannica
see also: Maria Edgeworth
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Morton Thomas: "Speed the Plough," comedy in which, for the first time, a reference to the character Mrs. Grundy appears
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Jean Paul: "Titan"

Titan is a novel by the German writer Paul Jean, published in four volumes between 1800 and 1803. It was translated into English by Charles Timothy Brooks in 1862.

Jean Paul called Titan his "cardinal and capital" novel. Divided not into chapters but into "jubilees" and "cycles",[1] it comprises some 900 pages and tells the story of the education of the hero Albano de Cesara, his transformation from a passionate youth into the mature man who ascends the throne of the small principality of Pestitz. In language and style the novel differs strikingly from other texts of Jean Paul. The narrative, despite its sentimental and effusive manner, and rich descriptions, is tightly organized and contains fewer digressions and side notes. This is often seen as a temporary approach to the classicism of Weimar, which Jean Paul at this time was subjecting to an intensive and critical examination. The rich imagery and comic misdirections are still present, and the novel remains challenging for today's readers.

Jean Paul considered using the title Anti-Titan in order to express more clearly the idea of hubris, of the inevitable doom of the Himmelsstürmer ("Heaven-stormers") of Romanticism. His aim was also to condemn "the indiscipline of the Saeculum" and the separation of the self from contemplation. In the characters of the novel (Roquairol, Schoppe, Gaspard, Liane, Linda) Jean Paul crystallizes various European controversies of the year 1800. In the end, all characters but the hero come to grief as a result of their one-sidedness. With Schoppe, the idealistic philosophy of Fichte is criticised; in Roquairol the aesthete and l'art pour l'art (Jean Paul's conception of the Weimar ideal); Gaspard encapsulates cold political calculation; Liane, a fanatical religiosity (pietism, the Moravian Church); in Linda the purportedly unseemly hubris of emancipated women. The contemplation of these examples teaches the hero to be harmonious, a mature concord of strengths rather than an individual of one concentrated power.

German first edition (title page)
It has been frequently commented, however, that the doomed characters are perhaps more interesting than the sometimes too smooth and perfect-seeming main character Albano.

Gustav Mahler named his first symphony after this novel, although in the process of revising the work he dropped the name and discouraged any attempt to seek connections. Erich Heckel was inspired by the figure of Roquairol while painting a portrait of his friend Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
Schiller: "Maria Stuart"

Mary Stuart (German: Maria Stuart) is a play by Schiller Friedrich that depicts the last days of Mary, Queen of Scots. The play consists of five acts, each divided into several scenes. The play had its première in Weimar, Germany on 14 June 1800. The play formed the basis for Donizetti's opera Maria Stuarda (1834).

Plot summary
Mary Stuart is imprisoned in England — nominally for the murder of her husband Darnley, but actually due to her claim to the throne of England held by Queen Elizabeth I. While Mary's cousin, Elizabeth, hesitates over signing Mary's death sentence, Mary hopes for a reprieve. After Mary finds out that Mortimer (created by Schiller), the nephew of her custodian, is on her side, she entrusts her life to him. Mortimer is supposed to give Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, a letter from Mary, in which she pleads for help.

This is a delicate situation, for Leicester seems to support Queen Elizabeth. After numerous requests, Mary finally gains the opportunity to meet Queen Elizabeth (something that, in reality, never happened). This meeting ends in an acrimonious argument, caused by Mary's unwillingness to submit entirely to Elizabeth's wish. The argument leads to the inevitable suspicion that the cause of reprieve will not succeed.

To complicate matters further, Mortimer plans to free Mary from the prison by force, a dramatized version of the unsuccessful Babington Plot, but when his attempt is found out, he commits suicide.

Queen Elizabeth eventually persuades herself to sign Mary's death warrant. Elizabeth insists that her only reason for signing is the pressure from her own people to do so.

Mary Stuart by Arthur von Ramberg (1859)
The signed warrant is handed to Queen Elizabeth's undersecretary Davison without any clear instructions on what to do with it. In the process, Elizabeth transfers the burden of responsibility to him, fully aware that he in turn will hand over the warrant to Lord Burleigh, and thus confirm Mary's death sentence.

Burleigh demands the signed document from Davison, who — despite his uncertainty — eventually hands it to him. As a result, Burleigh has Mary executed.

The play ends with Elizabeth blaming both Burleigh and Davison for Mary's death (banishing the former from court and having the latter imprisoned in the Tower), Lord Shrewsbury (who pleaded for mercy for Mary throughout the play) resigning his honors and Leicester leaving England for France. Elizabeth is left completely alone as the curtain falls.

Recent stage history
Mary Stuart, which holds a place in the opera repertory in Donizetti's version (as Maria Stuarda), can still hold the stage in its original form as demonstrated in its successful production, given in a 2005 run at the Donmar Warehouse. Using Peter Oswald's new translation, it was directed by Phyllida Lloyd and starred Janet McTeer as Mary, Queen of Scots and Harriet Walter as Elizabeth of England. The production transferred to the Apollo Theatre in London's West End, where it also played a sold-out engagement from late 2005 into January 2006. The production opened on Broadway on 30 March 2009 (previews), officially 19 April, for a limited engagement through mid-August. It earned seven Tony Award nominations including Best Revival of a Play. The L.A. Theatre Works of Los Angeles mounted a production of the Peter Oswald translation in 2007 directed by Rosalind Ayres which was recorded on CD (ISBN 978-1580813754) and featured Alex Kingston as Mary, Jill Gascoine as Elizabeth, Martin Jarvis as Burleigh, Simon Templeman as Leicester, Ken Danziger as Paulet, W. Morgan Sheppard as Talbot, Christopher Neame as Davison, Shellagh Cullen as Hanna Kennedy and Seamus Dever as Mortimer.
The Faction Theatre Company, as part of a repertory season, staged an adaptation of Mary Stuart at the New Diorama Theatre in London in early 2012. The production was the third Schiller play translated and adapted by Daniel Millar and Mark Leipacher and staged by the company.
Queen Elisabeth in the Mary Stuart-play (drawing by Arthur von Ramberg (1859))
On 23 September 2012, BBC Radio 3 broadcast a production translated by David Harrower, adapted for radio by Robin Brooks and produced/directed by Gaynor Macfarlane. The cast included Meg Fraser as Mary, Alexandra Mathie as Elizabeth, Matthew Pidgeon as Mortimer, Robin Laing as Leicester, Richard Greenwood as Burleigh and Paul Young as Shrewsbury.

Mortimer's on-stage suicide has had its dangers. On 6 December 2008, German actor Daniel Hoevels slit his neck while playing Mortimer in Mary Stuart. His character's suicide scene was to feature a dull knife, which became damaged and was replaced by a sharp one. The Thalia Theater company had requested that the sharp one be dulled too, though this was "carelessly" disregarded. The near-fatal knife was bought at a local store and reportedly still contained a price tag.

The Stratford Shakespeare Festival ran a production in 2013 at the Tom Patterson Theatre with the Peter Oswald translation and directed by Antoni Cimolino. The cast includes Lucy Peacock as Mary, Seana McKenna as Elizabeth, Brian Dennehy as the Earl of Shrewsbury and Geraint Wyn Davies as the Earl of Leicester. The production began its run on 31 May 2013 and was consistently sold out to the point where the production's run was extended for a fourth time, until 19 October.


Important characters
Queen Elizabeth I
Mary Stuart (Mary, Queen of Scots)
Earl of Leicester (Robert Dudley)
Earl of Shrewsbury (George Talbot)
Lord Burleigh
Wilhelm Davison (undersecretary)
Amias Paulet (Mary’s warder)
Mortimer, Amias' nephew (not a historical figure)
Hanna Kennedy, based on Mary's servant Jane Kennedy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Friedrich von Schiller

"Love and Intrigue"
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
David: "Mme. Recamier"

Portrait of Madame Récamier is an 1800 portrait of the Parisian socialite Juliette Récamier by David Jacques-Louis showing her in the height of Neoclassical fashion, reclining on an Directoire style sofa in a simple empire line dress with almost bare arms, and short hair "à la Titus".


David Jacques-Louis. Madame Recamier
Oil on canvas, 173 x 244 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

David Jacques-Louis. Madame Recamier (detail)
  He began it in May 1800 but may have left it unfinished when he learned that François Gérard had been commissioned before him to paint a portrait of the same model (Gerard's portrait was completed in 1802); on the other hand many David portraits have the same bare background.

The pose of a reclining figure looking back over her shoulder was adopted in 1814 by Ingres for his Grande Odalisque.

It is now in the Louvre.

In Creatures in an Alphabet, Djuna Barnes wrote of the subject as

The Seal, she lounges like a bride,

Much too docile, there's no doubt;
Madame Récamier, on side,

(if such she has), and bottom out.

René Magritte also parodied David's painting in his own Perspective: Madame Récamier by David, showing a coffin reclining, now in the National Gallery of Canada.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Madame Récamier by Francois Gérard (1802);
Perspective: Madame Récamier by Magritte
Jacques-Louis David
  Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Realism, Impressionism and
Boieldieu: "Le Calife de Bagdad"

Le calife de Bagdad (The Caliph of Baghdad) is an opéra comique in one act by the French composer Boieldieu Francois-Adrien  with a libretto by Claude de Saint-Just (Godard d'Aucourt).

It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 16 September 1800 and soon became highly popular throughout Europe.

It was Boieldieu's first major triumph. One member of the audience who was less impressed was the noted composer Luigi Cherubini who reproached Boieldieu, "Aren't you ashamed of such a great success, and doing so little to deserve it?" Boieldieu immediately applied to Cherubini for lessons in compositional techniques.

Le calife de Bagdad was part of the vogue for operas on Oriental subjects and the music makes use of local colour, especially the overture with its prominent "eastern" percussion.

Késie's aria De tous pays is a bravura piece which illustrates the musical styles of several European countries, including Spain, Italy, Germany, Scotland and England. Le calife de Bagdad is believed to have influenced Carl Maria von Weber, particularly his operas Abu Hassan and Oberon.

Isaoun, the Caliph of Baghdad, has adopted a disguise so he can roam the streets of the city freely, going under the name "Il Bondocani". Two months before the action begins, he rescued Zétulbé from a band of brigands and Zétulbé has fallen in love with him. But Zétulbé's mother, Lémaïde, is unimpressed by his shabby appearance and refuses to let her marry him. She is amazed when "Il Bondocani" orders his followers to bring in gifts including a casket of jewels. Thinking "Il Bondocani" is a brigand, Lémaïde's neighbour has reported him to the police, who now try to break down the door. After further intrigue, Isaoun finally reveals his true identity to Zétulbé and the two can now be married.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
François-Adrien Boieldieu - IL CALIFFO DI BAGDAD - Rai Milano, 30.07.1955
con Rodolfo Moraro, Anna Maria Rota, Irene Gasperoni, Liliana Poli, Arturo La Porta, Mario Carlin, Egidio Casolari e con Ernesto Calindri, Rina Centa, Enrica Corti, Emanuela Dariva, Carlo Delfini. Orchestra Sinfonica e coro della Rai. Milano, 30.07.1955
Francois-Adrien Boieldieu
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Piccini Nicola, Ital. composer, Gluck's rival in Paris, d. (b. 1728)
Niccolò Piccinni - Menuetto
Livio Minafra fisarmonica e Margherita Porfido clavicembalo in "Due mondi". Concerto tenutosi per l'inaugurazione della 69a stagione concertistica della Fondazione Piccinni di Bari il 15 dicembre 2010 presso il Teatro Petruzzelli, Circolo Unione di Bari.
Nicola Piccini
  Classical Music Timeline

Instruments Through the Ages

Classical Music History - Composers and Masterworks
Davy Humphry: "Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, Concerning Nitrous Oxide"
Ger. physician Franz Joseph Gall founds practice of phrenology
Gall Franz Joseph

Franz Joseph Gall, (born March 9, 1758, Tiefenbronn, Baden [Germany]—died Aug. 22, 1828, Paris, Fr.), German anatomist and physiologist, a pioneer in ascribing cerebral functions to various areas of the brain (localization).


Franz Joseph Gall
  He originated phrenology, the attempt to divine individual intellect and personality from an examination of skull shape.

Convinced that mental functions are localized in specific regions of the brain and that human behaviour is dependent upon these functions, Gall assumed that the surface of the skull faithfully reflects the relative development of the various regions of the brain. His popular lectures in Vienna on “cranioscopy” (called phrenology by his followers) offended religious leaders, were condemned in 1802 by the Austrian government as contrary to religion, and were banned. Three years later he was forced to leave the country.

His concept of localized functions in the brain was proved correct when the French surgeon Paul Broca demonstrated the existence of a speech centre in the brain (1861). It was also shown, however, that, since skull thickness varies, the surface of the skull does not reflect the topography of the brain, invalidating the basic premise of phrenology.
Gall was the first to identify the gray matter of the brain with active tissue (neurons) and the white matter with conducting tissue (ganglia).

Encyclopædia Britannica


Franz Joseph Gall examining the head of a pretty young girl

Phrenology, the study of the conformation of the skull as indicative of mental faculties and traits of character, especially according to the hypotheses of Franz-Joseph Gall (1758–1828), a Viennese doctor, and such 19th-century adherents as Johann Kaspar Spurzheim (1776–1832) and George Combe (1788–1858).

Phrenology enjoyed great popular appeal well into the 20th century but has been wholly discredited by scientific research.

The principles upon which phrenology was based were five:
(1) the brain is the organ of the mind;

(2) human mental powers can be analyzed into a definite number of independent faculties;

(3) these faculties are innate, and each has its seat in a definite region of the surface of the brain;

(4) the size of each such region is the measure of the degree to which the faculty seated in it forms a constituent element in the character of the individual;
(5) the correspondence between the outer surface of the skull and the contour of the brain-surface beneath is sufficiently close to enable the observer to recognize the relative sizes of these several organs by the examination of the outer surface of the head.

The system of Gall was constructed by a method of pure empiricism, and his so-called organs were identified on quite specious grounds.

Having arbitrarily selected the place of a faculty, he examined the heads of his friends and casts of persons with that peculiarity in common, and in them he sought for the distinctive feature of their characteristic trait.

Some of his earlier studies were made among inmates of jails and lunatic asylums, and some of the traits that he presumed to detect were “criminal.”

The divisions of the skull as suggested by phrenologists such as Johann Kaspar Spurzheim.
Wm. S. Pendleton/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
These he named after their excessive manifestations, mapping out organs of murder, theft, etc. However, the names were changed by Spurzheim to align with more moral and religious considerations.

Gall marked out on his model of the head the places of 26 organs as round enclosures with vacant interspaces.

An 1883 phrenology chart
Spurzheim and Combe divided the whole scalp into oblong and conterminous patches identified by such designations as amativeness, philoprogenitiveness, concentrativeness, adhesiveness, combativeness, destructiveness, secretiveness, acquisitiveness, constructiveness, self-esteem, love of approbation, cautiousness, benevolence, veneration, conscientiousness, firmness, hope, wonder, ideality, wit, imitativeness, individuality, form perception, size perception, weight perception, colour perception, locality perception, number perception, order perception, memory of things, time perception, tune perception, linguistic perception, comparative understanding, and metaphysical spirit.

Encyclopædia Britannica

Herschel William discovers existence of infrared solar rays
Richard Trevithick constructs light-pressure steam engine
Trevithick Richard

Richard Trevithick, (born April 13, 1771, Illogan, Cornwall, England—died April 22, 1833, Dartford, Kent), British mechanical engineer and inventor who successfully harnessed high-pressure steam and constructed the world’s first steam railway locomotive (1803). In 1805 he adapted his high-pressure engine to driving an iron-rolling mill and to propelling a barge with the aid of paddle wheels.


Richard Trevithick in 1816 by John Linnell
  Trevithick spent his youth at Illogan in the tin-mining district of Cornwall and attended the village school. The schoolmaster described him as “disobedient, slow and obstinate.” His father, a mine manager, considered him a loafer, and throughout his career Trevithick remained scarcely literate. Early in life, however, he displayed an extraordinary talent in engineering. Because of his intuitive ability to solve problems that perplexed educated engineers, he obtained his first job as engineer to several Cornish ore mines in 1790 at the age of 19. In 1797 he married Jane Harvey of a prominent engineering family. She bore him six children, one of whom, Francis, became locomotive superintendent of the London & North Western Railway and later wrote a biography of his father.

Because Cornwall has no coalfields, high import costs obliged the ore-mine operators to exercise rigid economy in the consumption of fuel for pumping and hoisting. Cornish engineers, therefore, found it imperative to improve the efficiency of the steam engine. The massive engine then in use was the low-pressure type invented by James Watt. Inventive but cautious, Watt thought that “strong steam” was too dangerous to harness; Trevithick thought differently. He soon realized that, by using high-pressure steam and allowing it to expand within the cylinder, a much smaller and lighter engine could be built without any less power than in the low-pressure type.

In 1797 Trevithick constructed high-pressure working models of both stationary and locomotive engines that were so successful that he built a full-scale, high-pressure engine for hoisting ore. In all, he built 30 such engines; they were so compact that they could be transported in an ordinary farm wagon to the Cornish mines, where they were known as “puffer whims” because they vented their steam into the atmosphere.

Trevithick's steam circus. Trevithick High Pressure Steam Engine.
Trevithick built his first steam carriage, which he drove up a hill in Camborne, Cornwall, on Christmas Eve 1801. The following March, with his cousin Andrew Vivian, he took out his historic patent for high-pressure engines for stationary and locomotive use. In 1803 he built a second carriage, which he drove through the streets of London, and constructed the world’s first steam railway locomotive at Samuel Homfray’s Penydaren Ironworks in South Wales.

On February 21, 1804, that engine won a wager for Homfray by hauling a load of 10 tons of iron and 70 men along 10 miles of tramway. A second, similar locomotive was built at Gateshead in 1805, and in 1808 Trevithick demonstrated a third, the Catch-me-who-can, on a circular track laid near Euston Road in London. He then abandoned these projects, because the cast-iron rails proved too brittle for the weight of his engines.

In 1805 Trevithick adapted his high-pressure engine to driving an iron-rolling mill and propelling a barge with the aid of paddle wheels. His engine also powered the world’s first steam dredgers (1806) and drove a threshing machine on a farm (1812).
Such engines could not have succeeded without the improvements Trevithick made in the design and construction of boilers.

  For his small engines, he built a boiler and engine as a single unit, but he also designed a large wrought-iron boiler with a single internal flue, which became known throughout the world as the Cornish type. It was used in conjunction with the equally famous Cornish pumping engine, which Trevithick perfected with the aid of local engineers. The latter was twice as economic as the Watt type, which it rapidly replaced.

Trevithick, a quick-tempered and impulsive man, was entirely lacking in business sense. An untrustworthy partner caused the failure of a London business he started in 1808 for the manufacture of a type of iron tank Trevithick had patented; bankruptcy followed in 1811. Three years later, nine of Trevithick’s engines were ordered for the Peruvian silver mines, and, dreaming of unlimited mineral wealth in the Andes Mountains, he sailed to South America in 1816. After many adventures, he returned to England in 1827, penniless, to find that in his absence other engineers, notably George Stephenson, had profited from his inventions. He died in poverty and was buried in an unmarked grave.

L.T.C. Rolt

Encyclopædia Britannica
Voltaic pile

The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electrical current to a circuit. It was invented by Volta Alessandro, who published his experiments in 1800. The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.

The entire 19th century electrical industry was powered by batteries related to Volta's (e.g. the Daniell cell and Grove cell) until the advent of the dynamo (the electrical generator) in the 1870s.

Volta's invention built on Luigi Galvani's 1780s discovery of how a circuit of two metals and a frog's leg can cause the frog's leg to respond, Volta demonstrated in 1794 that when two metals and brine-soaked cloth or cardboard are arranged in a circuit they produce an electric current. In 1800, Volta stacked several pairs of alternating copper (or silver) and zinc discs (electrodes) separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine (electrolyte) to increase the electrolyte conductivity. When the top and bottom contacts were connected by a wire, an electric current flowed through the voltaic pile and the connecting wire.

On March 20, 1800, Volta wrote to the London Royal Society to describe the technique for producing electric current using his pile. On learning of the voltaic pile, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle used it to discover the electrolysis of water. Humphry Davy showed that the electromotive force, which drives the electric current through a circuit containing a single voltaic cell, was caused by a chemical reaction, not by the voltage difference between the two metals. He also used the voltaic pile to decompose chemicals and to produce new chemicals. William Hyde Wollaston showed that electricity from voltaic piles had identical effects to those of electricity produced by friction. In 1802 Vasily Petrov used voltaic piles in the discovery and research of electric arc effects. Sir Humphry Davy and Andrew Crosse were among the first to develop large voltaic piles. Davy used a 2000-pair pile made for the Royal Institution in 1808 to demonstrate carbon arc discharge and isolate five new elements: barium, calcium, boron, strontium and magnesium.

Because Volta believed that the electromotive force occurred at the contact between the two metals, Volta's piles had a different design than the modern design illustrated on this page. His piles had one extra disc of copper at the top, in contact with the zinc, and one extra disc of zinc at the bottom, in contact with the copper. Expanding on the work of his mentor Davy, in the early 1830s, Faraday studied voltaic cells in detail. This led to his founding of the area of electrochemistry. The words "electrode" and "electrolyte", used above to describe Volta's work, are due to Faraday.

A voltaic pile on display in the Tempio Voltiano (the Volta Temple) near Volta's home in Como.
Dry pile
A number of high-voltage dry piles were invented between the early 19th century and the 1830s in an attempt to determine the source of electricity of the wet voltaic pile, and specifically to support Volta’s hypothesis of contact tension. Indeed, Volta himself experimented with a pile whose cardboard discs had dried out, most likely accidentally.

The first to publish was Johann Wilhelm Ritter in 1802, albeit in an obscure journal, but over the next decade, it was announced repeatedly as a new discovery. One form of dry pile is the Zamboni pile. The dry pile was the ancestor of the modern dry cell.

Electromotive force
The strength of the pile is expressed in terms of its electromotive force, or emf, given in volts. Volta's theory of contact tension considered that the emf, which drives the electric current through a circuit containing a voltaic cell, occurs at the contact between the two metals. Volta did not consider the electolyte, which was typically brine in his experiments, to be significant.
However, chemists soon realized that water in the electrolyte was involved in the pile's chemical reactions, and led to the evolution of hydrogen gas from the copper or silver electrode. The contemporary, atomic understanding of a cell with zinc and copper electrodes separated by an electrolyte is the following. When the cell is providing an electrical current through an external circuit, the metallic zinc at the surface of the zinc electrode is dissolving into the electrolyte as electrically charged ions (Zn2+), leaving 2 negatively charged electrons (e−) behind in the metal:

Zn → Zn2+ + 2 e−

  This reaction is called oxidation. While zinc is entering the electrolyte, two positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) from the electrolyte combine with two electrons at the copper electrode's surface and form an uncharged hydrogen molecule (H2):

2H++ 2 e− → H2 .

This reaction is called reduction. The electrons used from the copper to form the molecules of hydrogen are made up by an external wire or circuit that connects it to the zinc. The hydrogen molecules formed on the surface of the copper by the reduction reaction ultimately bubble away as hydrogen gas.

When no current is drawn from the pile, each cell, consisting of zinc/electrolyte/copper, generates 0.76 V with a brine electrolyte. The voltages from the cells in the pile add, so the six cells in the diagram above generate 4.56 V of electromotive force.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paris counts с 550,000 inhabitants (2,800,000 in 1931); New York с 60,000 (7,400,000 in 1931)
Bill Richmond, a former Negro slave, becomes one of the first popular boxers
Richmond Bill
Bill Richmond (August 5, 1763 – December 28, 1829) was an African American boxer, born a slave in Cuckold's Town (now Richmondtown), Staten Island, New York. His nickname was 'The Black Terror'.

1810 depiction of Richmond
  During the American Revolutionary War, Richmond was the servant of Lord Percy, the Duke of Northumberland, who took him to England in 1777. On September 22, 1776, Richmond was the hangman who executed Nathan Hale. Later, Richmond was sent to school in Yorkshire and apprenticed to a cabinet maker in York. However, he made his career as a boxer, narrowly losing to later British and world champion Tom Cribb. After his retirement from boxing, he bought the Horse and Dolphin pub in Leicester Square and set up a boxing academy.

Richmond received no boxing tutoring and was entirely self-taught. By today's standards, Richmond, who weighed between 140 and 147 pounds (64 and 67 kg), would have been a welterweight, and yet he often fought men who weighed 4 to 5 stone (25 to 32 kg) heavier than himself. He had excellent footwork and quick hands, which enabled him to avoid the big punches and outwork bigger fighters (the bob and weave technique). This was demonstrated in his fight with Tom Cribb, who was unable to land a punch in the early rounds. However, Cribb's superior weight and power eventually caught up with Richmond, who lost in the 60th round. He was also a friend and coach of Tom Molineaux, another freed slave who took up boxing in England and fought Cribb twice for the title of world champion.

He died at his home in London, England in 1829.

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