Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY




1600 - 1699

1600-09 1610-19 1620-29 1630-39 1640-49 1650-59 1660-69 1670-79 1680-89 1690-99  
1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690  
1601 1611 1621 1631 1641 1651 1661 1671 1681 1691  
1602 1612 1622 1632 1642 1652 1662 1672 1682 1692  
1603 1613 1623 1633 1643 1653 1663 1673 1683 1693  
1604 1614 1624 1634 1644 1654 1664 1674 1684 1694  
1605 1615 1625 1635 1645 1655 1665 1675 1685 1695  
1606 1616 1626 1636 1646 1656 1666 1676 1686 1696  
1607 1617 1627 1637 1647 1657 1667 1677 1687 1697  
1608 1618 1628 1638 1648 1658 1668 1678 1688 1698  
1609 1619 1629 1639 1649 1659 1669 1679 1689 1699  
  BACK-1608 Part IV NEXT-1609 Part II    
1600 - 1609
History at a Glance
1600 Part I
Maurice of Nassau
Albert VII, Archduke of Austria
Isabella, infanta of Spain
Battle of Nieuwpoort
Battle of Miraslau
Michael the Brave
Charles I of England
Charles I of England
English Civil Wars
Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
Adams William
Pontifical Scots College in Rome
1600 Part II
Thomas Dekker: "The Shoemaker's Holiday"
Calderon Pedro
Fortune Theatre
Kempe William
Thomas Nashe: "Summer's Last Will and Testament"
Caravaggio: "The Calling of Saint Matthew"
Rubens in Italy (1600–1608)
1600 Part III
Giulio Caccini: "Euridice"
Giulio Caccini - L'Euridice
Calvisius Sethus
Sethus Calvisius - Unser Leben währet siebzig Jahr
Sethus Calvisius
Emilio de' Cavalieri's: "La Rappresentazione di anima e di corpo"
Emilio de Cavalieri: Rappresentazione di anima et di corpo
Thomas Morley: "First Book of Ayres"
Thomas Morley - First Booke of Songs or Ayres
Jacopo Peri: "Euridice"
Jacopo Peri - Euridice
East India Company
William Gilbert: "De Magnete"
Lehmann Caspar
Glass cutter
1601 Part I
The Earl of Essex Rebellion
Siege of Ostend
Battle of Guruslau
Louis XIII
Anne of Austria
"Golden Speech" by Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I"Golden Speech"
Elizabeth I, 1558-1603
1601 Part II
False Dmitriy I
Marina Mniszech
Moscherosch Johann
Teixeira Bento
Caravaggio: "Conversion of St. Paul"
Giulio Caccini: "Nuove musiche"
Giulio Caccini - Amarilli, mia bella from Le Nuove Musiche
1601 Part III
Fermat Pierre
World Countries
Ricci Matteo
Missions to the Orient
John Wheeler: "A Treatise of Commerce"
Public baths
1602 Part I
Campion Thomas
Thomas Campion - My sweetest Lesbia
Thomas Campion "A Booke of Ayres"
Thomas Campion
Thomas Dekker: "Satiromastix"
Ben Jonson: "The Poetaster"
Marston John
1602 Part II
Champaigne Philippe
Philippe de Champaigne
Cavalli Francesco
Francesco Cavalli  - "Il Giasone"
Francesco Cavalli
Hassler Hans Leo
Hans Leo Hassler - "Ave Maris Stella"
Hans Leo Hassler
Blundeville Thomas
Carew Richard
Dutch East India Company
Lilly William
Guericke Otto
Gobelins Manufactory
1603 Part I
Treaty of Mellifont
Union of the Crowns
"Main Plot"
Ahmed I
World Countries
Tokugawa period (Edo period)
Althusias Johannes
Craig Thomas
Gruter Jan
Knolles Richard
Williams Roger
Biblioteca Ambrosiana
Quevedo Francisco
Philip Henslowe: "Diary"
Daniel Samuel
1603 Part II
Accademia dei Lincei
Gois Bento
Jesuits in the Himalayas
Fabricius Hieronymus
1604 Part I
King James I and Parliament
Treaty of London
World Countries
Bancroft Richard
Cawdrey Robert
Thou Jacques August
1604 Part II
John Marston: "The Malcontent"
Logau Friedrich
Mander Karel
Negri Cesare
Cesare Negri - Inventioni di Balli
Glauber Johann Rudolf
King James I "A Counterblast to Tobacco"
James I: "A Counterblaste to Tobacco"
1605 Part I
Zamoyski Jan
Gunpowder Plot
Catesby Robert
Percy Thomas
Fawkes Guy
Guy Fawkes Day
Bocskai Stephen
Hidetada Tokugawa
1605 Part II
Sir Francis Bacon: "The Advancement of Learning"
Leo XI
Paul V
Drayton Michael
Ben Jonson: "Sejanus His Fall"
1605 Part III
Annibale Carracci: "The Loves of the Gods"
Carissimi Giacomo
Carissimi: Jephte - Le Parlement de Musique
Giacomo Carissimi
Victoria: "Officium Defunctorum"
Tomas Luis de Victoria - Officium defunctorum
John Dowland: "Lachrimae"
Dowland - Lachrimae Pavan
Bauhin Gaspard
Nieuwe Tijdenghen
Angelica Library
1606 Part I
Flag of the United Kingdom
Vasili IV of Russia
Peace of Zsitvatorok
Long War (1591–1606)
Arndt Johann
Scaliger Joseph Justus
1606 Part II
Corneille Pierre
Pierre Corneille
"The Cid"
Davenant William
De Scudery Madeleine
Ben Jonson: "Volpone"
1606 Part III
Brouwer Adriaen
Adriaen Brouwer
De Heem Jan Davids
Jan Davids de Heem
Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt van Rijn
Torres Luis Vaez
Virginia Company
Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London
Worshipful Company of Grocers
Worshipful Company of Fruiterers
1607 Part I
Battle of Gibraltar
Flight of the Earls
Calasanz Joseph
Cowell John
George Chapman: "Bussy d'Amboise"
D’Urfe Honore
Gerhardt Paul
Paul Gerhardt Hymn: O Jesus Christ, Thy Manger...
Heywood Thomas
John Marston: "What You Will"
Tourneur Cyril
Cyril Tourneur: "The Revenger's Tragedy"
1607 Part II
Hatfield House
Cecil Robert
William Byrd: "Gradualia"
William Byrd - Gradualia
Claudio Monteverdi: "Orfeo"
Claudio Monteverdi - L'Orfeo
Norden John
Jamestown Colony
1608 Part I
O'Dogherty Cahir
Protestant Union
Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
Christian of Anhalt
World Countries
Matthias of Austria
Ferdinand III
False Dmitri II
Reductions of Paraguay
Reductions of  Paraguay
Gentili Alberico
Perkins William
1608 Part II
George Chapman: "The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron"
Hall Joseph
Thomas Middleton: "A Mad World, My Masters"
Milton John
John Milton  
"Paradise Lost"
El Greco: "Saints Peter and Paul"
Monteverdi: "Lamento d'Arianna"
Monteverdi - Veronique Gens is amazing! Lamento Di Arianna
1608 Part III
Lippershey Hans
Borelli Giovanni Alfonso
Champlain Samuel
Champlain and his Contemporaries
World Countries
1608 Part IV
Smith John
Crossing the Appalachians
World Countries
United States of America
Torricelli Evangelista
Royal Blackheath Golf Club, London
1609 Part I
William John , Duke of Julich-Cleves
Twelve Years' Truce
Catholic League
Garcilaso de la Vega
Hugo Grotius: "Mare Librum"
Fleming Paul
Ben Jonson: "Epicoene, or The Silent Women"
Blue Mosque, Constantinople
1609 Part II
Rubens: "Self-portrait with his Wife, Isabella Brant"
Orlando Gibbons - Three-Part Fantasia
Butler Charles
Hudson Henry
Charting Northern Waters
Johann Kepler: "Astronomia nova"
Bank of Amsterdam

Sultan Ahmed Mosque
YEAR BY YEAR:  1600 - 1699
1609 Part I
William John , Duke of Julich-Cleves

John William of Julich-Cleves-Berg (German: Johann Wilhelm, Herzog zu Kleve, Julich und Berg) (28 May 1562 – 25 March 1609) was a Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg.


John William of Julich-Cleves-Berg
  His parents were William the Rich, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1516–92) and Maria of Austria (1531–81), a daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. He grew up and was educated in Xanten. John William became Bishop of Münster.

However, after the unexpected death of his elder brother Charles Frederick, William was needed to succeed his father as Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, a secular fief. He was also Count of Altena. The United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was a combination of reichsfrei states within the Holy Roman Empire.
John William was first married in 1585 to Jakobea of Baden (d. 1597), daughter of Philibert, Margrave of Baden. He was secondly married to Antonia of Lorraine (d. 1610), daughter of Charles III, Duke of Lorraine.
He was subject to mental illness, for which he was treated by the physician Francesco Maria Guazzo.

Upon Duke John William's childless death in 1609, his inheritance was claimed by the heirs of his two eldest sisters: the heir of Maria Eleonora of Cleves (1550–1608), the eldest sister and married to Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, was Anna of Prussia, the Electress of Brandenburg, a Protestant. The second sister was Anna of Cleves (1552–1632), married with Philip Louis, Count Palatine of Neuburg, and her son and heir was the then Count Palatine of Neuburg, a Catholic.

The disputes of the epoch between Protestants and Catholics escalated, leading to the Thirty Years' War in 1618; the succession dispute became part of the war.
Ultimately, Brandenburg received Cleves-Mark and Neuburg received Jülich-Berg, after the lands had been trampled under military several times and lost much of the fabled wealth so renowned in duke William's time.
Among his court servants and employees were the composer Konrad Hagius.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Twelve Years' Truce

The Twelve Years' Truce was the name given to the cessation of hostilities between the Habsburg rulers of Spain and the Southern Netherlands and the Dutch Republic as agreed in Antwerp on 9 April 1609. It was a watershed in the Eighty Years' War, marking the point from which the independence of the United Provinces received formal recognition by outside powers. For the time of its duration, the Truce allowed King Philip III and his favorite minister the Duke of Lerma to disengage from the conflict in the Low Countries and devote their energies to the internal problems of the Spanish Monarchy. The Archdukes Albert and Isabella used the years of the Truce to consolidate Habsburg rule and to implement the Counter-Reformation in the territories under their sovereignty.

The war in the Low Countries reached a stalemate in the 1590s. After the fall of Antwerp in 1585, King Philip II ordered Alexander Farnese to direct his military actions first towards the failed campaign of the Spanish Armada, then against France to prevent the succession of King Henry IV. In the following years the Army of Flanders was entirely on the defensive. Unable to sustain the cost of a war on three fronts, Philip II was forced to declare a suspension of payments in 1596. Spain's predicament was adroitly used by Stadtholder Maurice. In a series of campaigns, the Republic's army surprised Breda in 1590, took Deventer, Hulst and Nijmegen the following year and captured Groningen in 1594. By that stage the Army of Flanders had lost almost all its strategic positions north of the great rivers.
After the accession of Philip III in Spain and of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella in the Habsburg Netherlands in 1598, the Army of Flanders tried to regain the offensive against the Dutch Republic. While it met with a tactical defeat in the Battle of Nieuwpoort on 2 July 1600, it did succeed in its strategic goal to repel the Dutch invasion of Flanders. The lengthy Siege of Ostend (1601-1604) amply demonstrated the balance of power. Both sides poured enormous resources into the besieging or defending a town that was reduced to rubble.
  Ambrogio Spinola, who had succeeded Archduke Albert as commander in the field, eventually captured the town on 22 September 1604, but only at the price of accepting the loss of Sluis. The following year, Spinola seized the initiative, bringing the war north of the great rivers for the first time since 1594. Suddenly, the Dutch Republic had the enemy threatening its heartland.
Meanwhile, Habsburg diplomacy had managed to disengage from two fronts. In 1598 Henry IV and Philip II had ended the Franco-Spanish War with the Peace of Vervins. Six years later, James I, Philip III and the Archdukes concluded the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) with the Treaty of London. Together, these treatises allowed the Habsburgs to concentrate their resources on the war against the Dutch. They did not however keep the Republic's allies from continuing their material support. Moreover, Habsburg successes in the Low Countries came at a heavy price. In 1605 the Dutch East India Company made serious inroads into the Portuguese spice trade, by setting up bases in the Moluccas. These advances signaled a serious threat that the conflict might spread further in the Spanish overseas empire. The scale of Spinola's campaigns had furthermore exhausted the Spanish treasury. On 9 November 1607 Philip III announced a suspension of payments. The balance of power had led to a balance of exhaustion. After decades of war, both sides were finally prepared to open negotiations.

The defeat of the Spaniards at Gibraltar by a Dutch fleet under command of Admiral Jacob van Heemskerck,
25 April 1607.
The two opposing sides started putting out discrete overtures early in the campaign season of 1606. The contacts were intensified when Albert instructed Father Jan Neyen in March 1607 to seek out the preliminaries that would have to be met for formal negotiations. Raised a Protestant, Neyen had converted to Catholicism and joined the Franciscan Order. The move did not however seem to have cost him his longstanding access to Stadtholder Maurits, a fact that made him a valuable intermediary. Under the guise of visiting his mother in the United Provinces, Neyen travelled between Brussels and The Hague. The States-General of the Republic insisted on a preliminary recognition of their independence, to which Albert consented, be it with significant reservations.
On 12 April 1607 the United Provinces and the Habsburg Netherlands agreed to a ceasefire, valid for eight months and taking effect on 4 May. The ceasefire was later extended to include operations at sea. Even then it was difficult to obtain the assent of Philip III. The king was appalled by Albert's readiness to concede on the point of independence. Only the desperate situation of Spain's finances compelled him to ratify the agreement. The ceasefire would be prolonged several times to allow for the negotiations that would eventually lead to the signing of the Twelve Years' Truce.
The peace conference opened in The Hague on 7 February 1608. The negotiations took place in the Binnenhof, in a room that has since been known as the Trêveszaal. As Stadtholder Maurits declined to take part in the conference, the leadership of the delegation of the Republic was given to his cousin William Louis of Nassau, the Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe. The chief negotiator on the Dutch side was the influential Land's Advocate of Holland, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt. The delegation of the Habsburg Netherlands was led by Ambrogio Spinola. Its leading participant was the Chief-President Jean Richardot. They were assisted by Neyen, the Secretary of State and War, Don Juan de Mancicidor, and the Audiencier Louis Verreycken. There was no separate delegation for the King of Spain. The delegates of the Archdukes were empowered to negotiate on his behalf.
  A number of princes sent delegations to the conference. The French team of mediators was led by the experienced negotiator and president of the Parliament of Burgundy, Pierre Jeannin. The English delegation was headed by the ambassador in The Hague and future Secretary of State Ralph Winwood. King Christian IV of Denmark sent his future Chancellor Jacob Ulfeldt. Other mediators represented the Palatinate, Brandenburg, Ansbach and Hesse-Kassel. The Elector of Cologne and the Duke of Jülich and Cleves sent observers. Most of these delegates left as the conference dragged out, with only the French and English mediators staying on until the end.

The conference failed to come to an agreement on the terms of a peace treaty and it broke up on 25 August. The parties were unable to compromise in matters of colonial trade and religion. To safeguard the Spanish Empire, the Habsburgs demanded that the Dutch would cease all navigation south of the Equator. It was a price that the mercantile United Provinces refused to pay. The demand inspired Hugo Grotius to publish his famous Mare Liberum in defense of the Dutch refusal. The United Provinces likewise rejected the Habsburg demand that the Catholics in the Republic would be given freedom of religion as an interference in their domestic affairs. In spite of these setbacks, the French and English mediators nevertheless succeeded to convince the two sides to settle for a lengthy truce. It would preserve the peace, while remaining silent on all contentious subjects. After considering longer and shorter periods, the term of the Truce was set for twelve years.

Formal talks were resumed on 28 March 1609 at the Antwerp City Hall. On 9 April the two delegations set their signatures to the text. The ratification process proved difficult. In the Republic, towns such as Amsterdam and Delft feared that the Truce would diminish their trade. The States of Zeeland resented the loss of income from privateering and insisted on maintaining the blockade of the Scheldt. Philip III had his own reasons to relent.

It took several missions from the Archducal Court before he was prepared to ratify the treaty on 7 July 1609.

The publication of the Twelve Years' Truce at Antwerp City Hall, by Michiel Collijn.
The Habsburgs agreed to treat the United Provinces like an independent state for the duration of the Truce. The wording of the article was ambiguous. The Dutch version of the agreement stated more or less that the independence of the Republic had been recognized. The French text suggested that the Republic would be treated as if it were independent.
All hostilities would cease for twelve years. The two parties would exercise their sovereignty in the territories that they controlled on the date on the agreement. Their armies would no longer levy contributions in enemy territory, all hostages would be set free. Privateering would be stopped, with both parties repressing acts of piracy against the other. Trade would resume between the former belligerents. Dutch tradesmen or mariners would be given the same protection in Spain and the Archducal Netherlands as enjoyed by Englishmen under the Treaty of London. This meant that they could not be prosecuted for their beliefs, unless they gave offense to the local population.
  For their part, the Dutch agreed to end the blockade of the Flemish coast, but refused to allow free navigation on the Scheldt.
Exiles from the Southern Netherlands were allowed to return, but would have to conform to Catholicism. Estates that had been seized during the war would be restituted or their value would be compensated. A number of aristocratic families stood to gain from this article, with Stadtholder Maurits and his siblings foremost among them. The practicalities of the restitution were agreed upon in a separate treaty dated 7 January 1610.
The agreement was silent on the trade with the Indies. It did not endorse the Spanish claim to exclusive rights of navigation, nor did it back the Dutch thesis that it could trade or settle wherever there was no previous occupation by either the Spanish or the Portuguese. The Truce did not alleviate the situation of Catholics in the Republic or of Protestants in the Habsburg Netherlands. Although they were not actively persecuted, they could not profess their religion in public and remained excluded from public office.

Allegory of Peace and Plenty painted by Abraham Janssens to laud the
return of prosperity during the Twelve Years' Truce.
Developments in the Dutch Republic
Arms adopted by the Dutch Republic to mark the recognition of their sovereignty after the Twelve Years' Truce.

To mark the recognition of the independence of the United Provinces, the States-General added a closed crown with two arches to their arms. Soon after the Truce, their emissaries in Paris and London were accorded full ambassadorial status. The Republic established diplomatic ties with the Republic of Venice, the Moroccan sultans and the Ottoman Empire. A network of consuls was set up in the main ports. On 17 June 1609 France and England had signed a treaty, guaranteeing the independence of the Republic. To protect their interests in the Baltic, the United Provinces signed a defensive pact with the Hanseatic League in 1614 that was designed to protect them against Danish aggression.

The Truce did not halt Dutch colonial expansion. The United East India Company established its presence on the island of Solor, founded the town of Batavia on the island of Java and gained a foothold on the Coromandel Coast in Pulicat. In the New World, the Republic encouraged the colonization of New Netherland. The Dutch merchant navy expanded rapidly, asserting itself on new routes, particularly in the Mediterranean. In the mother country, the ports profited from the expansion of trade.

A brewing town such as Delft or textile producing centers like Leiden and Gouda on the other hand, suffered from the competition of goods produced with cheaper wages in the Habsburg Netherlands.
  During the Truce, two factions emerged in the Dutch Republic. The divisions separating them were religious as well as political. The unity of the Dutch Reformed Church was threatened by a controversy that found its origins in the opposing views of Jacobus Arminius and Franciscus Gomarus on predestination. Arminius' less rigid views appealed to the well-to-do merchants of Holland. They were also popular among the regents dominating the political life of that province, because they offered the prospect of an inclusive church controlled by the state. Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius were among the principal supporters. The strict interpretations of Gomarus stood for a church of the elect, independent of outside control. They appealed to the industrious strata of the manufacturing towns as well as to exiles from the Southern Netherlands who were excluded from political power, adding an element of social conflict to the controversy. In many towns congregations split between Remonstrants seeking to moderate the Belgic Confession, and Counter-Remonstrants insisting on its rigid interpretation. On 23 September 1617 Stadtholder Maurits openly sided with the Counter-Remonstrants. In an attempt to force the issue, Remonstrants used their sway over local authorities to organize militias. Maurits had them disbanded and ousted Remonstrant regents from one town council after the other. On 29 August 1618 he had Oldenbarnevelt and other leaders of the Remonstrants arrested. Oldenbarnevelt and three others were tried and executed. Others, such as Grotius, were imprisoned in Castle Loevestein. Meanwhile the Synod of Dort upheld the strict interpretation of predestination and declared Arminianism heretical. Arminian theologians such as Johannes Wtenbogaert went into exile, where they set up a separate Remonstrant Church.
Developments in the Spanish Monarchy
Developments in the Archducal Netherlands
The Archducal Netherlands benefited from the Truce. Agriculture was at last allowed to recover from the devastation of war. The archducal regime encouraged the reclaiming of land that had been inundated in the course of the hostilities and sponsored the impoldering of the Moeren, a marshy area that is presently astride the Belgian–French border.

The recovery of agriculture led in turn to a modest increase of the population after decades of demographic losses. Repairing the damage to churches and other buildings helped to boost demand. Industry and in particular the luxury trades likewise underwent a recovery. Other sectors, such as textiles and breweries, benefited from relatively lower wages in comparison to the Dutch Republic. International trade was however hampered by the closure of the river Scheldt.
  The archducal regime had plans to bypass the blockade with a system of canals linking Ostend via Bruges to the Scheldt in Ghent and joining the Meuse to the Rhine between Venlo and Rheinberg. In order to combat urban poverty, the government supported the creation of a network of Monti di Pietà based on the Italian model.
Meanwhile the archducal regime ensured the triumph of the Counter Reformation in the Habsburg Netherlands. Most Protestants had by that stage left the Southern Netherlands. Under the terms of legislation passed shortly after the Truce, the remaining Protestant presence was tolerated, provided they did not worship in public. Engaging in religious debates was also forbidden by law. The resolutions of the Third Provincial Council of Mechelen of 1607 were likewise given official sanction. Through such measures and by the appointment of a generation of able and committed bishops, Albert and Isabella laid the foundation of the Catholic confessionalisation of the population.
Resumption of hostilities
More than once it looked as if the Truce was about to collapse. The succession crisis over the duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg resulted in severe tensions during the siege of Jülich of 1610 and the confrontations that led to the Treaty of Xanten in 1614.
Petrus Peckius the Younger led a failed attempt at renewing the truce in 1621.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bacon Francis: "De sapienta veterum"
Francis Bacon

"New Atlantis"

Catholic League of Ger. princes formed at Munich against Protestant Union of May 1608
Catholic League

Catholic League, German Katholische Liga, a military alliance (1609–35) of the Catholic powers of Germany led by Maximilian I, duke of Bavaria, and designed to stem the growth of Protestantism in Germany. In alliance with the Habsburg emperors, the League’s forces, led by Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly, played a key role in the Thirty Years’ War.


Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria
Tserclaes Johann Count Tilly, commander in chief of the army of the Catholic League
on a portrait by Anthony van Dyck
Plans for a league had long been discussed, but the formation of the Protestant Union in 1608 caused the Catholics to unite under Maximilian. The original League members on July 10, 1609, included Bavaria and the prince-bishops of Bavaria, Franconia, and Swabia. The Rhenish ecclesiastical electors of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne joined on July 30 of that year. Maximilian reorganized the League in 1617, excluding the Rhenish members and making the League an exclusively southern German confederation.

The Bohemian revolt of 1618 caused alarm among the German Catholics, and the League resumed its expanded form in May 1619. When the Protestant elector Frederick V of the Palatinate accepted the Bohemian crown later that year, the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II looked to the League for military support.

  Through negotiations in 1620, Maximilian undermined the Protestant Union’s support of Frederick. In November 1620, the League’s forces under Tilly crushed Frederick at the Battle of White Mountain near Prague. Tilly’s troops then ravaged the Palatinate and other Protestant lands to the north; won several battles over King Christian IV of Denmark, who had come to the Protestants’ defense; and helped carry out Catholic restitutions in conquered Protestant territories. The importance of the League began to decline after 1626, when the Emperor found his own general in Albrecht von Wallenstein. Tilly’s defeat by Gustav II Adolf of Sweden at Breitenfeld in 1631, followed by his death the following year, accelerated the League’s decline. It was abolished in 1635 by the Peace of Prague, which forbade military confederations in the Empire.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Painting by Karl von Piloty showing the foundation of the Catholic League

Garcilaso de la Vega: "Comentarios Reales de los Incas"
Garcilaso de la Vega

Garcilaso de la Vega, also called El Inca (born April 12, 1539, Cuzco, Peru—died April 24, 1616, Córdoba, Spain), one of the great Spanish chroniclers of the 16th century, noted as the author of distinguished works on the history of the Indians in South America and the expeditions of the Spanish conquistadors.


Garcilaso de la Vega
  Garcilaso was the illegitimate son of a Spanish conquistador, Sebastian Garcilaso de la Vega, and an Inca Indian princess. Raised in his father’s household in Peru, he absorbed both the traditions of the Incas and the stories told by his father’s Spanish associates. He learned Spanish and Latin and was an eyewitness to the civil wars then raging in Peru, which he later recorded in his chronicles. A highly intelligent youth, he was used by his father as a scribe and agent to govern his vast estates in Peru. In the fall of 1560 he arrived in Spain and came under the protection of his father’s brother. In the 1560s he served in the Spanish armies, in which he reached the rank of captain. Later he entered the priesthood, becoming a minor ecclesiastic in 1597. Garcilaso’s literary career started with his translation into Spanish of the Italian Neoplatonic dialogue, Dialoghi di amore (“Dialogues of Love”), by the Jewish humanist Léon Hebreo, which was published in 1588. Garcilaso is best known for La Florida del Ynca (an account of Hernando de Soto’s expeditions north of Mexico) and his history of Peru, describing the civil wars that broke out among the Spanish conquerors of Peru (Part I, 1608/09; Part II, 1617). Garcilaso’s writing places him within the currents of Spanish Renaissance literature, but he should not be confused with the great early 16th-century poet of the same name, to whom he was related.

Encyclopædia Britannica

He received a first-rate, but informal European education in Spain after he relocated there at age 21. His works have enormous literary value, and are not mere historical chronicles. His maternal family were the ruling Inca, and as such, he portrays the Inca as benevolent rulers who governed a country where everybody was well-fed and happy. Nonetheless, he received first-hand accounts of daily Inca life from his maternal relatives, much of which he conveyed in his writings, and he gives accurate information about the system of tribute and labor enforced by the Incas. His depiction of Incan religion and gradual expansion is nurtured by his Christianized view of the indigenous past; no mention is made of human sacrifices in Inca times. Whether this was a deliberate attempt to portray his Inca ancestors in a good light, or mere ignorance given that he lived most of his life in Spain, is not known.
Comentarios Reales de los Incas
It was in Spain that Garcilaso wrote his famous Comentarios Reales de los Incas, published in Lisbon in 1609, and based on stories he had been told by his Inca relatives when he was a child in Cusco. The Comentarios contained two parts: the first about Inca life, and the second about the Spanish conquest of Peru, published in 1617. Many years later (1780), when the uprising against colonial oppression led by Tupac Amaru II gained traction, a royal edict by Charles III of Spain banned the Comentarios from being published or distributed in Lima due to its "dangerous" content. The book was not printed again in the Americas until 1918, but copies continued to be circulated.Video Inca Garcilaso y Tupac Amaru
  Historia de la Florida
Even before the Comentarios Reales, Garcilaso had also written his popular La Florida del Inca, an account of Hernando de Soto's expedition and journey of Florida. The work was published in Lisbon in 1605.

It contains the chronicles of de Sotos's expedition according to information Garcilaso gathered during various years, and defends the legitimacy of imposing the Spanish sovereignty in conquered territories and submit them to Christian jurisdiction. He also defends the dignity, courage and rationality of the Native Americans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hugo Grotius: "Mare Librum"

Mare Liberum (English: The Free Sea or The Freedom of the Sea) is a book in Latin on international law written by the Dutch jurist and philosopher Hugo Grotius. In The Free Sea, Grotius formulated the new principle that the sea was international territory and all nations were free to use it for seafaring trade. The disputation was directed towards the Portuguese Mare clausum policy and their claim of monopoly on the East Indian Trade. Grotius wrote the treatise while being a counsel to the Dutch East India Company over the seizing of the Santa Catarina Portuguese carrack issue.

Grotius' argument was that the sea was free to all, and that nobody had the right to deny others access to it. In chapter I, he laid out his objective, which was to demonstrate "briefly and clearly that the Dutch [...] have the right to sail to the East Indies", and, also, "to engage in trade with the people there". He then went on to describe how he based his argument on what he called the "most specific and unimpeachable axiom of the Law of Nations, called a primary rule or first principle, the spirit of which is self-evident and immutable", namely that: "Every nation is free to travel to every other nation, and to trade with it." From this premise, Grotius argued that this self-evident and immutable right to travel and to trade required (1) a right of innocent passage over land, and (2) a similar right of innocent passage at sea. The sea, however, was more like air than land, and was, as opposed to land, common property of all:
The air belongs to this class of things for two reasons. First, it is not susceptible of occupation; and second its common use is destined for all men. For the same reasons the sea is common to all, because it is so limitless that it cannot become a possession of any one, and because it is adapted for the use of all, whether we consider it from the point of view of navigation or of fisheries.
Mare Liberum was published by Elzevier in the spring of 1609. It has been translated into English twice. The first translation was by Richard Hakluyt, and was completed some time between the publication of Mare Liberum in 1609 and Hakluyt's death in 1616. However, Hakluyt's translation was only published for the first time in 2004 under the title The Free Sea as part of Liberty Fund's "Natural Law and Enlightenment Classics" series. The second translation was by Ralph Van Deman Magoffin, associate professor of Greek and Roman History at Johns Hopkins University. This translation was a part of a debate on free shipping during the First World War, and was published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Oxford University Press in 1916 as The Freedom of the Seas, Or, The Right Which Belongs to the Dutch to Take Part in the East Indian Trade.

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Title page of Hugo Grotius (1609) (in latin) Mare Liberum, sive de jure quod Batavis competit ad Indicana commercia dissertatio, Leiden: Ex officina Ludovici Elzevirij [From the office of Lodewijk Elzevir].
This copy is from the Peace Palace Library in The Hague, Netherlands.
see also: Grotius Hugo
see also: Renaissance philoophys
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The Emperor Rudolf II permits freedom of religion in Bohemia
Dekker Thomas: "The Gull's Hornbook," satire of contemporary London life
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Fleming Paul

Paul Fleming, also spelt Flemming (October 5, 1609 – April 2, 1640), was a German physician and poet.
As well as writing notable verse and hymns, he spent several years accompanying the Duke of Holstein's embassies to Russia and Persia. He also lived for a year at Reval on the coast of Estonia, where he wrote many love-songs.


Paul Fleming
  Paul Fleming, (born Oct. 5, 1609, Hartenstein, Saxony [now in Germany]—died April 2, 1640, Hamburg), outstanding lyrical poet of 17th-century Germany. He brought a new immediacy and sincerity to the innovations of metre and stanza introduced by his teacher, Martin Opitz. The son of a Lutheran pastor, Fleming was studying medicine and composing Latin verse at Leipzig when he met Opitz and became his ardent disciple. Fleming spent years with a trade mission in Russia and Iran. In Revel (now Tallinn, Est.) he experienced a disappointing love affair. He later continued studying medicine in Leyden, and, as he was returning to Revel, he died in Hamburg. Fleming’s legacy is some of the century’s finest poetry: love lyrics that were unique for their time in their freshness and depth of feeling and religious hymns distinguished for their fervour and stoical dignity. Some of them—e.g., “In allen meinen Taten” (“In All My Deeds”)—appear in hymnals today. Fleming excelled in the sonnet form, which he was the first German to use effectively. His poetry is not free of the allusions to mythology, the piled-up maxims, and the Baroque conceits that were popular during his day, but these artificialities are redeemed by the personal tone of a man who writes convincingly from his own experience. His Teutsche Poemata (“German Poems”) and Geist und weltliche Poemata (“Spiritual and Worldly Poems”) appeared posthumously in 1642 and in 1651.

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Ben Jonson: "Epicoene, or The Silent Women"

Epicoene, or The silent woman, also known as The Epicene, is a comedy by Renaissance playwright Ben Jonson. It was originally performed by the Blackfriars Children, a group of boy players, in 1609. It was, by Jonson's admission, a failure on its first presentation; however, John Dryden and others championed it, and after the Restoration it was frequently revived—indeed, a reference by Samuel Pepys to a performance on 6 July 1660 places it among the first plays legally performed after Charles II's ascension.

The play takes place in London. Morose, a wealthy old man with an obsessive hatred of noise, has made plans to disinherit his nephew Dauphine by marrying. His bride Epicœne is, he thinks, an exceptionally quiet woman; he does not know that Dauphine has arranged the whole match for purposes of his own.
The couple are married despite the well-meaning interference of Dauphine's friend True-wit. Morose soon regrets his wedding day, as his house is invaded by a charivari that comprises Dauphine, True-wit, and Clerimont; a bear warden named Otter and his wife; two stupid knights, La Foole and Daw; and an assortment of "collegiates," vain and scheming women with intellectual pretensions. Worst for Morose, Epicœne quickly reveals herself as a loud, nagging mate. Desperate for a divorce, Morose consults two lawyers (actually Dauphine's men in disguise), but they can find no grounds for ending the match. Finally, Dauphine promises to reveal grounds to end the marriage (Morose must come to financial terms with him). The agreement made, Dauphine strips the female costume from Epicœne, revealing that the wife is, in fact, a boy. Morose is dismissed harshly, and the other ludicrous characters are discomfited by this revelation; Daw and Foole, for instance, had claimed to have slept with Epicœne.
For Epicœne, in contrast to his usual practice in comedy, Jonson relied to some extent on a variety of sources.

While most details of characterization and plot are, as usual, his own invention, he found the scenario in two orations by Libanius: in one, a groom in Morose's situation argues for permission to commit suicide to escape his marriage, while in the other an elderly miser plans to disinherit a nephew who laughed at him. The coup de theatre of Epicœne's unveiling, while traditionally viewed as derived from the Casina of Plautus, is closer both in spirit and in execution to Il Marescalco of Aretino.

Finally, a comic duel between La Foole and Daw is usually seen as an echo of the mock-duel between Viola and Aguecheek in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Some more local details are also borrowed from the classical misogynistic tradition.

True-wit's speeches condemning marriage are larded with borrowings from Ovid's Ars Amatoria and Juvenal's Satire VI. John Aubrey's claim that Morose was modelled on Elizabethan businessman Thomas Sutton is no longer credited.
Stage history and reception
The play premiered at the Whitefriars Theatre in December 1609 or January 1610, acted by the Children of the Queen's Revels, led by Nathan Field (who may have played True-wit or Dauphin). Little heed is now given to Fleay's hypothesis that Jonson himself played Morose. Jonson hinted to Drummond that the play failed; he mentioned certain verses calling the title appropriate, since the audience had remained silent at the end. A report from the Venetian ambassador shows that at least one person spoke up in response to the play: Arbella Stuart, who complained of a personal reference to a recent intrigue involving the prince of Moldavia. Whatever trouble this complaint may have caused Jonson was apparently covered over by Stuart's subsequent marriage to William Seymour. That the play remained current is suggested by a Stationer's Register entry in 1612 which indicates the intention to publish a quarto of the play.
The play influenced at least two minor plays before the interregnum: Peter Hausted's Rival Friends (1631) and Jaspar Mayne's The City Match (1639).
After the Restoration, Epicœne was frequently revived and highly appreciated; in the course of a lengthy analysis, Dryden calls it "the pattern of a perfect play."
Samuel Pepys's diary records several viewings of the play. The first, in early summer of 1660, seems likely to have been among the first plays performed after Charles II's return to London. Pepys saw the play again in January 1661, with Edward Kynaston in the title role.
In 1664, Pepys saw the play at the Theatre Royal with Elizabeth Knepp in the title role; this was probably the first performance in which a woman played Epicœne. Over the next century, a number of celebrated actresses, including Anne Oldfield and Sarah Siddons, performed the part. Siddons, however, was directly associated with the play's departure from the stage. David Garrick and George Colman's updated version (1752), featuring Siddons, was a disastrous failure. Bonnell Tyler, echoing Reformation comments on the play, condemned Morose as ludicrously unnatural, and other reviewers were no kinder. Garrick replaced Siddons with a boy, responding to historically ill-informed complaints that a female Epicœne was ludicrous. The revamped casting did not save the production, and Epicœne vanished from the boards for over a century, a victim of the general collapse in popular taste for non-Shakespearean Renaissance drama.
In 1935, Richard Strauss's opera Die schweigsame Frau, with a libretto by Stefan Zweig based on Jonson's play, premiered in Dresden.

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see also: Jonson Ben

Ben Jonson


The Alchemist"
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Shakespeare William: "Cymbeline" (— 1610)
William Shakespeare 



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Blue Mosque, Constantinople


The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultan Ahmet Camii) is an historic mosque in Istanbul. The mosque is popularly known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles adorning the walls of its interior.

It was built from 1609 to 1616, during the rule of Ahmed I. Its Kulliye contains a tomb of the founder, a madrasah and a hospice. While still used as a mosque, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque has also become a popular tourist attraction.

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque has one main dome, six minarets, and eight secondary domes. The design is the culmination of two centuries of both Ottoman mosque and Byzantine church development. It incorporates some Byzantine elements of the neighboring Hagia Sophia with traditional Islamic architecture and is considered to be the last great mosque of the classical period. The architect, Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa, synthesized the ideas of his master Sinan, aiming for overwhelming size, majesty and splendour.

Sultan Ahmed Mosque
The facade of the spacious forecourt was built in the same manner as the facade of the Süleymaniye Mosque, except for the addition of the turrets on the corner domes. The court is about as large as the mosque itself and is surrounded by a continuous vaulted arcade (revak). It has ablution facilities on both sides. The central hexagonal fountain is small relative to the courtyard. The monumental but narrow gateway to the courtyard stands out architecturally from the arcade. Its semi-dome has a fine stalactite structure, crowned by a small ribbed dome on a tall tholobate.
A heavy iron chain hangs in the upper part of the court entrance on the western side. Only the sultan was allowed to enter the court of the mosque on horseback. The chain was put there, so that the sultan had to lower his head every time he entered the court to avoid being hit. This was a symbolic gesture, to ensure the humility of the ruler in the face of the divine.
The six minarets were a matter of contention and a first, since four minarets were the common maximum. Only after one more minaret was added to the Masjid al-Haram, Grand Mosque, in Mecca was the six minarets issue settled.
At its lower levels and at every pier, the interior of the mosque is lined with more than 20,000 handmade ceramic tiles, made at Iznik (the ancient Nicaea) in more than fifty different tulip designs. The tiles at lower levels are traditional in design, while at gallery level their design becomes flamboyant with representations of flowers, fruit and cypresses. More than 20,000 tiles were made under the supervision of the Iznik master potter Kasap Haci and Baris Efendi from Avanos (Cappadocia). The price to be paid for each tile was fixed by the sultan's decree, while tile prices in general increased over time. As a result, the quality of the tiles used in the building decreased gradually. The upper levels of the interior are dominated by blue paint. More than 200 stained glass windows with intricate designs admit natural light, today assisted by chandeliers. On the chandeliers, ostrich eggs are found that were meant to avoid cobwebs inside the mosque by repelling spiders. The decorations include verses from the Qur'an, many of them made by Seyyid Kasim Gubari, regarded as the greatest calligrapher of his time. The floors are covered with carpets, which are donated by the faithful and are regularly replaced as they wear out. The many spacious windows confer a spacious impression. The casements at floor level are decorated with opus sectile. Each exedra has five windows, some of which are blind. Each semi-dome has 14 windows and the central dome 28 (four of which are blind). The coloured glass for the windows was a gift of the Signoria of Venice to the sultan. Most of these coloured windows have by now been replaced by modern versions with little or no artistic merit.
The most important element in the interior of the mosque is the mihrab, which is made of finely carved and sculptured marble, with a stalactite niche and a double inscriptive panel above it.
Interior view, featuring the prayer area and the main dome.
It is surrounded by many windows. The adjacent walls are sheathed in ceramic tiles. To the right of the mihrab is the richly decorated minber, or pulpit, where the imam stands when he is delivering his sermon at the time of noon prayer on Fridays or on holy days. The mosque has been designed so that even when it is at its most crowded, everyone in the mosque can see and hear the imam.
The royal kiosk is situated at the south-east corner. It comprises a platform, a loggia and two small retiring rooms. It gives access to the royal loge in the south-east upper gallery of the mosque. These retiring rooms became the headquarters of the Grand Vizier during the suppression of the rebellious Janissary Corps in 1826. The royal loge (hünkâr mahfil) is supported by ten marble columns. It has its own mihrab, which used to be decorated with a jade rose and gilt and with one hundred Qurans on an inlaid and gilded lecterns.
The many lamps inside the mosque were once covered with gold and gems. Among the glass bowls one could find ostrich eggs and crystal balls. All these decorations have been removed or pillaged for museums.
The great tablets on the walls are inscribed with the names of the caliphs and verses from the Quran. They were originally by the great 17th-century calligrapher Seyyid Kasim Gubari of Diyarbakır but have been repeatedly restored.

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Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Carracci Annibale, Ital. painter, d. (b. 1560)

Holy Women at the Tomb of Christ
Oil on canvas
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg
Annibale Carracci
Baroque & Rococo

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