TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1500 - 1599

 
1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590  
1501 1511 1521 1531 1541 1551 1561 1571 1581 1591  
1502 1512 1522 1532 1542 1552 1562 1572 1582 1592  
1503 1513 1523 1533 1543 1553 1563 1573 1583 1593  
1504 1514 1524 1534 1544 1554 1564 1574 1584 1594  
1505 1515 1525 1535 1545 1555 1565 1575 1585 1595  
1506 1516 1526 1536 1546 1556 1566 1576 1586 1596  
1507 1517 1527 1537 1547 1557 1567 1577 1587 1597  
1508 1518 1528 1538 1548 1558 1568 1578 1588 1598  
1509 1519 1529 1539 1549 1559 1569 1579 1589 1599  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1509-Part I NEXT-1510-1519    
 
 
     
1500 - 1509
YEAR BY YEAR:
1500 -1509
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1500-Part I
Charles V, Holy Roman emperor
Imperial Circle
Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal
"Adagia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1500-Part II
"Mariken van Nieumeghen"
Till Eulenspiegel
Richard Strauss - Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche
Hieronymus Bosch: "Ship of Fools"
Botticelli: "Mystic Nativity"
Cellini Benvenuto
Benvenuto Cellini
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1500-Part III
Brunschwig Hieronymus
Cabral Pedro Alvarez
Explorers of the East Coast
World Countries
Brazil
Cosa Juan de la
Amazon River
Dias Bartolomeu
Reconnaissance of Africa
Pinzon Vicente Yanez
The Exploration of Brazil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1500-Part IV
Black-lead pencils
Nufer Jakob
Cesarean section
Faience
Maiolica
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1501-Part I
Granada – The Last Muslim Kingdom of Spain
Durres
Basel
Schaffhausen
World Countries
Switzerland
Ismail I
Safavid Dynasty
Russo-Lithuanian Wars
World Countries
Lithuania
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1501-Part II
Celtis Conradus
Douglas Gawin
Filippino Lippi: "The Marriage of St Catherine"
Michelangelo: "David"
Michelangelo: "Madonna and Child"
Grunewald Matthias
Matthias Grunewald: "Crucifixion"
Matthias Grunewald
Petrucci Ottaviano
Geronimo Cardano
Bastidas Rodrigo
Fuchs Leonhard
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1502-Part I
Henneberg Berthold Von
George of the Palatinate
Margaret Beaufort
Frederick III of Saxony
Martin Luther University
Calepino Ambrogio
Vicente Gil
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1502-Part II
Giovanni Bellini: "Baptism of Christ"
Cranach Lucas the Elder
Lucas Cranach: "Dr. Cuspinian and his Wife"
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Corteccia Francesco
Francesco Corteccia- Aurora
Francesco Corteccia
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1502-Part III
Honduras
World Countries
Honduras
Panama
World Countries
Panama
Portuguese India
Kochi
Joao da Nova
Henlein Peter
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1503-Part I
Casa de Contratacion
Lepanto
Cordoba Gonzalo Fernández de
Battle of Garigliano
Landshut War of Succession
Zanzibar
World Countries
United Rep. of Tanzania
Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
Margaret Tudor
"Imitation of Christ"
Pius III
Julius II
Warham William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1503-Part II
Dunbar William
"The Thrissil and the Rois"
William Dunbar 
"The Thrissil and the Rois"
Mendoza Diego Hurtado de
Wyatt Thomas
Sir Thomas Wyatt
Works of Thomas Wyatt
Leonardo Da Vinci: "Mona Lisa"
Matthias Grunewald: "The Mockery of Christ"
Parmigianino
Parmigianino
Bronzino Agnolo
Agnolo Bronzino
Nostradamus
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1504-Part I
Treaty of Lyons
Treaty of Blois
Gotz von Berlichingen
University of Santiago de Compostela
Udall Nicholas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1504-Part II
Lucas Cranach: "Rest on the Flight to Egypt"
Giorgione
Giorgione: "Judith", c. 1504
Giorgione
Raphael: "Marriage of the Virgin"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1505-Part I
Treaty of Salamanca
Vasili III Ivanovich
Christ's College
Knox John
Wimpfeling Jakob
Rej Mikolaj
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1505-Part II
Lotto Lorenzo
Lorenzo Lotto: "The Maiden's Dream", 1505
Lorenzo Lotto
Raphael: "Madonna del Granduca"
Gerard David: "St. John the Baptist"
Tallis Thomas
Thomas Tallis - Lamentation
Thomas Tallis
Ferro Scipione
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1506-Part I
Treaty of Villafáfila
Treaty of Windsor
Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk
Germaine of Foix
Sigismund I
Buchanan George
Tetzel Johann
Xavier Francis
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1506-Part II
Bramante: St. Peter's Basilica
Lucas Cranach: "St. Catherine"
Raphael: "Madonna of Belvedere"
Tilman Riemenschneider "Holy Blood"
Agricola Alexander
Alexander Agricola: Ave domina sancta Maria
Alexander Agricola
Fugger Jakob
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1507-Part I
Reichskammergericht
Mary Tudor, Queen of France
Vergil Polydore
Waldseemuller Martin
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1508-Part I
Triumph of Maximilian
War of the League of Cambrai
Abrabanel Isaac
Aleandro Girolamo
Bude Guillaume
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1508-Part II
Ariosto Ludovico
Myllar Androw
Michelangelo: Ceiling of Sistine Chapel
Lorenzo Lotto: "Madonna with Child and Four Saints"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1508-Part III
Palladio Andrea
Andrea Palladio
Baldassare Peruzzi: Villa Farnesina, Rome
Durer: "The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1509-Part I
Battle of Agnadello
Tomb of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
Brasenose College
Calvin John
John Calvin
Calvinism
"Praise of Folly"
Fisher John
Pfefferkorn Johannes
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1509-Part II
Leoni Leone
Leone Leoni
Pompeo Leoni
Aertsen Pieter
Pieter Aertsen
Istanbul earthquake
Las Casas Bartolome de
 
 
 

Market Scene by Pieter Aertsen
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1500 - 1599
 
 
 
1509 Part II
 
 
 
1509
 
 
Leoni Leone
 

Leone Leoni, (born 1509, Arezzo, republic of Florence [Italy]—died 1590, Milan), Florentine sculptor, goldsmith, and medalist who had significant influence on Spanish sculpture.

 
During much of his career, Leoni was master of the imperial mint in Milan. His portrait medals of the Spanish court and his work on the high altar of the palace-monastery of El Escorial, produced in collaboration with his son Pompeo, have a refined, classical quality. Leoni’s “Bust of Emperor Charles V” (1553–55) shows his powers of observation and deep sensitivity.

Other well-known works include “Charles V Restraining Fury” (1549–55) and “Charles V Triumphant over Discord,” which has removable armour. Leoni’s palatial residence in Milan, Casa Degli Omenoni (1565–70), is a tribute to the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius; six larger-than-life-size sculptures of barbarians (possibly representing Aurelius’ conquests) project from the house’s facade.
 
 

Leone Leoni and Pompeo Leoni. The Emperor Charles V Restraining Fury
1550-53
Bronze, height 174 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
 
 
 
     
 
Leone Leoni

Pompeo Leoni
     
 
 
 
     
 
The High Renaissance & Mannerism
 
     
 
 
 
1509
 
 
Aertsen Pieter
 

Pieter Aertsen (1508–3 June 1575), called Lange Pier ("Tall Pete") because of his height, was a Dutch historical painter.

 


Market Scene

  He was born and died in Amsterdam, and painted there and in Antwerp, though his genre scenes were influential in Italy.

As a youth, he apprenticed with Allaert Claesz. He distinguished himself by painting domestic scenes in which he reproduced articles of furniture, cooking utensils, and so on, with marvellous fidelity.

Later in life, he began documenting historical scenes. Several of his best works, including altarpieces in various churches, were destroyed during the days surrounding the event known as the Alteratie, or "Changeover", when Amsterdam formally reverted to Protestantism from Catholicism on 26 May 1578 at the start of the Eighty Year's War.

During the iconoclasm several paintings that had been commissioned by Catholic churches were destroyed.

An excellent specimen of his style is a painting of the Crucifixion, Aertsen was a member of Antwerp's equivalent of the Academy of St Luke.

In the official books of the Academy he is known as "Langhe Peter, schilder" (Tall Peter, painter).

His sons Pieter, Aert, and Dirck became acclaimed painters, and other notable pupils trained in his workshop included Stradanus and Aertsen's nephew, Joachim Beuckelaer.

 
 
 

The Egg Dance, 1557
 
 
 
 
     
 
Pieter Aertsen
     
 
 
 
     
 
The High Renaissance & Mannerism
 
     
 
 
 
1509
 
 
First attempts to restrict right to practice medicine to licensed and qualified doctors
 
 
 
1509
 
 
Earthquake destroys Constantinople
 
 
Istanbul earthquake
 
The 1509 Istanbul earthquake, referred to as "The Lesser Judgment Day" (Turkish: Küçük Kıyamet) by contemporaries, was an earthquake that occurred in the Sea of Marmara on September 10, 1509 at about 10 p.m..

The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.2 ± 0.3 on the surface wave magnitude scale.

Forty-five days of aftershocks followed the earthquake, as well as a tsunami.

Over a thousand houses and 109 mosques were destroyed, and an estimated 10,000 people died.
 
Woodcut depicting the effects of the 1509 earthquake
 
 
 
1509
 
 
Fugger Jakob lends Emperor Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor 170,000 ducats to finance war against Venice
 
 
 
1509
 
 
Beginnings of slave trade; Bartolome de Las Casas, Roman Catholic bishop of Chiapas, proposes that each Span. settler should bring a certain number of Negro slaves to the New World
 
 
Las Casas Bartolome de
 

Bartolomé de las Casas O.P. (c. 1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. He became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies and focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.

 

Bartolomé de las Casas
  Bartolomé de Las Casas, (born August 1474, Sevilla?—died July 17, 1566, Madrid), early Spanish historian and Dominican missionary in the Americas, who was the first to expose the oppression of the Indian by the European and to call for the abolition of Indian slavery. His several works include Historia de las Indias (first printed in 1875). A prolific writer and in his later years an influential figure of the Spanish court, Las Casas nonetheless failed to stay the progressive enslavement of the indigenous races of Latin America.

The son of a small merchant, Las Casas is believed to have gone to Granada as a soldier in 1497 and to have enrolled to study Latin in the academy at the cathedral in Sevilla (Seville). In 1502 he left for Hispaniola, in the West Indies, with the governor, Nicolás de Ovando.

As a reward for his participation in various expeditions, he was given an encomienda (a royal land grant including Indian inhabitants), and he soon began to evangelize the Indians, serving as doctrinero, or lay teacher of catechism. Perhaps the first person in America to receive holy orders, he was ordained priest in either 1512 or 1513.
In 1513 he took part in the bloody conquest of Cuba and, as priest-encomendero (land grantee), received an allotment of Indian serfs.

 
 
Although during his first 12 years in America Las Casas was a willing participant in the conquest of the Caribbean, he did not indefinitely remain indifferent to the fate of the natives. In a famous sermon on August 15, 1514, he announced that he was returning his Indian serfs to the governor. Realizing that it was useless to attempt to defend the Indians at long distance in America, he returned to Spain in 1515 to plead for their better treatment. The most influential person to take up his cause was Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, the archbishop of Toledo and future co-regent of Spain. With the help of the archbishop, the Plan para la reformación de las Indias was conceived, and Las Casas, named priest-procurator of the Indies, was appointed to a commission to investigate the status of the Indians. He sailed for America in November 1516.
 
 
Las Casas returned to Spain the next year. In addition to studying the juridical problems of the Indies, he began to work out a plan for their peaceful colonization by recruiting farmers as colonists. His stirring defense of the Indians before the Spanish Parliament in Barcelona in December 1519 persuaded King Charles I (the emperor Charles V), who was in attendance, to accept Las Casas’s project of founding “towns of free Indians”—i.e., communities of both Spaniards and Indians who would jointly create a new civilization in America. The location selected for the new colony was on the Gulf of Paria in the northern part of present-day Venezuela. Las Casas and a group of farm labourers departed for America in December 1520. The failure to recruit a sufficient number of farmers, the opposition of the encomenderos of Santo Domingo, and, finally, an attack by the Indians themselves all were factors that brought disaster to the experiment in January 1522.   Upon his return to Santo Domingo, the unsuccessful priest and political reformer abandoned his reforming activities to take refuge in religious life; he joined the Dominican order in 1523. Four years later, while serving as prior of the convent of Puerto de Plata, a town in northern Santo Domingo, he began to write the Historia apologética. One of his major works, the Apologética was to serve as the introduction to his masterpiece, the Historia de las Indias. The Historia, which by his request was not published until after his death, is an account of all that had happened in the Indies just as he had seen or heard of it. But, rather than a chronicle, it is a prophetic interpretation of events. The purpose of all the facts he sets forth is the exposure of the “sin” of domination, oppression, and injustice that the European was inflicting upon the newly discovered colonial peoples. It was Las Casas’s intention to reveal to Spain the reason for the misfortune that would inevitably befall her when she became the object of God’s punishment.
 
 

Depiction of Spanish atrocities in the New World, as recounted by Bartolomé de las Casas in Narratio Regionum indicarum per Hispanos Quosdam devastatarum verissima.
 
 
Upon his return to Santo Domingo, the unsuccessful priest and political reformer abandoned his reforming activities to take refuge in religious life; he joined the Dominican order in 1523. Four years later, while serving as prior of the convent of Puerto de Plata, a town in northern Santo Domingo, he began to write the Historia apologética. One of his major works, the Apologética was to serve as the introduction to his masterpiece, the Historia de las Indias. The Historia, which by his request was not published until after his death, is an account of all that had happened in the Indies just as he had seen or heard of it. But, rather than a chronicle, it is a prophetic interpretation of events. The purpose of all the facts he sets forth is the exposure of the “sin” of domination, oppression, and injustice that the European was inflicting upon the newly discovered colonial peoples. It was Las Casas’s intention to reveal to Spain the reason for the misfortune that would inevitably befall her when she became the object of God’s punishment.

Las Casas interrupted work on the book only to send to the Council of the Indies in Madrid three long letters (in 1531, 1534, and 1535), in which he accused persons and institutions of the sin of oppressing the Indian, particularly through the encomienda system. After various adventures in Central America, where his ideas on the treatment of the natives invariably brought him into conflict with the Spanish authorities, Las Casas wrote De único modo (1537; “Concerning the Only Way of Drawing All Peoples to the True Religion”), in which he set forth the doctrine of peaceful evangelization of the Indian. Together with the Dominicans, he then employed this new type of evangelization in a “land of war” (a territory of still-unconquered Indians)—Tuzutlan, near the Golfo Dulce (Sweet Gulf) in present-day Costa Rica.

  Encouraged by the favourable outcome of this experiment, Las Casas set out for Spain late in 1539, arriving there in 1540.

While awaiting an audience with Charles V, Las Casas conceived the idea of still another work, the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (“A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies”), which he wrote in 1542 and in which the historical events described are in themselves of less importance than their theological interpretation: “The reason why the Christians have killed and destroyed such an infinite number of souls is that they have been moved by their wish for gold and their desire to enrich themselves in a very short time.”

Las Casas’s work finally seemed to be crowned with success when King Charles signed the so-called New Laws (Leyes Nuevas). According to these laws, the encomienda was not to be considered a hereditary grant; instead, the owners had to set free their Indians after the span of a single generation. To ensure enforcement of the laws, Las Casas was named bishop of Chiapas in Guatemala, and in July 1544 he set sail for America, together with 44 Dominicans. Upon his arrival in January 1545, he immediately issued Avisos y reglas para confesores de españoles (“Admonitions and Regulations for the Confessors of Spaniards”), the famous Confesionario, in which he forbade absolution to be given to those who held Indians in encomienda.

The rigorous enforcement of his regulations led to vehement opposition on the part of the Spanish faithful during Lent of 1545 and forced Las Casas to establish a council of bishops to assist him in his task. But soon his uncompromisingly pro-Indian position alienated his colleagues, and in 1547 he returned to Spain.

 
 

Fray Bartolomé de las Casas depicted as Savior of the Indians in a later painting by Felix Parra
  Las Casas then entered upon the most fruitful period of his life. He became an influential figure at court and at the Council of the Indies.

In addition to writing numerous memoriales (petitions), he came into direct confrontation with the learned Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, an increasingly important figure at court by reason of his Democrates II (“Concerning the Just Cause of the War Against the Indians”), in which he maintained, theoretically in accordance with Aristotelian principles, that the Indians “are inferior to the Spaniards just as children are to adults, women to men, and, indeed, one might even say, as apes are to men.” Las Casas finally confronted him in 1550 at the Council of Valladolid, which was presided over by famous theologians. The argument was continued in 1551, and its repercussions were enormous.

The servitude of the Indians was already irreversibly established, and, despite the fact that Sepúlveda’s teachings had not been officially approved, they were, in effect, those that were followed in the Indies.

But Las Casas continued to write books, tracts, and petitions, testimony to his unwavering determination to leave in written form his principal arguments in defense of the American Indian.

During his final years Las Casas came to be the indispensable adviser both to the Council of the Indies and to the king on many of the problems relating to the Indies.

 
 
In 1562 he had the final form of the Prólogo to the Historia de las Indias published, although in 1559 he had left written instructions that the work itself should be published only “after forty years have passed, so that, if God determines to destroy Spain, it may be seen that it is because of the destruction that we have wrought in the Indies and His just reason for it may be clearly evident.” At the age of 90 Las Casas completed two more works on the Spanish conquest in the Americas. Two years later he died in the Dominican convent of Nuestra Señora de Atocha de Madrid, having continued to the end his defense of his beloved Indians, oppressed by the colonial system that Europe was organizing.

At the suggestion of Francisco de Toledo, the viceroy of Peru, the king ordered all the works, both published and unpublished, of Las Casas to be collected. Although his influence with Spain and the Indies declined sharply, his name became well known in other parts of Europe, thanks to the translations of the Destrucción that soon appeared in various countries. In the early 19th century the Latin American revolutionary Simón Bolívar himself was inspired by some of the letters of Las Casas in his struggle against Spain, as were some of the heroes of Mexican independence. His name came into prominence again in the latter half of the 20th century, in connection with the so-called Indigenistas movements in Peru and Mexico. The modern significance of Las Casas lies in the fact that he was the first European to perceive the economic, political, and cultural injustice of the colonial or neocolonial system maintained by the North Atlantic powers since the 16th century for the control of Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

Enrique Dussel

Encyclopædia Britannica

 
 

The Natives of Cumaná attack the mission after Gonzalez de Ocampo's slaving raid. Colored copperplate by Theodor de Bry, published in the "Relación brevissima"
 
 
 

 
 
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